South Korean presidential election, 2012
provinces and cities won by
■ – Park Geun-hye■ – Moon Jae-in
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Republic of Korea
The 18th South Korean presidential election was held in South Korea on 19 December 2012. It was the sixth presidential election since democratization and the establishment of the Sixth Republic, and was held under a first-past-the-post system, in which there was a single round of voting and the candidate receiving the highest number of votes was elected. Under the South Korean constitution, presidents are restricted to a single five-year term in office. The term of incumbent president Lee Myung-bak has ended on 24 February 2013. According to the Korea Times, 30.7 million people voted with turnout at 75.8%. Park Geun-hye of the Saenuri party was elected the first female South Korean president with 51.6% of the vote opposed to 48.0% for her opponent Moon Jae-in. Park's share of the vote was the highest won by any candidate since the beginning of free and fair direct elections in 1987.
- 1 Background
- 2 Registered candidates
- 3 Nominations
- 4 Opinion polling
- 5 Election results
- 6 Public opinion manipulation controversy
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Lee Myung-bak was elected President of South Korea in 2007 as the nominee of the conservative Grand National Party after a closely contested primary in which he narrowly defeated Park Geun-hye, and assumed office in February 2008. His victory brought to a close ten years of liberal administration under Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun. The Lee Myung-bak government pursued the reduction of government bureaucracy and a laissez-faire economic policy, and came under criticism from the left for political scandals and controversial policies such as the Jeju-do Naval Base and its support of the South Korea-United States Free Trade Agreement, although both were initiated under the previous administration. Despite the fact that he was elected in a landslide victory and received initial approval ratings of 70%, Lee's ratings had declined to below 30% by 2012.
At the end of 2011, Park Geun-hye assumed control of the Grand National Party, which was subsequently renamed the Saenuri or New Frontier Party in February 2012. She distanced herself from Lee and led the party towards the center. In legislative elections in April 2012, Park guided the party to an upset victory, returning its majority in the National Assembly. This contributed to an increase in her poll ratings and consolidated her position as frontrunner for the Saenuri nomination.
Opposition to Saenuri is divided primarily between the Democratic United Party and independent supporters of Ahn Cheol-soo, who has emerged as a leading potential candidate despite his ostensible silence on the race. In the DUP, focus initially lay on Sohn Hak-kyu as a potential nominee, but by late 2011 Moon Jae-in, a confidant of former president Roh, had overtaken Sohn in polls. Although the DUP invited Ahn to join the party, only 2.3% of respondents to a poll on 21 April thought that Ahn was best suited to be DUP nominee. The DUP itself has been troubled by the split between pro-Roh members such as Moon Jae-in and the "Honam wing" of former president Kim Dae-jung, represented by Chung Dong-young.
Ballot numbers for party candidates were given according to the candidate's party seat distribution in the National Assembly. Ballot numbers for independent candidates were determined through a random lottery by the National Election Commission.
|Saenuri||Democratic United||Unified Progressive||Independent||Independent||Independent||Independent|
Democratic United Party
|Member of the
The 2012 Democratic United Party presidential primary saw an open primary system implemented for the first time. This new open primary introduced "mobile voting"; it was hailed as a "revolution in voting" because people could participate in voting more conveniently. However, controversies persisted during the primary elections, as questions of the legitimacy and trustworthiness of the voting results were raised. The official result was announced on 16 September 2012, at 15:32 KST, naming Moon Jae-in the presidential candidate from the Democratic United Party. After nominated, Moon stated that he would like to join forces with Ahn Cheol-soo.
- Member of National Assembly from Busan Sasang-gu('gu' means district)
- 4th Chief of staff in Roh Moo-hyun administration
- Slogan: People come first
- Former Governor of South Gyeongsang (although it was not mandatory, he resigned after announcing his primary candidacy.)
- Slogan: Equal Nation
- Former Governor of Gyeonggi
- Slogan: Life With Dinner (for labor)
|Leader of the
- Member of National Assembly from Proportional Representation No. 11 of Saenuri Party
- Acting First Lady of Park Jeong-hee
- Slogan: A Country where my dreams can come true. / Female President in ready
- Former Chief of staff of Lee Myung-bak administration
- Slogan: No worries with Yim Tae-hee.
- Member of National Assembly from Gimhae Eul(Radical 5, 乙) (Gimhae's 2nd congressional district)
- Previous Nominee for Prime Minister in 2010
- Slogan: Change For Old Politics, Starting New Generation
- Former Mayor of Incheon
- Slogan: Country with no debts
- Governor of Gyeonggi
- Slogan: Freely! Korea.
The first member of the Saenuri Party to officially announce their candidacy was Kim Moon-soo on 22 April. Kim, a former labor activist, stated in his announcement that he would focus on combating regional and socioeconomic divides, emphasized his commitment to a policy of multiculturalism, and argued for a revision in Saenuri's primary system. He stated further that Park Geun-hye's leadership of the party represented only an "ambiguously prevailing trend", and could not be relied upon to reach victory in the elections. Although Kim said that he was "convinced" he could "attract more support than [Park]", he was not widely expected to garner a high level of support. His early announcement was regarded as an attempt to preemptively form an anti-Park faction in the party.
Chung Mong-joon, a billionaire and longstanding member of the National Assembly, followed on 29 April. In his announcement, Chung emphasized the need to confront regionalism and factional politics, and stated that he would "write a new history of the Republic of Korea by facilitating [his] experience of managing a business, engaging in diplomacy and creating unity in the nation". He stressed that his task was to "bring together the divided hearts of the people" and that he was concerned that the "country could collapse in its current situation". Like Kim Moon-soo, Chung is expected to be at a disadvantage to Park. Chung previously declared his candidacy in the 2002 presidential elections but later dropped out to endorse Roh Moo-hyun.
The former Mayor of Incheon, Ahn Sang-soo, declared his candidacy on 6 May, emphasizing his economic credentials and stating that he would relieve the burden of debt. Former presidential Chief of Staff Yim Tae-hee followed on 8 May, issuing a call for Park Geun-hye to act as a "kingmaker" that was interpreted as a request for her to step aside. Yim, a moderate, proposed to join hands with independent Ahn Cheol-soo and DUP frontrunner Moon Jae-in in a bid to "demolish outdated politics". On 10 May, five-term lawmaker and former Minister for Government Legislation and Special Affairs Lee Jae-oh announced his bid, promising to reform the constitution and cut his term as president to three years.
The campaign for the Saenuri primaries has been characterized by a dispute between Park Geun-hye, as frontrunner and party leader, and her opponents in the party. She was cited in 2009 as the most influential politician in South Korea, and has outranked other candidates in many polls throughout 2012, though as of early May 2012 she is yet to officially declare her candidacy. Park's opponents have called for Saenuri to adopt an open primary system rather than the present system based on an electoral college and opinion poll results. At the end of April the Democratic United Party suggested a joint discussion on the issue of fully open primaries. Park has been criticized for her taciturn and authoritarian style in leading the party, and Kim Moon-soo described her as overly "secretive". Chung Mong-joon stated that under Park's leadership, "democracy in the party [had] gone missing". Park strengthened her position when her ally Lee Hahn-koo was elected Saenuri's floor leader on 9 May.
During a primary debate on 7 August 2012, primary candidate Kim Tae-ho asked if Park Geun-hye would agree that the May 16 coup by her father (Park Chung Hee) was both a coup and a “necessary decision,” regarding Park's previous stance that the overthrow was a “revolution to save the country”. Park confirmed her stance by answering, “I don’t think it’s the place of politicians to be fighting over whether [the May 16 incident] were a ‘coup d’etat’ or a ‘revolution’”. She furthermore commented that “no one can refute that the events themselves did happen, whether you call them a ‘coup’ or a ‘revolution.’” and that “we need to leave that issue” for history to decide. In addition, during another debate on 8 August 2012, the moderator asked Park the minimum hourly rate for a part-time worker as of 2012. Park replied “I think it’s over 5,000 won, isn’t it?,” when the legal minimum wage was 4,580 won. In response, The South Korean Confederation of Trade Unions responded with a statement in which it said, “It is terribly discouraging when a person who wants to become president does not even know the country’s minimum wage, which is a minimal right for survival and the first step toward a welfare state.”
Third parties and independent candidates
Park Jong-sun (Independent)
A former entrepreneur
Kang Ji-won (Independent)
Chairman of Korea Manifesto Center
|Poll source||Date||Sample size||Margin|
|JoongAng Ilbo||19–21 July 2012||2,000||56.6||35.0||21.6|
|OhMyNews/Research View||16–17 July 2012||1,000||50.8||41.0||9.8|
|Realmeter||29 May – 1 June 2012||3,000||52.5||38.6||13.9|
|Hankyoreh /Korea Society Opinion Institute||26–27 May 2012||61.0||33.5||27.5|
|Realmeter||21–25 May 2012||3,750||52.6||37.9||14.7|
|JoongAng Ilbo||15 May 2012||910||57.6||33.3||24.3|
|Realmeter||14–18 May 2012||3,750||52.0||37.5||14.5|
|Realmeter||7–11 May 2012||3,750||51.9||38.2||13.7|
|Realmeter||7–8 May 2012||1,500||55.7||36.3||19.4|
|Realmeter||30 April – 4 May 2012||3,000||52.4||38.0||14.4|
|Realmeter||23–27 April 2012||3,750||50.9||40.3||10.6|
|Realmeter||6–10 February 2012||3,750||44.3||43.0||1.3|
|Realmeter||30 January – 3 February 2012||3,750||44.4||44.9||0.5|
|Donga Ilbo||24 January 2012||46.7||38.4||8.3|
|Park Geun-hye||Saenuri Party||15,773,128||51.55|
|Moon Jae-in||Democratic United Party||14,692,632||48.02|
|Source: National Election Commission|
|regions · provinces · cities|
Public opinion manipulation controversy
On December 11, 2012, the Democratic United Party claimed that agents of the Psychological Operations group in the South Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) were influencing public opinion under orders by the NIS, by posting comments on the Internet. They followed these claims by identifying one such agent. In a police search attempt that agent did not emerge from the rented office and claimed that she was not involved in such actions. Right after the last TV debate between candidates Park Geun-Hye and Moon Jae-In police announced that no evidence was found. After Park Geun-Hye was sworn into office, evidence that the agent in question and many others were involved in activities manipulating public opinion in the presidential election. In May 27, 2013 the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency and Seoul Suseo Police Station was found to have delayed delivering evidence, and turned in fabricated laptop hard drive analysis reports. The police already had evidence that the agent in question posted political comments, the analysis report was not submitted to the Suseo Police Station and was destroyed.
- "Presidential Turnout at 75.8%". The Korea Times. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
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[Park] re-crafted [the party] by creating a new name, image and more centrist platform...
- Ramstad, Evan (12 April 2012). "Odds & Ends A Day After The Election". The Wall Street Journal Asia. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- 대선 양자구도, 박근혜 처음으로 안철수 앞서 [Presidential election two-way race: Park Geun-hye first followed by Ahn Cheol-soo] (in Korean). Realmeter. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Let the presidential election games begin". The Dong-a Ilbo. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Jackson, Andy (8 August 2011). "SKorea: Moon Jae-in overtakes Sohn Hak-kyu in presidential poll". Asian Correspondent. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "[Editorial] Where is Ahn headed?". The Korea Herald. 29 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Most would choose Park or Ahn for president". The Hankyoreh. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "DUP disputing new framework for election". The Hankyoreh. 28 April 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- "끝없는 논란 휩싸인 민주당 모바일투표 (Endless controversies surrounding DUP's mobile vote". Yeonhap News. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Moon Jae-in Elected DUP's Presidential Candidate". KBS Global. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
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- "Park Geun-hye Elected Saenuri Party's Presidential Candidate". KBS Global. 20 August 2012.
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- 2009 survey by Herald Business
- Poll: Park Geun-hye still leading race to presidency. The Hankyoreh, 2 April 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Saenuri underdogs line up against Park". The Korea Herald. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "DUP offers talks with Saenuri over primary". The Korea Herald. 29 April 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Governor Kim calls Park 'secretive'". The Korea Times. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Park's economic advisor elected as floor leader". The Korea Times. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- "Was it a 'coup' or a 'revolution'?". The Hankyoreh. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Park Geun-hye doesn't know South Korea's minimum wage". The Hankyoreh. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "김소연·김순자 나란히 '노동자 대통령 후보' 등록 - 프레시안". Pressian.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Choi, He-suk (4 September 2012). "Ex-prosecutor and social activist joins Dec. race". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "진보신당, 김소연선본 참여 없이 지지 김순자, 9일 예비후보 등록 추진 « Redian". Redian.org. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Chung Sung-yeop (정성엽) (18 April 2012). 안철수 대안론 탄력…야권 '대선 시계' 빨라졌다 [Opposition's last hope, Ahn Cheol-soo? Candidate's running.]. SBS (in Korean). Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Ahn Chul-soo again hinting at ‘third way’ of doing politics. The Hankyoreh, 29 March 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Left-leaning presidential candidate Lee Jung-hee quits race". Yonhap. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- 김, 경진 (25 September 2012). "군소후보 대선 출마 선언 잇따라". Korea Broadcasting System. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- 안철수 책 나온뒤 박근혜와 지지율 변화가… [Change in Ahn Cheol-soo's Approval Rating against Park Geun-hye After Ahn's New Book...] (in Korean). JoongAng Ilbo. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- 대선 지지도, 박근혜-안철수-문재인-김두관 순 박근혜, 양자대결에서 처음으로 안철수 앞서 [Top Finishers of a Presidential Race Poll are Park Geun-hye, Ahn Cheol-soo, and Moon Jae-in. Park Surpasses Ahn for the First Time in a Two-Way Race] (in Korean). OhMyNews. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- 대선 다자구도 박근혜 8주 연속 40%대 고공행진 [Park Geun-hye's approval rating in multi-candidate race shoots above 40% for eight consecutive weeks] (in Korean). Realmeter. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
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- 대선후보 양자대결 박근혜 48.5%•안철수 44.7% [Two candidate poll: Park Geun-hye 48.5%, Ahn Cheol-soo 44.7%] (in Korean). Realmeter. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- 통합진보당 쇼크…박근혜 대선 지지율 수치가! [Unified Progressive Party's shock ... Park Geun-hye's approval rating!] (in Korean). Realmeter. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- 통합진보당 ‘도로 민노당’ 지지율로 하락 [Unified Progressive Party approval rating drops, 'Democratic Labour Party again'] (in Korean). Realmeter. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
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- 박근혜, 오차범위내서 문재인 다시 앞서 [Park Geun-hye again ahead of Moon Jae-in, within margin of error] (in Korean). Realmeter. 13 February 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
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- 정희완·이효상,서울경찰청, 국정원 댓글사건 분석 자료 일부만 넘겼다. 사이버분석팀장 삭제한 파일, 나머지 자료 가능성, 경향신문, 2013년 5월 28일
- 김정필·정환봉,서울경찰청, ‘국정원 댓글’ 증거보고서 허위로 꾸몄다, 경향신문, 2013년 5월 28일
- 이윤상,김용판, 100여페이지 분석자료 폐기…수사방해 분석결과 나오기도 전 보도자료 작성, 뉴스1, 2013년 6월 14일
- Police in South Korea Say Spy Service Tried to Influence Election, The New York Times