Nanyo (Japanese mandated territory)
|Mandate of the Empire of Japan|
Location of Nanyo in the western Pacific Ocean.
|Political structure||Mandate of the Empire of Japan|
|-||1919–1923 (first)||Toshirō Tezuka|
|-||1943–1946 (last)||Boshirō Hosogaya|
|Historical era||Empire of Japan|
|-||Treaty of Versailles||June 28, 1919|
|-||Pacific Islands Trusteeship||July 18, 1947|
|Currency||Yen, Oceanian Pound|
|Today part of|| Palau
Federated States of Micronesia
Northern Mariana Islands
Nanyo (南洋 Nan'yō?, literally South Seas) was the Japanese League of Nations mandate consisting of several groups of islands (modern-day Palau, Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, and Marshall Islands) in the Pacific Ocean which came under the administration of Japan after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.
Under the terms of the Anglo–Japanese Alliance, after the start of World War I, Japan declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. The country participated in a joint operation with British forces in the Battle of Tsingtao to capture the German settlement in China's Shandong Province. The Imperial Japanese Navy was tasked with pursuing and destroying the German East Asiatic Squadron and protection of the shipping lanes for Allied commerce in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
After the end of World War I, as determined in the Treaty of Versailles, Japanese occupation of former German colonies in Micronesia north of the equator was formally recognized, and Japan was given a League of Nations Class C mandate.
During the 1930s, the Imperial Japanese Navy began construction of airfields, fortifications, ports, and other military projects in the islands controlled under the mandate, viewing the islands as "unsinkable aircraft carriers" with a critical role to play in the defense of the Japanese home islands against potential American invasion. These became important staging grounds for Japanese air and naval offensives in the Pacific War.
- Kwajalein was a major base supporting the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Wake Island
- Palau supported the Battle of the Philippines[disambiguation needed]
- Saipan supported the Battle of Guam[disambiguation needed]
- Truk became the base for amphibious landings on Tarawa and Makin in the Gilberts, as well as Rabaul, in the Australian mandate Territory of New Guinea
- Majuro, was used in air strikes against Howland Island
- Jaluit Atoll was the base from which the Japanese Navy seized Nauru and Ocean Island
The Imperial Japanese Army also utilized the islands to support air and land detachments. The "island-hopping" strategy employed by the United States military caused the Japanese Empire to lose control of its Pacific possessions between 1943 and 1945.
The League of Nations mandate was formally revoked by the United Nations in July 1947, and the United States was made responsible for administration of the islands under the terms of a United Nations trusteeship agreement which established the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
Militarily and economically, Saipan, in the Marianas archipelago, was the most important island in Nanyo and became the center of subsequent Japanese settlement. Another important island was Truk in the Carolines archipelago, which was fortified into a major navy base by the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The administration of Nanyo was originally the responsibility of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which divided the territory into six administrative districts reporting to the naval headquarters in Truk. Later, in April 1922, a civilian government was established in each of the six administrative districts (Saipan, Palau, Yap, Truk, Ponape and Jaluit Atoll) in the form of a civil administration department which still reported to the local naval garrison commander.
Later, the headquarters of the Nanyo government was moved from Truk to Koror, Palau; and the Governor of Nanyo began to report directly to the Prime Minister of Japan. After the establishment of the Ministry of Colonial Affairs in June 1929, the Governor reported to the Minister of Colonial Affairs instead.
When the Ministry of Colonial Affairs was absorbed into the Ministry of Greater East Asia in November 1942, the primacy of the Imperial Japanese Navy was again recognized by the appointment of an admiral as the Governor. Furthermore, the six administrative districts were reduced to three in November 1943: North, East, and West.
The population of Nanyo was too small to provide significant markets and the indigenous people had very limited financial resources for the purchase of imported goods. The major significance of the territory to the Empire of Japan was her strategic location, which dominated sea lanes across the Pacific Ocean and provided convenient provisioning locations for sailing vessels in need of water, fresh fruit, vegetables and meat. Later[when?], the territory became important coaling stations for steam-powered vessels.
The initial population figures (1919-1920) for the mandated territories included around 50,000 indigenous islanders. The total grew to 70,000 inhabitants in 1930, and more than 80,000 in 1933, as more Japanese settled in the islands. In the census of December 1939, the total population was 129,104, of which 77,257 were Japanese (including ethnic Taiwanese and Koreans), 51,723 indigenous islanders and 124 foreigners.
The mandated territory produced significant quantities of sugar cane, bananas, pineapples, taro, coconuts, and other tropical farming products on a par with Taiwan. The islands also provided bases for the Japanese fishing fleet.
In terms of mineral products, many islands yielded phosphates for farming, especially from Angaur island, which produced some 60,000 tonnes per year. Bauxite was another segment of the colonial economic structure, although the mineral was only present in the Palau group. Large quantities of pearls, both natural and cultured, were extracted from the islands.
- Governor of Nanyo
- Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
- Nanshin-ron (Southern Expansion Doctrine)
- Boshirō Hosogaya
- Structure of the Imperial Japanese forces in Nanyo
- Nanyo Shrine
- Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
- Beasley, W.G. (1991). Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822168-1.
- Nish, Ian (1991). Japanese Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94791-2.
- Howe, Christopher (1999). The Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy: Development and Technology in Asia from 1540 to the Pacific War. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-35486-5.
- Peattie, Mark (1988). Nan'Yo: The Rise and Fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945 (Pacific Islands Monograph Series). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1480-0.
- Peattie, Mark (1992). Nan'Yo: The Rise and Fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945 (Pacific Islands Monograph Series). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1480-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to South Pacific Mandate.|
- Annual report to the League of Nations on the administration of the South Sea islands under Japanese Mandate. [Tokyo]: Japanese Government. (Years 1921 to 1938)
- Arnold, Bruce Makoto. “Conflicted Childhoods in the South Seas: The Failure of Racial Assimilation in the Nan’yo”. The Tufts Historical Review Vol 4, No. 11 (Spring 2011) 
- Herbert Rittlinger, "Der Masslose Ozean", Stuttgart, Germany, 1939
- Cressey George B. "Asia's Lands and Peoples", X Chapter : "Natural Basis of Japan" (P.196-285), section "South Seas" (p. 276-277).,1946
- Sion, Jules. "Asie des Moussons", Paris Librarie Armand Colin, (1928) I, 189-266, Chapter X "The Nature of Japan", section XIII "Japanese Colonial Empire" (p. 294-324), and section IV "Formosa and Southern Islands" (p. 314-320)
- Book "Asia", Chapter X "Japanese Empire" (p. 633-716), section "The Japanese islands in South Seas".
- Childress, David Hatcher,"The Lost City of Lemuria & The Pacific", 1988. Chapter 10 "The Pohnpei Island, in finding of sunken city"(p. 204-229)