South Region, Brazil

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South Region

Região Sul
Location of South Region in Brazil
Location of South Region in Brazil
Coordinates: 25°26′S 49°16′W / 25.433°S 49.267°W / -25.433; -49.267Coordinates: 25°26′S 49°16′W / 25.433°S 49.267°W / -25.433; -49.267
Country Brazil
StatesParaná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina
Area
 • Region576,409.6 km2 (222,553.0 sq mi)
Area rank5th
Population
 (2010 census)
 • Region29,016,114
 • Rank3rd
 • Density50/km2 (130/sq mi)
 • Density rank2nd
 • Urban
82%
GDP
 • Year2008[1]
 • TotalR$672,1 billion (2nd)
 • Per capitaR$ 24,382 (2nd)
HDI
 • Year2010
 • Category0.756 – high (1st)
 • Life expectancy77.2 years (1st)
 • Infant mortality7.7 per 1,000 (5th)
 • Literacy98.3% (1st)
Time zoneUTC-03 (BRT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-02 (BRST)

The South Region of Brazil (Portuguese: Região Sul do Brasil; [ʁeʒiˈɐ̃w̃ suw du bɾaˈziw]) is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 square kilometres (222,553.0 sq mi), being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 6.76% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller than that of the state of Minas Gerais, in Southeast Brazil, for example.

It is a great tourist, economic and cultural pole. It borders Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay, as well as the Centre-West and Southeast regions, and the Atlantic Ocean. The region is considered the safest in Brazil to visit, having a lower crime rate than other regions in the country.[2]

History[edit]

Pre-Columbian history[edit]

São Miguel das Missões, where Jesuits lived with local Indians.

By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer Indian tribes. They subsisted on a combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering.

Portuguese colonization[edit]

European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Portuguese and Spanish Jesuit missionaries. They lived among the Indians and converted them to Catholicism. Colonists from São Paulo (Bandeirantes) arrived in the same period.[3] For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region.

Due to this conflict, the King of Portugal encouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil, in an attempt to build up a Portuguese population. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived. They composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century.[4]

German settlement[edit]

Areas of German settlement in Southern Brazil (pink), in 1905
Pomerode, A Pomeranian-German colony in Santa Catarina

The first German immigrants came to Brazil soon after it gained independence in 1822 from Portugal. They were recruited to work as small farmers because there were many land holdings without sufficient workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised them large tracts where they could settle with their families and colonize the region. The first immigrants arrived in 1824, settling in the city of Sao Leopoldo. Over the next four decades, another 27,256 Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as smallholders in the country.[5] By 1904, it is estimated that 50,000 Germans had settled in this state.

In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government but by private groups that promoted the immigration of Europeans to the Americas, such as the Hamburg Colonization Society. These groups created rural communities or colonies for immigrants, many of which developed into large cities, such as Blumenau and Joinville, the largest city in Santa Catarina.

Considerable numbers[clarification needed] of immigrants from Germany arrived at Paraná during the civil war, most of them coming from Santa Catarina; others were Volga Germans from Russia.[6]

Ragamuffin War[edit]

The Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845. This conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the charque (dried and salted beef), suffered stiff competition from charque from Uruguay and Argentina. The imports had free access to the Brazilian market while gaúchos had to pay high taxes to sell their product inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul. After many conflicts, in 1845 peace negotiations ended the war.

Italian settlement[edit]

Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875. They were mostly peasants from the Veneto in Northern Italy (but also from Trentino and Lombardia) attracted to Southern Brazil for economic opportunities and the chance to acquire their own lands. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers, mainly cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100,000 Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period, and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná.[7]

In 1898, there were a total of 300,000 people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul; 50,000 in Santa Catarina; and 30,000 in Paraná. Today their Southern Brazilian descendants number 9.7 million and comprise 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population.[8][9]

Demographics[edit]

As noted, the region received numerous European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture. The main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are Portuguese, Italian, German, Austrian, Luxembourger, Polish, Ukrainian, Spanish, Dutch and Russian. Smaller numbers that follow are French, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Black, Swiss, Croat, Lebanese, Lithuanian and Latvian, Japanese, Finnish and Estonian, Belarusian, Slovene, Ashkenazi Jew, Caboclo, British, Czech, Slovak, Belgian and Hungarian[10][11][12][13][14][15]

City State Population (2010)
Curitiba[16]  Paraná 1,751,907
Porto Alegre  Rio Grande do Sul 1,409,351
Joinville  Santa Catarina 569,000
Londrina[16]  Paraná 506,701
Caxias do Sul  Rio Grande do Sul 435,564
Florianópolis  Santa Catarina 421,240
Maringá  Paraná 357,077
Pelotas  Rio Grande do Sul 328,275
Canoas  Rio Grande do Sul 323,827
Ponta Grossa  Paraná 311,611
Blumenau  Santa Catarina 309,214

Racial composition[edit]

Skin color/Race (2014)
White (Branca) 75.92%[17]
Mixed (Parda) 18.96%[18]
Black (Preta) 4.28%[19]
Yellow (Amarela) 0.57%[20]
Indigenous (Indígena) 0.26%[21]
Undeclared 0%[22]

Climate[edit]

Climate types of Southern Brazil.

Southern Brazil has subtropical or temperate climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12 °C (53.6 °F) and 22 °C (71.6 °F). It snows in the mountain ranges.

Characteristics[edit]

The region is highly urbanized (82%) and many cities are famous for their urban planning, like Curitiba and Maringá, both in Paraná State. It has a relatively high standard of living, with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil, 0.859 (2007), and the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region also has a 98.3% literacy rate.

Languages[edit]

Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are also spoken. The predominant dialects are Hunsrückisch and Venetian (or Talian). In Rio Grande do Sul and Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are some Japanese speakers. In the region around Ponta Grossa there are also some Dutch speakers. There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well.[23][24] Indigenous languages still spoken in some villages include Guarani and Kaingang.

Palaeontological tourism[edit]

Rio Grande do Sul has a great potential for palaeontological tourism, with many paleontological sites and museums in Paleorrota. There is a large area in the center of the state that belongs to the Triassic. Here lived Rhynchosaur, thecodonts, exaeretodons, Staurikosaurus, Guaibasaurus, Saturnalia tupiniquim, Sacisaurus, Unaysaurus and many others.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Contas Regionais: PIB do Piauí cresce 8,8%, maior alta de 2008". www.ibge.gov.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2010-11-21.
  2. ^ "Jaraguá do Sul é a cidade mais segura do Brasil - Notícias - R7 Domingo Espetacular". noticias.r7.com. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  3. ^ RS VIRTUAL - O Rio Grande do Sul na Internet - História - Missões - Como foi o surgimento dos Sete Povos das Missões Archived 2007-09-05 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Imigrantes: Açorianos" Archived 2007-12-31 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Germans Archived 2007-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2006-08-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Italians Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Ciccone, Romeu. "EmigracaoIt". www.angelfire.com. Archived from the original on 24 August 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  9. ^ pt:Imigração italiana no Brasil#Rio Grande do Sul
  10. ^ Imigração no Brasil: Histórico. Italianos Espanhóis Japoneses Judeus Portugueses Sírios e Libaneses Alemães Archived 2004-10-10 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Marília D. Klaumann Cánovas (2004). "A GRANDE IMIGRAÇÃO EUROPÉIA PARA O BRASIL E O IMIGRANTE ESPANHOL NO CENÁRIO DA CAFEICULTURA PAULISTA: ASPECTOS DE UMA (IN)VISIBILIDADE" [The great European immigration to Brazil and immigrants within the Spanish scenario of the Paulista coffee plantations: one of the issues (in) visibility] (PDF) (in Portuguese). cchla.ufpb.br. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2009.
  12. ^ "Principais levas de imigração para o Brasil". Abril. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  13. ^ "Brazil - Modern-Day Community". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/. 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  14. ^ "Entrada de estrangeiros no Brasil". Retrieved 2014-01-23.
  15. ^ "Federação Israelita do Rio Grande do Sul". firgs.org.br. 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
  16. ^ a b "Estimativas populacionais 2008" (PDF). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-01-07. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
  17. ^ "Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo". Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2014. (População residente (Percentual)/Branca/Total/Total/2014/Sul). Archived from the original on 2011-06-14.
  18. ^ "Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo". Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2014. (População residente (Percentual)/Parda/Total/Total/2014/Sul). Archived from the original on 2011-06-14.
  19. ^ "Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo". Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2014. (População residente (Percentual)/Preta/Total/Total/2014/Sul). Archived from the original on 2011-06-14.
  20. ^ "Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo". Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2014. (População residente (Percentual)/Amarela/Total/Total/2014/Sul). Archived from the original on 2011-06-14.
  21. ^ "Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo". Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2014. (População residente (Percentual)/Indígena/Total/Total/2014/Sul). Archived from the original on 2011-06-14.
  22. ^ "Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo". Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2014. (População residente (Percentual)/Sem declaração/Total/Total/2014/Sul). Archived from the original on 2011-06-14.
  23. ^ "O alemão lusitano do Sul do Brasil - DW - 20.04.2004". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  24. ^ "ELB". www.labeurb.unicamp.br. Archived from the original on 15 September 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2018.

External links[edit]