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South Shetland Islands

Coordinates: 62°0′S 58°0′W / 62.000°S 58.000°W / -62.000; -58.000
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South Shetland Islands
Map of the South Shetland Islands
Location of the South Shetlands
Coordinates62°0′S 58°0′W / 62.000°S 58.000°W / -62.000; -58.000
Area3,687 km2 (1,424 sq mi)
Highest elevation2,025 m (6644 ft)
Highest pointMount Foster
Administered under the Antarctic Treaty System
Populationaround 500 [citation needed]
Ethnic groupsmixed, others
Williams Point, discovered on 19 February 1819
Fragment of George Powell's 1822 chart of the South Shetland Islands, with a phantom island on the bottom-right called "Middle Island".
Norwegian whaling boat, Half Moon Island
Ongal Peak, Tangra Mountains
Renier Point

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 km2 (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 kilometres (65 nautical miles) north of the Antarctic Peninsula,[1] and between 430 and 900 km (230 and 485 nmi) southwest of the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories [citation needed] and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.

The islands have been claimed by the United Kingdom since 1908 and as part of the British Antarctic Territory since 1962. They are also claimed by the governments of Chile (since 1940, as part of the Antártica Chilena province), and by Argentina (since 1943, as part of Argentine Antarctica, Tierra del Fuego Province).

Several countries maintain research stations on the islands. Most of them are situated on King George Island, benefitting from the airfield of the Chilean base Eduardo Frei.

Sixteen research stations are in different parts of the islands, with Chilean stations being the greatest in number.


The islands were discovered by British mariner William Smith, in William, in 1819. Although Dutch mariner Dirck Gerritsz in 1599 or Spanish Admiral Gabriel de Castilla in 1603 might have sighted the South Shetlands, or North or South American sealers might have visited the archipelago before Smith, historical evidence is insufficient to sustain such assertions. Smith's discovery, by contrast, was well documented and had wider historical implications beyond its geographic significance.[2]

Chilean scientists have claimed that Amerinds visited the islands, due to stone artifacts recovered from bottom-sampling operations in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, and Discovery Bay, Greenwich Island;[3] however, the artifacts – two arrowheads – were later found to have been planted.[4][5] In 1818, Juan Pedro de Aguirre obtained permission from the Buenos Aires authorities to establish a base for sealing on "some of the uninhabited islands near the South Pole".[6]

Captain William Smith in the British merchant brig Williams, while sailing to Valparaíso, Chile, in 1819, deviated from his route south of Cape Horn, and on 19 February 1819 sighted Williams Point, the northeast extremity of Livingston Island. Thus, Livingston Island became the first land ever discovered farther than 60° south. Smith revisited the South Shetlands, landed on King George Island on 16 October 1819, and claimed possession for Britain.

Meanwhile, the Spanish Navy ship San Telmo sank in September 1819 whilst trying to go through the Drake Passage. Parts of her presumed wreckage were found months later by sealers on the north coast of Livingston Island. The crew of San Telmo and the troops onboard, led by Brigadier Rosendo Porlier (a total of 644 men), are believed to be the first known humans to land in Antarctica.[7]

From December 1819 to January 1820, the islands were surveyed and mapped by Lieutenant Edward Bransfield on board the Williams, which had been chartered by the Royal Navy.

On 15 November 1819, the United States agent in Valparaíso, Jeremy Robinson, informed the United States Secretary of State John Quincy Adams of Smith's discovery and Bransfield's forthcoming mission, and suggested dispatching a United States Navy ship to explore the islands, where "new sources of wealth, power, and happiness would be disclosed and science itself be benefited thereby".

The discovery of the islands attracted British and American sealers. The first sealing ship to operate in the area was the brig Espirito Santo, chartered by British merchants in Buenos Aires. The ship arrived at Rugged Island off Livingston Island, where its British crew landed on Christmas Day 1819, and claimed the islands for King George III. A narrative of the events was published by the brig's master, Joseph Herring, in the July 1820 edition of the Imperial Magazine. The Espirito Santo was followed from the Falkland Islands by the American brig Hersilia, commanded by Captain James Sheffield (with second mate Nathaniel Palmer), the first US sealer in the South Shetlands.

The first wintering over in Antarctica took place on the South Shetlands, when at the end of the 1820–1821 summer season, 11 British men from the ship Lord Melville failed to leave King George Island, and survived the winter to be rescued at the beginning of the next season.

Having circumnavigated the Antarctic continent, the Russian Antarctic Expedition of Fabian von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev arrived at the South Shetlands in January 1821. The Russians surveyed the islands and named them, landing on both King George Island and Elephant Island. While sailing between Deception and Livingston Islands, Bellingshausen was visited by Nathaniel Palmer, master of the American brig Hero, who informed him of the activities of dozens of American and British sealing ships in the area.

The name "New South Britain" was used briefly, but was soon changed to South Shetland Islands (in reference to the Shetland Islands in the north of Scotland). The name South Shetland Islands is now established in international usage. The two island groups lie at similar distances from the Equator; the Scottish Shetland Islands are 60°N, and warmed by the Gulf Stream, but the South Shetlands at 62°S are much colder.

Seal hunting and whaling were conducted on the islands during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The sealing era lasted from 1820 to 1908 during which time 197 vessels are recorded as having visiting the islands.[8] Twelve of those vessels were wrecked. Relics of the sealing era include iron try pots, hut ruins, and inscriptions.

Beginning in 1908, the islands were governed as part of the Falkland Islands Dependency, but they have only been permanently occupied by humans since the establishment of a scientific research station in 1944. The archipelago, together with the nearby Antarctic Peninsula and South Georgia Island, is an increasingly popular tourist destination during the southern summer.


South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula, astronaut photo, 2011

As a group of islands, the South Shetland Islands are located at 62°0′S 58°0′W / 62.000°S 58.000°W / -62.000; -58.000. They are within the region 61° 00'–63° 37' South, 53° 83'–62° 83' West. The islands lie 940 km (510 nmi) south of the Falkland Islands, and between 93 km (50 nmi) (Deception Island) and 269 km (145 nmi) (Clarence Island) northwest and north from the nearest point of the Antarctic continent, Graham Land.

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about 120 km (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula,[1]

The South Shetlands consist of 11 major islands and several minor ones, totalling 3,687 km2 (1,424 sq mi) of land area. Between 80 and 90% of the land area is permanently glaciated. The highest point on the island chain is Mount Foster on Smith Island at 2,025 m (6,644 ft) above sea level at 2-meter spatial resolution.[9][10]

The South Shetland Islands extend about 500 km (270 nmi) from Smith Island and Low Island in the west-southwest to Elephant Island and Clarence Island in the east-northeast.[11]


Various volcanoes with activity in the Quaternary exist in the islands. These volcanoes are associated with the tectonics of Bransfield Rift. From west to east, the known volcanoes are Sail Rock, Deception Island, Rezen Knoll, Gleaner Heights, Edinburgh Hill, Inott Point, Penguin Island, Melville Peak, and Bridgeman Island.[12] Most of the volcanic rock and tephra is of basalt or basaltic andesite.[12] An exception is the tephra of Deception Island, which is of trachyte and basaltic trachyandesite, richer in potassium and sodium.[12]

Quaternary volcanic products of the islands tend to have less potassium and sodium at a given silica range, and lower Nb/Y ratios, than those associated with the Larsen Rift on the Antarctic Peninisula.[12]


The islands are the same distance from the Equator as the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic, but their proximity to Antarctica means that they have a much colder climate. The sea around the islands is closed by ice from early April to early December, and the monthly average temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F) for eight months of the year (April to November).

The islands have experienced measurable glacier retreat during recent years, but despite this, they remain more than 80% snow- and ice-covered throughout the summer.

The climate is cloudy and humid all year round, and very strong westerly winds blow at all seasons. Some of the sunniest weather is associated with outbreaks of very cold weather from the south in late winter and spring. Mean summer temperatures are only about 1.5 °C (34.7 °F) and those in winter are about −5 °C (23 °F). The effect of the ocean tends to keep summer temperatures low and prevent winter temperatures from falling as low as they do inland to the south.[13]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Elephant seals at Hannah Point

Despite the harsh conditions, the islands do support vegetation and are part of the Scotia Sea Islands tundra ecoregion, along with South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the South Orkney Islands, and Bouvet Island. All of these islands lie in the cold seas below the Antarctic Convergence. These areas support tundra vegetation consisting of mosses, lichens, and algae, while seabirds, penguins, and seals feed in the surrounding waters.


Devils Point, Livingston Island, with Morton Strait and Snow Island in the background, and Smith Island seen on the horizon on the right
Warm volcanic bath at Port Foster, Deception Island. MV Explorer is in the background; she later sank after hitting an iceberg.

From north to south, the main and some minor islands of the South Shetlands are:

The Russian names above are historical, and no longer the official Russian names. (See the end of the article for a complete list of islands.)

Research stations[edit]

Chilean base Frei and Russian Bellingshausen (on the right)
Bulgarian base Ohridski

Several nations maintain research stations on the Islands:

Field camps[edit]

Camp Byers (International Field Camp)

See also[edit]


Topographic map of Livingston, Greenwich, Robert, Snow and Smith Islands
Route of plot sequence and geography of the thriller novel The Killing Ship by Simon Beaufort
  • Chart of South Shetland including Coronation Island from the exploration of the sloop Dove in the years 1821 and 1822 by George Powell Commander of the same. Scale ca. 1:200000. London: Laurie, 1822.
  • King George Island Geographic Information System.
  • L. L. Ivanov et al. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands (from English Strait to Morton Strait, with illustrations and ice-cover distribution). Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, Sofia, 2005.
  • L.L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert, Snow and Smith Islands. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2010. ISBN 978-954-92032-9-5 (First edition 2009 ISBN 978-954-92032-6-4)
  • L.L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Smith Island. Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2017, ISBN 978-619-90008-3-0
  • Antarctic Digital Database (ADD) Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). Since 1993, regularly upgraded and updated.

In fiction[edit]


  1. ^ a b "South Shetland Islands". North Dakota State University. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
  2. ^ Ivanov, L. General Geography and History of Livingston Island. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research: A Synthesis. Eds. C. Pimpirev and N. Chipev. Sofia: St. Kliment Ohridski University Press, 2015, pp. 17–28, ISBN 978-954-07-3939-7
  3. ^ G. Hattersley-Smith (June 1983). "Fuegian Indians in the Falkland Islands". Polar Record. 21 (135). Cambridge University Press: 605–606. doi:10.1017/S003224740002204X. S2CID 129083566.
  4. ^ "Authentication of aboriginal remains in the South Shetland Islands". NASA. 15 October 2012. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2014. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ Griffiths, Tom (2007). Slicing the Silence: Voyaging to Antarctica. Harvard University Press. pp. 344–345. ISBN 978-0674026339.
  6. ^ "Dirección Nacional del Antártico | Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Comercio Internacional y Culto". cancilleria.gob.ar. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015.
  7. ^ Martinez-Bahamonde, Rafael (2019). "El navio San Telmo: Los Primeros en pisar la Antartida. Una reparación histórica". University of the Basque Country – Escuela de Ingeniería de Bilbao (in Spanish).
  8. ^ R.K. Headland (ed.), Historical Antarctic sealing industry, Scott Polar Research Institute (Cambridge University), 2018, p.168, ISBN 978-0-901021-26-7
  9. ^ Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer
  10. ^ I.M. Howat, C. Porter, B.E. Smith, M.-J. Noh and P. Morin. Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica (REMA). Polar Geospatial Center. University of Minnesota, 2022 (Antarctic REMA Exlorer)
  11. ^ L. Ivanov and N. Ivanova. The World of Antarctica. Generis Publishing, 2022. p. 23
  12. ^ a b c d Kraus, Stefan; Kurbatov, Andrei; Yates, Martin (2013). "Geochemical signatures of tephras from Quaternary Antarctic Peninsula volcanoes". Andean Geology. 40 (1): 1–40. doi:10.5027/andgeoV40n1-a01.
  13. ^ GHCN Climate data, GISS data publications, period 1978-2007
  14. ^ Beaufort, Simon, (pseudonym); Cruwys, Elizabeth; Riffenburgh, Beau (2016). The Killing Ship. Sutton, Surrey, UK: Severn House Publishers. pp. 1–224. ISBN 978-0-7278-8639-2 – via Google Books.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ "The Killing Ship". Susanna Gregory website. Simon Beaufort. 2019. (Susanna Gregory is pseudonyms of author Elizabeth Cruwys, and Simon Beaufort is a pseudonym Riffenburgh and she use jointly.)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]