South Sudan Defence Forces (militia)

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South Sudan Defence Forces
Participant in Second Sudanese Civil War
Flag of the South Sudan Defence Force.svg
IdeologySudanese nationalism
LeadersMaj. Gen. Paulino Matip Nhial
Riek Machar (1997–2000)
Tito Biel (1997–2000)
Peter Par Jiek (1997–2000)
Area of operationsNorthern South Sudan
Originated asDeserters from SPLA-Nasir
BecameSplinter became SPDF
Main faction absorbed into SPLA

The South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF) was a militia in South Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005) in uneasy alliance with the Government of Sudan.

The SSDF provided security for Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) garrisons and for oilfields in the north of South Sudan, and in return was given arms and ammunition, although SSDF political leaders remained deeply suspicious of the Khartoum-based government. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 9 January 2005 ended hostilities between the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and the government. A year later, the Juba Declaration of 8 January 2006 provided for integration of SSDF soldiers into the SPLA.[2] The SSDF chief of staff Major General Paulino Matip Nhial signed the Juba Declaration and was appointed deputy Commander in Chief of the SPLA.[3]


  1. ^ Rone 2003, p. 73.
  2. ^ John Young (November 2006). "The South Sudan Defence Forces in the Wake of the Juba Declaration" (PDF). Small Arms Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
  3. ^ "Gatluak Gai Rebellion, Unity State" (PDF). HSBA. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02-18. Retrieved 2011-08-04. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

Works cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Arnold, Matthew B. (2007-12-01). "The South Sudan Defence Force: Patriots, Collaborators or Spoilers?". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 45 (4): 489–516. doi:10.2307/4501944. ISSN 0022-278X. JSTOR 4501944.