South Wales Borderers
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
|24th Regiment of Foot
South Wales Borderers
|Garrison/HQ||The Barracks, Brecon|
|March||Men of Harlech|
|Anniversaries||Rorke's Drift (22 January)|
|Ceremonial chief||King Edward VIII|
The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years. It first came into existence, as the 24th Regiment of Foot, in 1689, but was not called the South Wales Borderers the Childers Reforms of 1881. The regiment served in a great many conflicts, including the American Revolutionary War, various conflicts in India, the Zulu War, Second Boer War, and World War I and World War II. In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the Welch Regiment to form the Royal Regiment of Wales, which later amalgamated with the Royal Welch Fusiliers into a new large regiment, known today as the Royal Welsh. As its name suggests, the regiment recruited primarily from South Wales.
- 1 History
- 1.1 24th Regiment of Foot
- 1.2 Second Sikh War and Indian Mutiny
- 1.3 Zulu War
- 1.4 Garrison Duties and Boer War
- 1.5 First World War
- 1.6 Inter-War
- 1.7 Second World War
- 1.8 Post-War
- 2 The Territorial, Militia, Volunteer, and Hostilities-only battalions
- 3 Battle honours
- 4 Victoria Cross recipients
- 5 Other information
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
24th Regiment of Foot
The regiment was formed as Sir Edward Dering's Regiment of Foot in 1689, becoming known, like other regiments, by the names of its subsequent colonels. It became the 24th Regiment of Foot in 1751, having been deemed 24th in the infantry order of precedence since 1747. In 1782 it became the 24th (The 2nd Warwickshire) Regiment of Foot. The 1st Warwickshires were the 6th (1st Warwickshire) Regiment of Foot.
In 1758, during the Seven Years' War, the regiment was part of the amphibious expedition against, or descent on, the coast of France and participated in the disastrous British defeat at the battle of Saint Cast.
In 1776 the regiment was sent to Quebec where it subsequently fought American rebels who had invaded the province during their War of Independence. The regiment was part of the 5,000 British and Hessian force, under the command of Gen. John Burgoyne, that surrendered to the American rebels in the 1777 Saratoga Campaign and remained imprisoned until 1783.
In 1804 a 2nd Battalion was raised but its life was relatively short when it was disbanded in 1814, having seen service in the Peninsular War.
In 1810 the vast majority of the 1st Battalion was captured at sea by the French; they were released the following year. They had been on the East Indiamen Astell, Ceylon and Windham when a French frigate squadron captured the last two at the Action of 3 July 1810 near the Comoros Islands.
In 1814 the 1st Battalion took part in The Gurkha War, which saw the British and the Gurkhas gain mutual respect. After the war, the British began recruiting Gurkhas,who became part of the British Indian Army. When India became independent in 1947, four Gurkha regiments transferred to the British Army.
On 23 July 1829, after a brief period in Lancashire preparing for their third trip to North America, the 1st Battalion departed Manchester by canal boat arriving at Paddington four days later. During the tedious nine weeks crossing the Atlantic, the Regiment's Colonel, Sir David Baird died.
In October 1829 the regiment began a twelve-year sojourn in Upper and Lower Canada. It participated in the suppression of an insurgency in the valley of the Richelieu River at the end of 1837 and the suppression of the Rebellion of 1838 in the Montreal area.
When ordered home to Britain in June 1841 it left almost 200 men behind as voluntary reinforcements for other regiments in Canada. This was in addition to hundreds of men who had deserted in the previous twelve years - 111 deserters in the years 1837 and 1838 alone.
Second Sikh War and Indian Mutiny
The regiment was back on the Indian subcontinent in 1846 where it took part in the Second Sikh War. At the Battle of Chillianwala, due to mismanagement by senior officers, the regiment suffered over 50 per cent casualties. The Queen's colours were lost (although the Sikhs never claimed to have captured them, so they were probably destroyed, or buried with those who had carried them.)
The regiment remained in India. In 1857, on the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny, it was part of the garrison of the Punjab. On 7 July that year, thirty-five soldiers of the regiment were killed by mutineers at their garrison in Jhelum. Among the dead was Captain Francis Spring, the eldest son of Colonel William Spring. The regiment subsequently took part in the disarming of several units of the Bengal Army of the British East India Company and the pursuit of escaped mutineers, but was not involved in the major engagements of the subsequent war.
In 1858 the 2nd Battalion was re-formed at Sheffield.
In 1860 the 2nd Battalion was sent to the Mauritius where it spent 5 years, after which it left for Burma and then to the Andaman Islands in 1867. Two years later it was based on the Indian mainland. It returned home in 1872 and would remain there until war broke out in Southern Africa in 1878.
In 1866 the 1st Battalion was sent to Malta and then, remaining in the Mediterranean, moved to Gibraltar in 1872.
In 1879 both battalions took part in the Zulu War, begun after a British invasion of Zululand, ruled by Cetshwayo. The 24th Regiment of Foot took part in the crossing of the Buffalo River on 11 January, entering Zululand. The first engagement (and the most disastrous for the British) came at Isandhlwana. The British had pitched camp at Isandhlwana and not established any fortifications due to the sheer size of the force, the hard ground and a shortage of entrenching tools. The 24th Foot provided most of the British force and when the overall commander, Lord Chelmsford, split his forces on 22 January to search for the Zulus, the 1st Battalion (5 companies) and a company of the 2nd Battalion were left behind to guard the camp, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Pulleine (CO of the 1/24th Foot).
The Zulus, 22,000 strong, attacked the camp and their sheer numbers overwhelmed the British. During the battle Lieutenant-Colonel Pulleine ordered Lieutenants Coghill and Melvill to save the Queen's Colour—the Regimental Colour was located at Helpmakaar with G Company. The two Lieutenants attempted to escape by crossing the Buffalo River where the Colour fell and was lost downstream, later being recovered. Both officers were killed. At this time the Victoria Cross (VC) was not awarded posthumously. This changed in the early 1900s when both Lieutenants were awarded posthumous Victoria Crosses for their bravery. The 2nd Battalion lost both its Colours at Isandhlwana though parts of the Colours—the crown, the pike and a colour case—were retrieved and trooped when the battalion was presented with new Colours in 1880.
The 24th had performed with distinction during the battle. The last survivors made their way to the foot of a mountain where they fought until they expended all their ammunition and were killed. The 24th Foot suffered 540 dead, including the 1st Battalion's commanding officer.
After the battle, some 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus headed for Rorke's Drift, a small missionary post garrisoned by a company of the 2/24th Foot, native levies and others under the command of Lieutenant Chard, Royal Engineers, the most senior officer of the 24th present being Lieutenant Gonville Bromhead. Two Boer cavalry officers, Lieutenants Adendorff and Vane, arrived to inform the garrison of the defeat at Isandhlwana. The Acting Assistant Commissary James Langley Dalton persuaded Bromhead and Chard to stay and the small garrison frantically prepared rudimentary fortifications.
The Zulus first attacked at 4:30 pm. Throughout the day the garrison was attacked from all sides, including rifle fire from the heights above the garrison, and bitter hand-to-hand fighting often ensued. At one point the Zulus entered the hospital, which was stoutly defended by the wounded inside until it was set alight and eventually burnt down. The battle raged on into the early hours of 23 January but by dawn the Zulu Army had withdrawn. Lord Chelmsford and a column of British troops arrived soon afterwards. The garrison had suffered 15 killed during the battle (two died later) and 11 defenders were awarded the Victoria Cross for their distinguished defence of the post, 7 going to soldiers of the 24th Foot.
The stand at Rorke's Drift was immortalised in the 1964 movie Zulu.
Garrison Duties and Boer War
After the Cardwell-Childers Reforms]] of the British Armed Forces, the 24th Foot became the South Wales Borderers on 1 July 1881. The regiment's regimental depot had been moved to the Barracks, Brecon in Wales in 1873 and this, understandably, led to the regiment having close links with South Wales. The South Wales Borderers became the county regiment of Brecknockshire, Cardiganshire, Monmouthshire, Montgomeryshire, and Radnorshire.
1st Battalion In 1893 the 1st Battalion arrived in Egypt and after a two-year stay there moved to Gibraltar. The battalion moved back to the east when it joined the British garrison in India in 1897. As with most British battalions posted to India, it was a lengthy stay, not leaving until 1910. It was based in Britain when the First World War began.
2nd Battalion In 1880 the 2nd Battalion, after a brief stay in Gibraltar where they were presented with new Colours, arrived in India.
The 2nd Battalion arrived in Cape Colony in 1900 to take part in the Boer War that had begun in 1899. The Regiment, additionally, had a number of companies from its Volunteer battalions sent to South Africa. The Boer War ended in 1902.
In 1910 the 2nd Battalion returned to a more peaceful South Africa. It was sent to the Far East in 1912, based in the British-controlled part of Tientsin in China where it remained until the outbreak of World War I.
First World War
The 1st Battalion was part of the original British Expeditionary Force (BEF) that was sent to France shortly after war was declared.
In March 1916 the 2nd Battalion arrived into the carnage of the Western Front in France.
Middle East and other theatres
The 2nd Battalion provided the only British contribution, a symbolic one, to the Japanese invasion of Tsingtao—a German naval base in China that was the base of the East Asiatic Squadron. Shortly after the capture of Tsingtao, the battalion arrived in Hong Kong and then back home in January 1915.
As part of the 29th Division, the battalion took part in the Dardanelles Campaign, landing at S Beach, Cape Helles on 25 April 1915. Unlike other beaches, the 2nd South Wales Borderers, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel H.G. Casson, met little opposition and the landing, supported by the battleship HMS Cornwallis, was completed by 7:30am. The 4th (Service) Battalion, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel F M Gillespie, landed at Anzac on the night of 3/4 August 1915, meeting heavy fire on the beach and suffering serious casualties, including their commanding officer, as they pushed forward on the left of the line.
The end of war gave the 1st South Wales Borderers no respite. The battalion moved to Dunshaughlin in 1919 where it was part of the British Army during the Irish War of Independence. They were involved in operations against Michael Collins and the Irish Republican Army. After the Anglo-Irish Treaty established the Irish Free State, the Battalion was evacuated.
In 1928 the 1st Battalion arrived in Egypt where they remained until they were posted to Hong Kong in 1930. In 1934 the 1st Battalion was, once more, posted to India, based in Rawalpindi.
The battalion was sent, for a brief time, to Iraq in 1937, a rare deployment for a British Army unit, Iraq being under Royal Air Force administration. It returned to India the following year where it took part in operations against hostile tribes in the volatile North-West Frontier. It was still in India when World War II began in 1939.
In 1919 the 2nd Battalion arrived at Barrackpore, India. It remained there, based in a variety of places, for many years, until it was posted to Aden (now part of the Yemen) in 1927 where it remained until returning to Britain in 1929.
The battalion was back in the Middle East in 1936 when it was sent to Palestine to assist in quelling a rebellion by Arabs. The battalion left in December, moving Northern Ireland. It was still based in the UK when World War II began.
Second World War
The battalion returned to the UK and, in 1944, the 2nd Battalion, as part of the 56th Infantry Brigade Group, had the distinction of being the only Welsh battalion to take part in the Normandy landings landing at Gold Beach under command of 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division. It was under command of 7th Armoured Division for a few days in June 1944, before reverting to the 50th Division. In August 1944 it was briefly under command of 59th (Staffordshire) Infantry Division and on August 20 joined the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division when the 70th Brigade of the division was disbanded due to an Army-wide shortage of infantrymen. It ended its war in Germany, and remained there, as part of the occupation forces, until 1948 when it returned home.
Africa and the Middle East
The 1st Battalion sustained enormous casualties in Libya near Tobruk when they lost around 500 officers and men captured or killed during a general retreat. The battalion found itself cut off when the German forces outflanked them, the commanding officer, Lt. Col. F.R.G. Matthews, decided to attempt to escape around the enemy and break through to British lines. It turned into a disaster with only four officers and around one hundred men reaching Sollum. To the surprise of the survivors the battalion was ordered to disband in Cyprus and the remnants of the battalion were transferred, with the exception of a cadre that returned to the UK, to the 1st Battalion of the King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster). A few months later the battalion was re-formed from the cadre and the 4th Battalion, Monmouthshire Regiment though it would remain in the United Kingdom for the duration of the war.
The 6th Battalion served in the Burma Campaign with the 72nd Infantry Brigade, 36th British Infantry Division, previously a division of the British Indian Army before being redesignated the 36th British Division. They were one of only two British Army divisions to serve in Burma, the other being the 2nd Infantry Division.
In 1945 the 1st Battalion was embroiled in the volatile uprising in Palestine, as well as undertaking operations to assist in the prevention of Jewish immigration into the territory, then considered by the British to be illegal.
The 2nd Battalion was disbanded in 1948—every other second battalion of the Line Infantry was also disbanded as a consequence of defence cuts implemented shortly after the Second World War.
In 1946 the 1st Battalion arrived in Cyprus where it remained until 1949 when it deployed to the Sudan. The following year the regiment became part of the occupation force in Eritrea—a former Italian colony that was ruled by a British military administration after World War II. The regiment left after Eritrea joined its larger neighbour Ethiopia in 1952 after the United Nations ratified a resolution creating a federation between the two countries.
In 1948 a State of Emergency was declared in Malaya shortly after Communist insurgents, mostly from the large ethnic Chinese community, began a campaign against the British presence in Malaya as they did not believe Malaya's eventual independence would lead to the installation of a Communist regime. This situation was what the South Wales Borderers entered in October 1955, in a conflict known as the Malayan Emergency. It was a vicious, brutal campaign, one of claustrophobia when they sent patrols deep into the Malayan jungle to search for the elusive guerillas—they were known as Communist Terrorist (CT) in British parlance. The regiment returned to the UK in 1958.
The regiment's conduct during the war compelled Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer—a distinguished British officer during World War II and a man instrumental in the defeat of the CTs during the Emergency—to state that, "there has been no better regiment in Malaya during the ten years of the emergency and very few as good".
In 1960 the regiment was posted to Minden, Germany and returned home two years later. In 1963 the regiment arrived in Hong Kong,[Stanley Fort], performing internal security duties until it returned home in 1966 to Lydd in Kent. During this time in the UK the Regiment was given the honour of performing ceremonial duties at Windsor Castle and the Tower of London. (Normally a Regiment of Guards duty). In January 1967 the regiment arrived in Aden—a British territory in the Middle East, in what is now the Yemen, that was experiencing turbulent times shortly before it achieved independence from the British—where it performed internal security duties until it returned home later that year
The Territorial, Militia, Volunteer, and Hostilities-only battalions
- Battle of Chillianwala, Goojerat, Punjaub, South Africa 1877-8-9, Burma 1885-87, South Africa 1900-02
- Mons, retreat from Mons, Marne 1914, Aisne 1914'18, Ypres 1914'17'18, Langemarck 1914'17, Gheluvelt, Nonne Bosschen, Givenchy 1914, Aubers, Loos, Somme 1916'18, Bazentin, Pozières, Flers-Courcelette, Morval, Ancre Heights, Ancre 1916, Arras 1917'18, Scarpe 1917, Messines 1917'18, Pilckem, Menin Road, Polygon Wood, Broodseinde, Poelcappelle, Passchendaele, Cambrai 1917'18, St. Quentin, Bapaume 1918, Lys, Estaires, Hazebrouck, Bailleul, Kemmel, Béthune, Scherpenberg, Drocourt-Quéant, Hindenburg Line, Havrincourt, Épéhy, St. Quentin Canal, Beaurevoir, Courtrai, Selle, Valenciennes, Sambre, France and Flanders 1914-18,
- Doiran 1917 '18, Macedonia 1915-18
- Helles, Landing at Helles, Krithia, Suvla, Sari Bair, Scimitar Hill, Gallipoli 1915-16
- Egypt 1916, Tigris 1916, Kut el Amara 1917, Baghdad, Mesopotamia 1916-18
Victoria Cross recipients
- Corporal William Wilson Allen (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Private David Bell (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Lieutenant Edward Stevenson Browne (1st Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel Burges (7th (Service) Battalion, South Wales Borderers)
- Lieutenant Nevill Josiah Aylmer Coghill (1st Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Lieutenant Gonville Bromhead (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Temporary Captain Angus Buchanan (4th (Service) Battalion, South Wales Borderers)
- Private James Cooper (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Assistant Surgeon Campbell Mellis Douglas (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Lieutenant Edric Frederick, The Lord Gifford (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Private James Henry Fynn (4th (Service) Battalion, South Wales Borderers)
- Private William Griffiths (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Private Frederick Hitch (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Private Alfred Henry Hook (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Acting Lieutenant-Colonel Dudley Graham Johnson (2nd Battalion, South Wales Borderers)
- Private Robert Jones (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Private William Jones (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Lieutenant Teignmouth Melvill (1st Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Private Thomas Murphy (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Sergeant Ivor Rees (11th (Service) Battalion (1st Gwent), South Wales Borderers)
- Sergeant Albert White (2nd Battalion, South Wales Borderers)
- Company Sergeant-Major John (Jack) Henry Williams (10th (Service) Battalion (1st Gwent), South Wales Borderers)
- Private John Williams (2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot)
- Colonel-in-Chief: HM King Edward VIII
- Nicknames: Howard's Greens
- Anniversaries: Rorke's Drift (22 January)
- Marches: Men of Harlech
- 18th Battalion (The Kurung-Gai Regiment) (1929–1944)
- 17th/18th Infantry Battalion (The North Shore Regiment) (1948–1960)
- 24th Battalion (The Kooyong Regiment) (1929–1951)
- / 1st Battalion, The Rhodesian African Rifles (1957–1965)
- The South Wales Borderers Museum is at The Barracks, Brecon, South Wales
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to South Wales Borderers.|
- Jack Adams Famous Regiments: The South Wales Borderers (1968) : ISBN (none)
- The South Wales Borderers by Jack Adams pub1968 by Hamish Hamilton, London
- The London Gazette, 19 May 1858 http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/22141/pages/2492/page.pdf
- SWB History