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Southeast Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lake Malawi in 1967

Southeast Africa,[1][2] or Southeastern Africa,[3][a] is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa[b] and Southern Africa.[c][8] It comprises the countries Botswana, Eswatini, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi,[9] Mozambique,[10][11] Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda,[12] Zambia and Zimbabwe[13] in the mainland, with the island-nations of Madagascar, Mauritius, Comoros, and Seychelles also included.[10]



East and southern Africa are among the earliest regions where modern humans (Homo sapiens) and their predecessors are believed to have lived. In September 2019, scientists reported the computerized determination, based on 260 CT scans, of a virtual skull shape of the last common human ancestor to modern humans/H. sapiens, representative of the earliest modern humans, and suggested that modern humans arose between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago through a merging of populations in South and East Africa.[14][15]

Bantu expansion[edit]

Bantu-speakers traversed from Central Africa into Southeast Africa approximately 3,000 years ago.[10]

Swahili coast[edit]



Kitara and Bunyoro[edit]

Lake Plateau states and empires[edit]





Modern history[edit]

In the 19th and 20th centuries, David Livingstone[16] and Frederick Courtney Selous visited Southeast Africa. The latter wrote down his experiences in the book Travel and Adventure in South-East Africa.[17]

Demographics and languages[edit]

People include the San people.[3] The Swahili language is spoken, both as an official language and lingua franca, by millions of people.[18]








Film industry[edit]

Science and technology[edit]



Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain

Lake Malawi[16][19] and Limpopo River[20] are located in Southeast Africa.


Natural Disasters[edit]


Lion in Masai Mara, Kenya

Fauna[17] includes the cheetah, leopard, lion,[21] Nile crocodile, hyena, Lichtenstein's hartebeest and white rhinoceros.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Though this reference[4] includes Namibia, it was previously referred to as "Southwest Africa"[5] due to its location.
  2. ^ East Africa at least partially includes Northeast Africa.[6][7]
  3. ^ Southern Africa includes what was known as Southwest Africa.[5]


  1. ^ Axworthy, Mary (2004). Sowell, Teri L. (ed.). Asking for Eyes: The Visual Voice of Southeast Africa. University Art Gallery, San Diego State University. ISBN 0-937097-01-2.
  2. ^ Wieschhoff, H. A. (2013). The Zimbabwe-Monomotapa Culture in Southeast Africa. Literary Licensing L. L. C. ISBN 978-1-4940-0993-9.
  3. ^ a b Schlebusch, C. M.; Prins, F.; Lombard, M.; Jakobsson, M.; Soodyall, H. (2016). "The disappearing San of southeastern Africa and their genetic affinities". Human Genetics. 135 (12): 1365–1373. doi:10.1007/s00439-016-1729-8. PMC 5065584. PMID 27651137.
  4. ^ "Southeastern Africa: South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, and Malawi", World Wildlife Fund, retrieved 30 April 2018
  5. ^ a b Turok, Ben (1990). Witness from the frontline: aggression and resistance in Southern Africa. Institute for African Alternatives. p. 86. ISBN 1-870425-12-X.
  6. ^ Jama, Abdillahi H. (2002). "11". Values in Islamic culture and the experience of history. pp. 303–322. ISBN 1-135-43416-6.
  7. ^ Bechaus-Gerst, Marianne; Blench, Roger (2014). "11". In Kevin MacDonald (ed.). The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography – "Linguistic evidence for the prehistory of livestock in Sudan" (2000). Routledge. p. 453. ISBN 978-1-135-43416-8. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  8. ^ Klopper, S.; Conru, K.; Nel, K. (2002). The Art of Southeast Africa: From the Conru Collection. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 88-7439-001-7.
  9. ^ "Malawi", Merriam-Webster, retrieved 29 April 2018
  10. ^ a b c "Bantu Ethnicity in South East Africa: From Kenya to the Southern Tip of Africa". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Mozambique", Merriam-Webster, retrieved 29 April 2018
  12. ^ "Tracing African Roots: Exploring the Ethnic Origins of the Afro-Diaspora". Tracing African Roots. 31 January 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  13. ^ Fry, Kathie. "Southeast African Countries". Do It in Africa. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  14. ^ Zimmer, Carl (10 September 2019). "Scientists Find the Skull of Humanity's Ancestor — on a Computer – By comparing fossils and CT scans, researchers say they have reconstructed the skull of the last common forebear of modern humans". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  15. ^ Mounier, Aurélien; Lahr, Marta (2019). "Deciphering African late middle Pleistocene hominin diversity and the origin of our species". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 3406. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.3406M. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11213-w. PMC 6736881. PMID 31506422.
  16. ^ a b Douglas, John (Summer 1998). "Malawi: The Lake of Stars". Travel Africa (4). Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  17. ^ a b Selous, F. C. (2011). "XXV". Travel and Adventure in South-East Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-108-03116-5.
  18. ^ Irele 2010
  19. ^ "Freshwater Fish Species in Lake Malawi (Nyasa) [Southeast Africa]". Fishbase.org. Mongabay. 15 November 2001. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  20. ^ "Limpopo River", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 29 April 2018
  21. ^ Jackson, D. (2010). "Introduction". Lion. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 1–21. ISBN 978-1-86189-735-0.

External links[edit]