Southern (Govia Thameslink Railway)
|Main Region(s):||London, Sussex, Surrey, Hampshire, Kent|
|Other Region(s):||Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire|
|Stations called at:||213|
|Route km operated:||666.3|
|National Rail abbreviation:||SN|
|Parent company:||Govia Thameslink Railway|
Southern is the brand name used by the Govia Thameslink Railway train operating company on the Southern routes of the Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise. It is a subsidiary of Govia, a joint venture between transport groups Go-Ahead and Keolis, and operated the South Central rail franchise since August 2001 and the Gatwick Express service since June 2008.
On 26 July 2015, the franchisee was subsumed into Govia Thameslink Railway, but the existing Southern and Gatwick Express brand identities have been retained alongside those of Thameslink and Great Northern.
Southern operates the majority of commuter services from its Central London terminals at London Bridge and London Victoria to South London and Sussex as well as regional services in parts of Hampshire, Kent and Surrey. It also provides services between Milton Keynes and Croydon via the West London Line.
Major destinations served include Banstead, Beckenham Junction, Epsom Downs, Epsom, Leatherhead, East Croydon, Mitcham Junction, Sutton, East Grinstead, Uckfield, Caterham, Tattenham Corner, Redhill, Gatwick Airport, Crawley, Horsham, Littlehampton, Worthing, Bognor Regis, Southampton, Portsmouth, Brighton, Eastbourne and Ore.
- 1 History
- 2 Routes
- 3 Rolling stock
- 4 Depots
- 5 Future
- 6 Rolling out of smartcards
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In March 2000, the Shadow Strategic Rail Authority (SSRA) announced its intention to relet the franchise from May 2003 with Connex and Govia the shortlisted bidders. In October 2000 the SSRA announced that Govia had been awarded the franchise and would operate it from May 2003. Govia negotiated a deal with Connex to buy out the remainder of its franchise, this was completed in August 2001. Govia trading as SouthCentral took over operations on 26 August 2001. The franchise was originally to run for twenty years, but in 2002 the Strategic Rail Authority changed the way it handled financing agreements and therefore Govia was re-awarded with a seven-and-a-half-year franchise until December 2009.
In May 2004 the franchise was rebranded as Southern in a recall of the pre-nationalisation Southern Railway, using a green roundel logo with Southern in yellow in a green bar.
In April 2007 the Department for Transport (DfT) announced that the Gatwick Express franchise was to be incorporated into the main South Central franchise. This was part of a plan to increase capacity on the Brighton Main Line, involving the extension of peak-hour services from Gatwick to Brighton and Eastbourne from December 2008. This doubled the number of London to Brighton express trains during those periods.
The South Central franchise end date was brought forward to September 2009 upon the integration of the Gatwick Express service, to allow the new operator to be in place during major changes to the timetable in and around South London in December 2009. In the run-up to the bidding process for the franchise, reports emerged suggesting that Transport for London, the operator of the London Overground service, wished to take control of all overground services in South London, including the 'Metro' area of the South Central franchise. However, such a transfer never took place and the DfT put out the entire franchise for tender.
In August 2008 the DfT shortlisted Govia, National Express, NedRail and Stagecoach for the new South Central franchise. In June 2009 the DfT announced that Govia had retained the franchise, to start on 20 September 2009.
In March 2012 the Department for Transport announced that Abellio, FirstGroup, Govia, MTR and Stagecoach had been shortlisted for the new Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise. The Invitation to Tender was to be issued in October 2012, with the successful bidder announced in spring 2013. However, in the wake of the collapse of the InterCity West Coast refranchising process, the government announced in October 2012 that the process would be put on hold pending the results of a review.
Southern was criticised for major changes to its timetables in December 2007 and December 2008.
In December 2007, Southern changed the arrangement for the splitting of services to and from London Victoria on the Arun Valley Line, opting to split trains at Horsham rather than Barnham. Some passengers criticised this change as it increased the journey time to and from London by up to 10 minutes from certain stations, while in the event of services running behind schedule, trains were sometimes not split at Horsham, and proceeded non-stop to Barnham, leaving Arun Valley commuters at Horsham with the prospect of no onward trains.
In December 2008 further timetable changes included the introduction of the extended Gatwick Express services. However, reliability and timekeeping on some of the new services were considered poor, leading to several public meetings being held. On 22 January 2009, Southern responded to some of these criticisms. During 2009 these services have recorded improved timekeeping and criticisms have since subsided.
Until February 2009, Southern used to operate hourly services between Watford Junction and Brighton, but now these services no longer operate from Brighton and now terminate at East Croydon, although most services have been extended north through Watford Junction to Milton Keynes Central.
December 2010 timetable
Further changes to the timetable were made in December 2010; the first timetable change to include many of the requirements of the new franchise. Additional services were included at evenings and weekends. In the London area a 'metro' frequency of service was introduced on most routes with the extension of the weekday daytime four-trains-per-hour norm to late evenings (up to around midnight), Saturdays and Sundays. In addition, new late-night services were introduced from London on Friday and Saturday nights with last trains leaving central London at around 00:30.
Outside London, a new later-evening service was introduced to Uckfield from London Bridge, new late-night services from Brighton along the west coastway and direct services between Southampton and Brighton on Sundays.
Southern's plans for enhanced services between Victoria and Brighton with a new four-trains-per-hour frequency were rejected at the last minute by the Office of Rail Regulation.
Punctuality and overcrowding
In January 2015 Southern hit controversy when it was revealed that the 7.29am Brighton to London Victoria train failed to get in on time on any occasion out of all 240 attempts in 2014. Later in May 2015 it was revealed that Southern had fined passengers for standing in first class on an overcrowded train. Only 20% of Southern trains arrived on time in the year from April 2015 to March 2016, and there was an ongoing industrial dispute over driver-only operated trains.
2016 amended timetable
In 2016 the company introduced an "amended timetable [that] would be a temporary measure until staffing returned to normal" to be announced on 5 July. The RMT trade union said that 350 services would be cancelled every day (the company ran 2,242 weekday services in the previous timetable). The company said it had insufficient personnel, and too many were taking sick leave; the union denied that high levels of sickness were the cause of cancellations, while agreeing that there were an insufficient number of guards and drivers.
The government Department for Transport said that the situation was unacceptable. While the company was obliged to notify the Department in advance, this did not amount to giving the company permission for the changes. The RMT general secretary Mick Cash said the government had permitted GTR to introduce the emergency timetable, but that it was "nothing to do with staff sickness and everything to do with gross mismanagement of this franchise and the failure to employ enough guards and drivers. ... a cynical and cowardly ploy".
The London Evening Standard mentioned Southern in an article in June 2016 "Southern rail suggests commuter goes on 100 mile detour to Clapham instead of her normal six minute journey". In June 2016, amongst criticism of the performance of its services, Go-Ahead warned of lower than anticipated profits on its Govia Thameslink Railway franchises, leading to 18% drop in the Go-Ahead share price.
As of September 2016, Southern had still not restored a full timetable and was unable to say when it would do so.
The network of services operated by Southern includes local suburban ("Metro") services in South London and regional services extending into the southern Home Counties. All routes are south of the river Thames, with the exception of the West London service, which crosses the city via Shepherd's Bush and runs up the West Coast Mainline to Milton Keynes. Along with the Thameslink route, this provides one of the few long-distance National Rail routes to run right across London instead of terminating at one of the London rail termini. Southern routes which do not serve London include the West Coastway and East Coastway Lines along the south coast of Sussex, Kent and Hampshire.
Details of each route, including maps and timetables, are on Southern's website (see External links, below). As of September 2016, its routes off-peak Monday to Saturday, with frequencies in *trains per hour* (tph), include:
|London Victoria to Brighton (semi-fast)||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Horley, Burgess Hill|
|London Victoria to Brighton (semi-fast)||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport, Hassocks|
|London Victoria to Brighton (express)||2||Gatwick Airport|
|London Victoria to Gatwick Airport||2||non-stop|
|London Victoria to Eastbourne||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport, Haywards Heath, Wivelsfield, Plumpton, Cooksbridge (limited service), Lewes, Polegate, Hampden Park
Service runs with Mainline West service to/from Littlehampton (fast) between London Victoria and Haywards Heath, where both services divide/attach.
|London Victoria to Ore||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport, Haywards Heath, Lewes, Polegate, Eastbourne, Hampden Park, Pevensey & Westham, Cooden Beach, Collington, Bexhill, St Leonards Warrior Square, Hastings
Service runs with Mainline West service to/from Littlehampton (semi-fast) between London Victoria and Haywards Heath, where both services divide/attach.
|London Victoria to Littlehampton (fast)||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport, Haywards Heath, Burgess Hill, Hove, Shoreham-by-Sea, Worthing, West Worthing, Durrington-on-Sea, Goring-by-Sea, Angmering
Service runs with the Mainline East service to/from Eastbourne between London Victoria and Haywards Heath, where both services divide/attach.
|London Victoria to Littlehampton (semi-fast)||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport, Haywards Heath, Preston Park, Hove, Portslade, Shoreham-by-Sea, Lancing, Worthing, West Worthing, Durrington-on-Sea, Goring-by-Sea, Angmering
Service runs with the Mainline East service to/from Ore between London Victoria and Haywards Heath, where both services divide/attach.
|London Victoria to Portsmouth Harbour||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport, Three Bridges, Crawley, Horsham, Barnham, Chichester, Havant, Fratton, Portsmouth & Southsea
Service runs with the Mainline West service to/from Bognor Regis (semi-fast) between London Victoria and Horsham, where both services divide/attach.
|London Victoria to Bognor Regis||2||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport, Three Bridges, Crawley, Horsham, Christ's Hospital (1tph), Billingshurst, Pulborough, Amberley (1tph), Arundel, Ford, Barnham
Service runs with Mainline West services to/from Portsmouth Harbour or Southampton Central between London Victoria and Horsham, where both services divide/attach.
|London Victoria to Southampton Central||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport, Three Bridges, Crawley, Horsham, Barnham, Chichester, Southbourne, Emsworth, Havant, Cosham, Portchester, Fareham, Swanwick, Netley (limited service), Woolston (limited service), St Denys (limited service)
Service runs with Mainline West service to/from Bognor Regis (stopping) between London Victoria and Horsham, where both services divide/attach.
|Brighton to Seaford||2||London Road (Brighton), Moulsecoomb, Falmer, Lewes, Southease (1tph), Newhaven Town, Newhaven Harbour, Bishopstone|
|Brighton to Lewes||1||London Road (Brighton), Moulsecoomb, Falmer|
|Brighton to Ore||1||London Road (Brighton), Moulsecoomb, Falmer, Lewes, Glynde, Berwick (Sussex), Polegate, Hampden Park, Eastbourne, Hampden Park, Pevensey & Westham, Pevensey Bay (limited service), Normans Bay, Cooden Beach, Collington, Bexhill, St Leonards Warrior Square, Hastings|
|Brighton to Ashford International||1||Lewes, Polegate, Eastbourne, Bexhill, St Leonards Warrior Square, Hastings, Ore (limited service), Three Oaks (1tp2h), Doleham (limited service), Winchelsea (1tp2h), Rye, Appledore, Ham Street
Trains alternate between calling at Three Oaks and Winchelsea, making it difficult to travel between the two stations. Only a few services in peak hours call at both stations (these services also stop at Ore and Doleham).
|Brighton to West Worthing||2||Hove, Aldrington, Portslade, Fishersgate, Southwick, Shoreham-by-Sea, Lancing, East Worthing, Worthing|
|Brighton to Hove||2|
|Brighton to Portsmouth Harbour||1||Hove, Portslade, Southwick, Shoreham-by-Sea, Lancing, Worthing, Angmering, Barnham, Chichester, Southbourne, Emsworth, Havant, Fratton, Portsmouth & Southsea|
|Brighton to Southampton Central||1||Hove, Portslade, Southwick, Shoreham-by-Sea, Lancing, Worthing, West Worthing, Durrington-on-Sea, Goring-by-Sea, Angmering, Ford, Barnham, Chichester, Emsworth, Havant, Cosham, Fareham, Swanwick, Bursledon (limited service), Hamble (limited service), Netley (limited service), Sholing (limited service), Woolston (limited service), Bitterne (limited service), St Denys (limited service)
Some peak-time services take an alternative route between Fareham and Southampton Central via Eastleigh. These services stop at Eastleigh (where they reverse) and Southampton Airport
|Littlehampton to Portsmouth & Southsea||1||Ford, Barnham, Chichester, Fishbourne, Bosham, Nutbourne, Southbourne, Emsworth, Warblington, Havant, Bedhampton, Hilsea, Fratton|
|Littlehampton to Bognor Regis||1||Ford, Barnham|
|Barnham to Bognor Regis||1|
|London Victoria to East Grinstead||2||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Sanderstead, Riddlesdown, Upper Warlingham, Woldingham, Oxted, Hurst Green, Lingfield, Dormans|
|London Bridge to Uckfield||1||East Croydon, Upper Warlingham (limited service), Oxted, Hurst Green, Edenbridge Town, Hever, Cowden, Ashurst, Eridge, Crowborough, Buxted
On days when Crystal Palace F.C. hosts matches at Selhurst Park, trains additionally call at Norwood Junction (London Bridge-bound trains call before kick-off, Uckfield-bound trains call after kick-off)
|London Victoria to Tonbridge||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Redhill, Nutfield, Godstone, Edenbridge, Penshurst, Leigh|
|London Victoria to Reigate||1||Clapham Junction, East Croydon, Redhill|
|London Bridge to Horsham||2||New Cross Gate, Norwood Junction, East Croydon, Purley, Coulsdon South, Merstham, Redhill, Earlswood, Salfords, Horley, Gatwick Airport, Three Bridges, Crawley, Ifield, Faygate (limited service), Littlehaven|
|East Croydon to Milton Keynes Central||1||Selhurst, Thornton Heath, Norbury, Streatham Common, Balham, Wandsworth Common, Clapham Junction, Imperial Wharf, West Brompton, Kensington Olympia, Shepherds Bush, Wembley Central, Harrow & Wealdstone, Watford Junction, Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamstead, Tring, Leighton Buzzard, Bletchley|
|London Victoria to London Bridge via Crystal Palace||2||Battersea Park, Clapham Junction, Wandsworth Common, Balham, Streatham Hill, West Norwood, Gipsy Hill, Crystal Palace, Sydenham, Forest Hill, Honor Oak Park, Brockley, New Cross Gate|
|London Victoria to Epsom via Mitcham Junction||2||Clapham Junction, Balham, Mitcham Eastfields, Mitcham Junction, Hackbridge, Carshalton, Sutton, Cheam, Ewell East|
|London Victoria to Horsham via Leatherhead||1||Clapham Junction, Sutton, Cheam, Ewell East, Epsom, Ashtead, Leatherhead, Box Hill & Westhumble, Dorking, Holmwood, Ockley, Warnham|
|London Victoria to Dorking via Epsom||1||Clapham Junction, Sutton, Cheam, Epsom, Ashtead, Leatherhead|
|London Victoria to Sutton via Norbury||4||Battersea Park, Clapham Junction, Wandsworth Common, Balham, Streatham Common, Norbury, Thornton Heath, Selhurst, West Croydon, Waddon, Wallington, Carshalton Beeches.|
|London Victoria to Sutton via Crystal Palace||2||Battersea Park, Clapham Junction, Wandsworth Common, Balham, Streatham Hill, West Norwood, Gipsy Hill, Crystal Palace, Norwood Junction, West Croydon, Waddon, Wallington, Carshalton Beeches|
|London Victoria to Caterham via Norbury||2||Battersea Park, Clapham Junction, Wandsworth Common, Balham, Streatham Common, Norbury, Thornton Heath, Selhurst, East Croydon, South Croydon, Purley Oaks, Purley, Kenley, Whyteleafe, Whyteleafe South|
|London Bridge to Caterham via Forest Hill||2||New Cross Gate, Brockley, Honor Oak Park, Forest Hill, Sydenham, Penge West, Anerley, Norwood Junction, East Croydon, South Croydon, Purley Oaks, Purley, Kenley, Whyteleafe, Whyteleafe South|
|London Bridge to Tattenham Corner||2||Norwood Junction, East Croydon, Purley, Reedham (London), Coulsdon Town, Woodmansterne, Chipstead, Kingswood, Tadworth|
|London Bridge to Beckenham Junction via Crystal Palace||2||South Bermondsey, Queens Road Peckham, Peckham Rye, East Dulwich, North Dulwich, Tulse Hill, West Norwood, Gipsy Hill, Crystal Palace, Birkbeck|
|London Bridge to West Croydon via Norbury||2||South Bermondsey, Queens Road Peckham, Peckham Rye, East Dulwich, North Dulwich, Tulse Hill, Streatham, Streatham Common, Norbury, Thornton Heath, Selhurst|
|London Bridge to Guildford||-||(Once per day) Norwood Junction, West Croydon, Waddon, Wallington, Carshalton Beaches, Sutton, Cheam, Ewell East, Epsom, Ashtead, Leatherhead, Bookham, Effingham Junction, Horsley, Clandon, London Road (Guildford)|
Most Southern routes are operated using electric multiple units, but the London Bridge-East Croydon-Oxted-Uckfield and Brighton-Eastbourne-Hastings-Rye-Ashford International routes are not fully electrified and are operated using diesel multiple units.
South Central inherited a fleet of Class 205, Class 207, Class 319, Class 421, Class 423, Class 455 and Class 456 multiple-unit trains from Connex South Central. Southern inherited a Class 73 locomotive and Class 460 Juniper trains from Gatwick Express.
A franchise commitment was to replace all the Mark 1 slam-door stock, resulting in Southern ordering 28 three-car, 139 four-car and 15 four-car dual-voltage Class 377 Electrostars in September 2001 and March 2002 to replace the Class 421, Class 422 and Class 423s.
In August 2002 Southern ordered nine two-car and six four-car Class 171 Turbostars to replace the Class 205s and Class 207s on the routes that are not fully electrified. In 2006 a tenth two-car Class 171 was transferred from South West Trains.
In 2007, Southern ordered 12 four-car, dual-voltage Class 377/5 Electrostars to replace the remaining twelve Class 319s for transfer to First Capital Connect. In March 2008 Go Ahead purchased a further 11 Class 377/5s. All 23 ended up being sublet to First Capital Connect to provide extra stock for the Thameslink Programme Key Output Zero changes from March 2009.
To provide stock for the extended Gatwick Express services to Brighton, in 2008 Southern leased 17 Class 442 Wessex Electrics withdrawn by South West Trains in early 2007. After retaining the franchise in 2009, Southern leased the remaining seven Class 442s. The last of the Class 460 Junipers were withdrawn in September 2012.
In 2011, Southern announced that, because of delays in procuring new trains for the Thameslink Programme, the 23 Class 377/5s on sub-lease to First Capital Connect would not be returned in time to deliver the operator's planned capacity increases from the December 2013 timetable change. It therefore began a process to procure 130 new vehicles. It was announced in December 2011 that Bombardier had been contracted to supply 26 five-car Class 377/6s. In November 2012 it was announced that an option for a further 40 vehicles was being exercised.
In April 2016, Southern commenced a lease for nine three-carriage Class 170s last used by First ScotRail from Eversholt Rail Group. Four (170421-424) moved to Wolverton railway works in 2015 and were reconfigured as two two-carriage and two four-carriage Class 171s. As at August 2016, they are yet to enter service. The other five (170416-421) remain in Scotland on sub-lease to Abellio ScotRail and are scheduled to move to Southern in 2018.
|Class||Image||Type||Top speed||Number||Cars per set||Routes operated||Built|
|Class 73||Electro-diesel locomotive||90||145||1||1||Thunderbird locomotive||1965–1967|
|Class 171||DMU||100||160||171/2 - 2||171/2 - 2||Oxted Line (Uckfield branch)
|171/4 - 4||171/4 - 2 |
|171/7 - 10||171/7 - 2|
|171/8 - 6||171/8 - 4|
|Class 313||EMU||75||120||19||3||West Coastway Line: Brighton – Hove/West Worthing/Portsmouth Harbour and Littlehampton – Barnham/Bognor Regis/Portsmouth & Southsea
East Coastway Line: Brighton – Lewes/Seaford
Also operate services between Brighton and Littlehampton, Bognor Regis, Eastbourne and Ore during peak hours
|Class 377||EMU||100||160||377/1 - 64||377/1 - 4||Entire Southern network (apart from the Uckfield and Marshlink lines).
377/5 and a number of 377/2 units in use with Thameslink sub-leased from Southern
|377/2 - 6||377/2 - 4|
|377/3 - 28||377/3 - 3|
|377/4 - 75||377/4 - 4|
|377/6 - 26||377/6 - 5|
|377/7 - 8 ||377/7 - 5|
|Class 442 (5Wes) Wessex Electric||EMU||100||160||6||5||London Bridge – Brighton/Eastbourne - peak hours only||1988–1989|
|Class 455||EMU||75||120||46||4||Suburban services from London Victoria and London Bridge on London Metro||1982–1984|
|Class 387/2||EMU||110||177||27||4||Brighton & Gatwick Express route||2015|
Former units operated by Southern include:
|Class 205 (3H)||DMU||1957–60||2004||Replaced by Class 171. Some preserved.|
|Class 207 (3D)||DMU||1962||2004||Replaced by Class 171. Some preserved.|
|Class 319||EMU||1987||2008||Transferred to First Capital Connect after being made redundant by newer Class 377 trains.|
|Class 350/1 Desiro||EMU||2004-2005||2009||These trains were subleased from London Midland from 2008 to 2009, to provide cover for Class 377 units subleased to First Capital Connect. After newer Class 377 trains were built, these units were returned to London Midland.|
|Class 421 (4Cig)||EMU||1964–66||2005||Replaced by Class 377. Some preserved.|
|Class 423 (4Vep)||EMU||1967–71||2005||Replaced by Class 377. Some preserved.|
|Class 456||EMU||1990–1991||2014||Transferred to South West Trains after being made redundant by newer Class 377/6 units.|
|Class 460 (8Gat) Juniper||EMU||2000–2001||2012||Transferred to South West Trains and subsequently merged with Class 458 fleet.|
Southern's fleet is maintained at Brighton Lovers Walk and Selhurst depots. The Gatwick Express fleet is maintained at Stewarts Lane. Since December 2014, the Class 455 fleet is now maintained at Stewarts Lane (having transferred from Selhurst).
Southern, as part of its successful bid for the South Central franchise in 2009, made several commitments to improving services across the network. These included:
- Increasing the length of suburban services in South London to 10 cars between 2011 and 2013
- Increasing the service level on all routes in South London to 4 trains per hour (tph) until 23:00 each day, and the introduction of late-night services on Fridays and Saturdays
- The introduction of an hourly service on Sundays between Brighton and Southampton Central, and an increase in the number of late-night services between Brighton and Worthing
- The introduction of late-night services on the London to Uckfield route
- Installation of new ticket gates at 22 stations across the network
- Increasing the number of car-parking spaces at stations by 1,000 and the number of cycle spaces by 1,500
- Cleaning and refreshing of all stations and trains on the network
- Major refurbishments to seven stations: Brighton, Haywards Heath, Hove, Lewes, Redhill, Three Bridges and Worthing
With the last franchise expiring on 26 July 2015, the South Central franchise was merged with the Thameslink Great Northern franchise to create Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern. This is operated by Govia Thameslink Railway, which is also owned by Southern's parent company, Govia. The Southern brand identity has been retained.
The franchise consultation paper released at the beginning of the 2009 franchising process stated that the ultimate franchise agreement would include a change mechanism to enable the DfT to incorporate additional routes into the South Central franchise, and it invited bidders to submit priced options for schemes put forward by stakeholders. One such scheme could, as indicated in the South Central Franchise Consultation Paper, be the reopening of the Uckfield – Lewes line, closed in 1969. In recent years, several interested parties have been examining the possibility of reopening the line.
Future of the franchise
In January 2016 Transport for London announced that it intends to take over the London suburban parts of the franchise in 2021 through a partnership with the Department for Transport to form a new suburban metro service.
Rolling out of smartcards
|This section needs to be updated. (July 2016)|
Southern and sister company Southeastern were criticised in January 2007 for not wishing to introduce Oyster Pay As You Go on its London routes, stating that it was not financially viable. In 2007 Southern introduced Oyster on its Watford Junction to Clapham Junction route, and the company later agreed in principle to the introduction of Oyster across its network, but did not give any firm timescale, managing director Chris Burchell saying
"There are still a number of outstanding issues that need to be discussed with TfL, but we do not believe these will prevent us making PAYG a reality on our network. We look forward to discussions with TfL on how we can make this happen as soon as possible for our passengers."
In its successful franchise bid in 2009, Southern said it was committed to rolling out Oyster Pay As You Go in the London area, but also that such a move was subject to industry agreement. Since 2 January 2010, Oyster Pay As You Go has been valid on all its London routes, along with most other train services in the London area.
In 2012, Southern became the first rail company in England to use the ITSO card on its network. The Key is a smartcard similar to Transport for London's Oyster card. Tickets for the smartcard are available only in Single, Return, Weekly, Monthly and Annual Season tickets. Southern plans to add a Pay-As-You-Go option in the near future, but tests on this are still in progress. There are three types of The Key smartcards: Child, Adult and Staff. All child smartcards need a photograph to prove the age of the holder, while adults who wish to use their smartcard only for single and return tickets do not require a picture. The Key is insured so that if lost or stolen it can be de-activated and the tickets transferred to a new card sent out in the post.
The Key allows customers to buy Plusbus for the Crawley and Brighton areas. This is because Metrobus (which operates in Crawley) and Brighton and Hove Buses are owned by Go-Ahead Group, Southern's parent company. Brighton & Hove Buses also uses The Key on its buses but it is not possible to use a B&H bus key on Southern and vice versa at the moment unless using Plusbus. Southern is looking to change this by the end of 2013.
The Key operates only at stations managed by Southern and outside London because it is not currently compatible with the Oyster card readers. Southern has been working with Transport for London and the Department for Transport to change this, and the Oyster card readers should be compatible by December 2013.
Southern operated a pilot for The Key between Brighton and Seaford in 2010 as these stations are served only by Southern trains (with the exception of Brighton). This was a success and so in 2012 it began to gradually expand across the network. Originally the only ticket type available on The Key was season tickets; in August 2013 Southern added Return and Single tickets to The Key.
As of September 2016, The Key is available on the entire Southern network with the exception of the West Coastway Line west of Warblington, the East Coastway Line east of Bexhill, the entire Redhill to Tonbridge Line, the West London Line north of Harrow & Wealdstone and the Mole Valley Line between Bookham and Guildford (which has a limited Southern service).
- Companies House extract company no 6574965 Southern Railway Limited
- "South Central rail franchise Due this Month" (Press release). Shadow Strategic Rail Authority. 10 October 2000.
- "Six Companies Shortlisted for First Franchise Replacement Round" (Press release). Shadow Strategic Rail Authority. 14 March 2000.
- "Connex loses rail franchise". BBC News. 24 October 2000. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- Proposed acquisition by Govia Limited of Connex South Central Limited. Office of Fair Trading. 16 August 2001.
- "Completion of Acquisition of South Central Franchise" (Press release). Go-Ahead. 28 August 2001. Archived from the original on 21 October 2001.
- Annual Accounts 2001. Go-Ahead Group. 30 June 2001.
- Companies House extract company no 3010919. New Southern Railway Limited formerly South Central Limited.
- Rail (Peterborough). Issue 444. 18 September 2002. p. 6.
- Entrain (19). Sheffield. 30 July 2003. p. 9. Missing or empty
- (DFT) Agreement signed to amend Gatwick Express and Southern franchises. whitehallpages Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Agreement to amend the Gatwick Express and Southern Franchises" (Press release). Go-Ahead. 19 June 2007.
- "Gatwick service benefits Brighton". BBC News. 14 December 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- December 2008 timetable change. Southeastern News. 4 December 2008.
- "Agreement signed to amend Gatwick Express and Southern franchises". Department for Transport. 19 June 2007. Archived from the original on 18 July 2007.
- "Next stop South London". The Londoner. Greater London Authority. 8 March 2008. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009.
- "UK govt mulling handover of part of Go-Ahead's Southern franchise to TfL". Forbes. New York. 10 March 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Bidders for South Central franchise announced" (Press release). Department for Transport. 20 August 2008. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
- "Bidders for South Central franchise announced" (Press release). Department for Transport. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- "Nat Exp and Stagecoach on rail bid shortlist". Reuters. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Retention of South Central franchise" (Press release). Go-Ahead. 9 June 2009.[dead link]
- "More frequent and more secure rail services for London and the South East" (Press release). Department for Transport. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009.[dead link]
- Official Journal of the European Union Notice. Department for Transport. 19 December 2011.
- Consultation on the Combined Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise. Department for Transport. May 2012.
- Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise Go-Ahead Group
- "Thameslink Franchise OJEU Notice" (PDF). Department for Transport. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- "Bidders to oversee improvements on rail franchises announced" (Press release). Department for Transport. 29 March 2012.
- "West Coast Main Line franchise competition cancelled" (Press release). Department for Transport. 3 October 2012.
- "Rail revolt as trains dump passengers". West Sussex County Times. Horsham. 20 January 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
- "Commuters form pressure group". Eastbourne Herald. 8 January 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- "Record of Meetings". Southern East Coastway Commuters. 24 January 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- "News Christmas 2008". Bexhill Rail Action Group. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- "News – Southern Railway". Southern. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.[dead link]
- "BRAG's Faster Trains Campaign". Bexhill Rail Action Group. January 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- "Rail users want faster trains". Eastbourne Herald. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- "Britain's worst train service: Southern's 7.29 Brighton to London train was late every day for a year". The Daily Telegraph. London. 12 January 2015.
- "Southern Railway fines passengers forced to stand in first class". The Daily Telegraph. London. 19 May 2015.
- Joseph Watts (17 June 2016). "Govia Thameslink Railway boss refuses to defend CEO £2m pay". Evening Standard. London. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- Craig Richard (17 June 2016). "Boss of Epsom's main train operator Govia Thameslink Railway takes home £2.1m paycheck despite "appalling service"". Your Local Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Southern rail timetable 'loses 350 trains a day'". BBC News. 4 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Southern rail suggests commuter goes 100 mile detour to Clapham instead of her normal six minute journey". London Evening Standard. 15 June 2016.
- "Thameslink woes hit Go-Ahead shares". BBC News. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Brighton train services timetable".
- Rail (Peterborough). Issue 431. 20 March 2002.
- Rail (Peterborough). Issue 442. 21 August 2002.
- "Class 313s come to Southern". Southern Electric Group.
- Rail (Peterborough). Issue 629. 21 October 2009.
- "Southern to order more trains as Thameslink slips". Railnews. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- "Bombardier Wins Additional Order for 130 Electrostar Cars from Southern in the UK" (Press release). Bombardier. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- "DfT acts to ease Thameslink trains logjam". Railnews. 16 November 2012.
- Engineering plans at Haymarket Depot Abellio ScotRail
- "Scottish Class 170/4s move south after transfer to Southern" Rail Magazine issue 772 15 April 2015 page 12
- "GTR readies former ScotRail Class 170/4s" Rail Magazine issue 804 6 July 2016 page 30
- Southern: Useful Information Retrieved 11 February 2010
- Southern Useful Information - Southern. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- "EMU Formations".
- Desiros for Loan to Southern - Southern Electric Group. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Bombardier to manufacture 116 new train carriages for Thameslink rolling stock cascade" (Press release). Southern. 17 July 2013.
- "Franchising Program Continues Apace" (Press release). Strategic Rail Authority. 13 February 2004. Archived from the original on 22 April 2004.
- "Go-Ahead JV awarded TSGN franchise" (Press release). Go-Ahead Group Plc. 23 May 2014.
- "South Central Franchise Consultation Paper" (PDF). Department for Transport. 22 May 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- "Lewes-Uckfield rail line: re-instatement study under way" (Press release). East Sussex County Council. 3 January 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Green signal to reopen rail line". The Argus. Brighton. 21 June 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2013.[dead link]
- "TfL to control all London commuter services and new metro network".
- "Oyster card". Southern. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- "Oyster cards for ALL trains". London Evening Standard. 31 January 2007.
- "Southern say yes to Oyster". Wimbledon Gazette. 3 February 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2009.[dead link]
- As of 28 August 2013 also from https://www.southernrailway.com/smart-card/
- "Unlock the secret to quicker, easier travel with the key".
- The Key Smartcard : Southern ("Where Can I Use My Key?")
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Southern (train operating company).|
Connex South Central
Network SouthCentral franchise
|Operator of South Central franchise
2001 – 2009
South Central (incl Gatwick Express) franchise
Gatwick Express franchise
|Operator of Gatwick Express franchise
2008 – 2009
South Central franchise
|Operator of South Central (incl Gatwick Express) franchise
2009 – 2015
Govia Thameslink Railway
Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise
Gatwick Express franchise
South Central (incl Gatwick Express) franchise
|Sub-brand of Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise
2015 – present