Southern African Sand Forest
Southern African Sand Forest is a subtropical forest ecoregion of the Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Biome. It grows on ancient sand dunes in northern KwaZulu-Natal and southern Mozambique. In South Africa these forests are known simply as Sand Forest, while in Mozambique they are known as Licuati Forest.
Sand forests are thought to be relics of coastal dune forests, which have been separated from the ocean for more than a million years as the shoreline has shifted slowly eastwards over the millennia. Dunes have accreted on the southeast African coastal plain since the Pliocene, and frequent sand mobilization events during climatic changes have resulted in some reworking of the dunes. The geological history of the region suggests that the current ecosystems here may be of recent derivation and many endemic plant taxa comply with the concept of neo-endemics (recent locally evolved species), and biological evolution (notably speciation) is still in an active phase.
Of the 225 Maputaland Centre plant endemic species, 30 are associated with sand forest and 20 are restricted to this vegetation type. Species typical of moist forests, such as ferns and mosses are scarce, and the activities of termites appear to limit the accumulation of leaf litter. Sand forest has a distinct boundary and also exhibits a narrow zone of 1–2 m of nearly bare soil directly bordering it. There are indications that sand forest has allelopathic effects which may bring about this zone of inhibition and this aids in limiting fires spreading from the neighboring savannah in to the forest; creating a unique environment for itself.
List of Trees (Incomplete)
- False Tamboti (Cleisanthus schlechteri)
- False White Ash (Pseudobersama mossambicensis)
- Flat-crown (Albizia adianthifolia)
- Galla-plum (Haplocoelum gallense)
- Glossy Flat-bean (Dalbergia nitidula)
- Green Thorn (Balanites maughamii)
- Green-apple (Monodora junodii)
- Large Cluster-pear (Uvaria lucida subsp. virens)
- Lavender Fever-berry (Croton gratissimus)
- Lavender-leaved Croton (Croton pseudopulchellus)
- Lebombo Wattle (Newtonia hildebrandtii)
- Lowveld Milkberry (Manilkara mochisia)
- Marsh Fever-berry (Croton steenkampianus)
- Mozambique Coffee (Coffea racemosa)
- Pink Lannea (Lannea antiscorbutica)
- Pod Mahogany (Afzelia quanzensis)
- Quar (Psydrax obovata)
- Quiver-leaf Fig (Ficus tremula)
- Red-hair Bush (Lasiodiscus pervillei subsp. pervillei)
- Red-heart Tree (Hymenocarida ulmoides)
- Saddle-pod (Wrightia natalensis)
- Sand Cabbage Tree (Cussonia arenicola)
- Sand Canary-berry (Suregada zanzibariensis)
- Sand Forest Gardenia (Hyperacanthus microphyllus)
- Sand Ivory (Berchemia sp. nov.)
- Sand Forest Num-num (Carissa tetramera)
- Sand knobwood (Zanthoxylon leprieuri)
- Sherbet Tree (Dialium schlechteri)
- Sneezewood (Ptaeroxylon obliquum)
- Stink Bushwillow (Pteleopsis myrtifolia)
- Swazi Ordeal Tree (Erythrophleum lasianthum)
- Tonga-kerrie (Cladostemon kirkii)
- Water Ironplum (Drypetes arguta)
- Wild Mandarin (Toddaliopsis bremekampii)
- Wild Mango (Cordyla Africana)
- Zulu Coshwood (Cola greenwayi)
- Zulu Loquat (Oxyanthus latifolius)
- Wayne Matthews. "Maputaland's Tembe Elephant National Park, - a little known reserve with many natural secrets". Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- Duncan Butchart CC Africa (21 November 2006). "Eyes on the wild". Wildwatch.com.
- Soil chronosequence development in dunes on the southeast African coastal plain, Maputaland, South Africa Quaternary International Volumes 162-163, March 2007, Pages 111-132 The Soil Record of Quaternary Climate Change. Greg Botha and Naomi Porat
- The luminescence chronology of dune development on the Maputaland coastal plain, southeast Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews Volume 27, Issues 9-10, May 2008, Pages 1024-1046 Naomi Porat and Greg Botha
- Duncan Butchart CC Africa (21 November 2006). "eyes on the wild". Wildwatch.com.
- Pooley, E. (1993). The Complete Field Guide to Trees of Natal, Zululand and Transkei. ISBN 0-620-17697-0.