Southern California

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"SoCal" and "Socal" redirect here. For other uses, see SoCal (disambiguation).
Southern California
Southern CaliforniaImages top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black's Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
Red: The eight traditionally included counties.Light red: San Luis Obispo and Kern counties in the expanded ten county definition.
Red: The eight traditionally included counties.
Light red: San Luis Obispo and Kern counties in the expanded ten county definition.
Country  United States
State  California
Counties Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura
Largest city Los Angeles
Population (2010) 22,680,010

Southern California, often abbreviated to SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost 10 counties.[1][2] The region is traditionally described as "eight counties", based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura.[3] The more extensive 10-county definition, including Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used based on historical political divisions.[1] Southern California is a major economic center for the state of California and the United States.

The 8- and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas, Nevada, and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.[4]

Southern California includes the heavily built-up urban area stretching along the Pacific coast from Ventura, through the Greater Los Angeles Area and the Inland Empire, and down to Greater San Diego. Southern California's population encompasses seven metropolitan areas, or MSAs: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, consisting of Los Angeles and Orange counties; the Inland Empire, consisting of Riverside and San Bernardino counties; the San Diego metropolitan area; the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area; the Santa Barbara metro area; the San Luis Obispo metropolitan area; and the El Centro area. Out of these, three are heavy populated areas: the Los Angeles area with over 12 million inhabitants, the Riverside-San Bernardino area with over 4 million inhabitants, and the San Diego area with over 3 million inhabitants. For CSA metropolitan purposes, the five counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura are all combined to make up the Greater Los Angeles Area with over 17.5 million people. With over 22 million people, southern California contains roughly 60 percent of California's population.

To the east is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona, and the Mojave Desert at the border with the state of Nevada. To the south is the Mexico–United States border.

Significance[edit]

Sunset in Venice, a district in Los Angeles

Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas.[5] With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. To the south and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation.

Three Arch Bay in Laguna

Its counties of Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state and all are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.[6]

Universal Studios at Hollywood

The motion picture, television, and music industry are centered on the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, which is synonymous with the neighborhood's name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company (which also owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony also run major record companies as well.

Southern California is also home to a large home grown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, and Body Glove are all headquartered here. Professional skateboarder Tony Hawk, professional surfers Rob Machado, Tim Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O'Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward, and professional snowboarder Shaun White live in southern California. Some of the world's legendary surf spots are in southern California as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, and Malibu, and it is second only to the island of Oahu in terms of famous surf breaks. Some of the world's biggest extreme sports events, including the X Games,[7] Boost Mobile Pro,[8] and the U.S. Open of Surfing are all in southern California. Southern California is also important to the world of yachting. The annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachting's premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time.

Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net.

Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its popular beaches, and the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces.

Northern boundary of southern California[edit]

California counties below the thirty sixth standard parallel

"Southern California" is not a formal geographic designation, and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's north-south midway point lies at exactly 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles (18 km) south of San Jose; however, this does not coincide with popular use of the term. When the state is divided into two areas (northern and southern California), the term "southern California" usually refers to the ten southern-most counties of the state. This definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties. Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary.

Topography of the border region

Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California, and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing southern California from becoming its own separate slave state.

Subsequently, Californios (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery southerners in the lightly populated "Cow Counties" of southern California attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature and signed by the State governor John B. Weller. It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75% of voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado. This territory was to include all the counties up to the then much larger Tulare County (that included what is now Kings, most of Kern, and part of Inyo counties) and San Luis Obispo County. The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and the subsequent American Civil War led to the proposal never coming to a vote.[9][10]

In 1900, the Los Angeles Times defined southern California as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura and Santa Barbara." In 1999, the Times added a newer county—Imperial—to that list.[11]

The state is most commonly divided and promoted by its regional tourism groups as consisting of northern, central, and southern California regions. The two AAA Auto Clubs of the state, the California State Automobile Association and the Automobile Club of Southern California, choose to simplify matters by dividing the state along the lines where their jurisdictions for membership apply, as either northern or southern California, in contrast to the three-region point of view. Another influence is the geographical phrase South of the Tehachapis, which would split the southern region off at the crest of that transverse range, but in that definition, the desert portions of north Los Angeles County and eastern Kern and San Bernardino Counties would be included in the southern California region due to their remoteness from the central valley and interior desert landscape.

Population, Land Area & Population Density (07-01-2008 est.)
County
Ref.
Population
Land
mi²
Land
km²
Pop.
/mi²
Pop.
/km²
Los Angeles County[12] 9,862,049 4,060.87 10,517.61 2,428.56 937.67
San Diego County[13] 3,095,313 4,199.89 10,877.67 714.56 275.89
Orange County[14] 3,010,759 789.40 2,044.54 3,813.98 1,472.59
Riverside County[15] 2,100,516 7,207.37 18,667.00 291.44 112.53
San Bernardino County[16] 2,015,355 20,052.50 51,935.74 100.50 38.80
Kern County[17] 800,458 8,140.96 21,084.99 98.32 37.96
Ventura County[18] 797,740 1,845.30 4,779.31 432.31 166.92
Santa Barbara County[19] 405,396 2,737.01 7,088.82 148.12 57.19
San Luis Obispo County[20] 265,297 3,304.32 8,558.15 80.29 31.00
Imperial County[21] 163,972 4,174.73 10,812.50 39.28 15.17
Southern California 22,422,614 56,512.35 146,366.31 396.77 153.19
California 36,756,666 155,959.34 403,932.84 235.68 91.00

Urban landscape[edit]

Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts.

Southern California consists of a heavily developed urban environment, home to some of the largest urban areas in the state, along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped. It is the third most populated megalopolis in the United States, after the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the Northeastern megalopolis. Much of southern California is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, and Riverside-San Bernardino, each of which is the center of its respective metropolitan area, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities. The urban area is also host to an international metropolitan region in the form of San Diego–Tijuana, created by the urban area spilling over into Baja California.

Traveling south on Interstate 5, the main gap to continued urbanization is Camp Pendleton. The cities and communities along Interstate 15 and Interstate 215 are so inter-related that Temecula and Murrieta have as much connection with the San Diego metropolitan area as they do with the Inland Empire. To the east, the United States Census Bureau considers the San Bernardino and Riverside County areas, Riverside-San Bernardino area as a separate metropolitan area from Los Angeles County. While many commute to L.A. and Orange Counties, there are some differences in development, as most of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties (the non-desert portions) were developed in the 1980s and 1990s. Newly developed exurbs formed in the Antelope Valley north of Los Angeles, the Victor Valley and the Coachella Valley with the Imperial Valley. Also, population growth was high in the Bakersfield-Kern County, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas.

The Downtown Los Angeles skyline seen at sunset on an October day. At 1,018 feet (310 m), 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower stands as the West Coast's tallest building since 1989.

Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types of southern California

Southern California contains a Mediterranean climate, with infrequent rain and many sunny days. Summers are hot and dry, while winters are a bit warm or mild and wet. Serious rain can occur unusually. In the summers, temperature ranges are 90-60's while as winters are 70-50's, usually all of Southern California have Mediterranean climate. While snow is very rare in the Southwest of the state, it occurs on the Southeast of the state.

Natural landscape[edit]

Autumn of 2008 in southern California.

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California.

Introductory categories include:

Geography[edit]

Satellite view of southern California, including the Channel Islands

Southern California is also divided into:

  • the Coastal Region. densely populated with more affluence than inland areas. This region includes the coastal interior valleys west of the coastal mountains with all of Orange County and portions of San Diego, Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and San Luis Obispo counties
  • the Desert Region, larger and sparsely populated, with portions of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, and San Diego counties. The division between the Coastal Region and the Inland Empire/Imperial Valley winds along the backs of the coastal mountain ranges such as the Santa Ana Mountains.
    • A related floristic province term is the Transmontane Region on the rain shadow side of the same mountain ranges, with the term "southern California" including this zone geographically and when distinguishing all the 'southland' from northern California.

Geographic features[edit]

View from La Jolla Cove in San Diego.
Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino County.
Yucca Valley after a winter storm in the Morongo Basin.
Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego.

Geology[edit]

Earthquakes[edit]

Northridge earthquake shake map

Each year, the southern California area has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred are greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15–20 are greater than magnitude 4.0.[22] The magnitude 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake was particularly destructive, causing a substantial number of deaths, injuries, and structural collapses. It caused the most property damage of any earthquake in U.S. history, estimated at over $20 billion.[23]

Many faults are able to produce a magnitude 6.7+ earthquake, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce a magnitude 8.0 event. Other faults include the San Jacinto Fault, the Puente Hills Fault, and the Elsinore Fault Zone. The USGS has released a California Earthquake forecast[24] which models Earthquake occurrence in California.

Regions[edit]

Divisions[edit]

The Oceanside Pier on the San Diego County coast.

Southern California is divided culturally, politically, and economically into distinctive regions, each containing its own culture and atmosphere, anchored usually by a city with both national and sometimes global recognition, which are often the hub of economic activity for its respective region and being home to many tourist destinations. Each region is further divided into many culturally distinct areas but as a whole combine to create the southern California atmosphere.

*Part of multiple regions

Populace[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, southern California has a population of 22,680,010. Despite a reputation for high growth rates, southern California's rate grew less than the state average of 10.0% in the 2000s as California's growth became concentrated in the northern part of the state due to a stronger, tech-oriented economy in the Bay Area and an emerging Greater Sacramento region.

Southern California consists of one Combined Statistical Area, eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas, one international metropolitan area, and multiple metropolitan divisions. The region is home to two extended metropolitan areas that exceed five million in population. These are the Greater Los Angeles Area at 17,786,419, and San Diego–Tijuana at 5,105,768.[25][26] Of these metropolitan areas, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, and Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metropolitan area form Greater Los Angeles;[27] while the El Centro metropolitan area and San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area form the Southern Border Region.[28][29] North of Greater Los Angeles are the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Bakersfield metropolitan areas.

Cities[edit]

Los Angeles (at 3.7 million people) and San Diego (at 1.3 million people), both in southern California, are the two largest cities in all of California (and two of the eight largest cities in the United States). In southern California there are also twelve cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 in population. Many of southern California's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino and Riverside.

Counties[edit]

Economy[edit]

Industries[edit]

Southern California's economy is diverse and one of the largest in the United States. It is dominated and heavily dependent upon abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles not nearly as dominant, the vast majority of transport runs on this fuel. Southern California is famous for tourism and Hollywood (film, television, and music). Other industries include software, automotive, ports, finance, tourism, biomedical, and regional logistics. The region was a leader in the housing bubble 2001–2007, and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash.

Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands were turned into suburbs. Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor.[30]

Major central business districts[edit]

Irvine Taco Bell Headquarters

Southern California is home to many major business districts. Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown San Diego, Downtown San Bernardino, Downtown Bakersfield, South Coast Metro and Downtown Riverside.

Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Los Angeles itself has many business districts including the Downtown Los Angeles central business district as well as those lining the Wilshire Boulevard Miracle Mile including Century City, Westwood and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley.

The San Bernardino-Riverside area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University Town which are in San Bernardino and Downtown Riverside.

Orange County is a rapidly developing business center that includes Downtown Santa Ana, the South Coast Metro and Newport Center districts; as well as the Irvine business centers of The Irvine Spectrum, West Irvine, and international corporations headquartered at the University of California, Irvine. West Irvine includes the Irvine Tech Center and Jamboree Business Parks.

Downtown San Diego is the central business district of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego and some within North County regions.

Theme parks and waterparks[edit]

Los Angeles

Orange County

Riverside & San Bernardino

San Diego

Vinyard-Winery AVA districts[edit]

California wine AVA-American Viticultural Areas in southern California:

Transportation[edit]

See: Category: Transportation in Southern California

Southern California's freeway system is the world's busiest.

Southern California is home to Los Angeles International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the United States by passenger volume (see World's busiest airports by passenger traffic) and the third by international passenger volume (see Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic); San Diego International Airport the busiest single runway airport in the world; Van Nuys Airport, the world's busiest general aviation airport; major commercial airports at Orange County, Bakersfield, Ontario, Burbank and Long Beach; and numerous smaller commercial and general aviation airports.

Six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system, Metrolink, run out of Downtown Los Angeles, connecting Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties with the other line connecting San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties directly.

Southern California is also home to the Port of Los Angeles, the United States' busiest commercial port; the adjacent Port of Long Beach, the United States' second busiest container port; and the Port of San Diego.

Airports[edit]

The following table shows all airports listed by the FAA as a hub airport:[31]

Airport ID City
(Metro area)
Category Enplanements
(2011) (mil)
Los Angeles International Airport LAX Los Angeles Large Hub 30.5m
San Diego International Airport SAN San Diego Large Hub 8.5m
John Wayne Airport SNA Orange County Medium Hub 4.2m
LA/Ontario International Airport ONT Los Angeles Medium hub 2.3m
Bob Hope Airport BUR Burbank (LA) Medium Hub 2.1m
Long Beach Airport LGB Long Beach (LA) Small Hub 1.5m
Palm Springs International Airport PSP Palm Springs Small Hub 0.8m
Santa Maria Public Airport SBA Santa Barbara Small Hub 0.4m
Sign at the Century Blvd. entrance to Los Angeles International Airport greets visitors
I-10, 215 Interchange traffic, downtown San Bernardino.

Freeways and highways[edit]

Sections of the Southern California freeway system are often referred to by names rather than by the official numbers

Interstate Highways
Sign Interstate Freeway name
I-5 (CA).svg Interstate 5 Golden State Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
San Diego Freeway
Montgomery Freeway
I-8 (CA).svg Interstate 8 Ocean Beach Freeway
Mission Valley Freeway
I-10 (CA).svg Interstate 10 Santa Monica (Rosa Parks) Freeway
Golden State Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Indio (Dr. June McCarroll) Freeway
Blythe Freeway
I-15 (CA).svg Interstate 15 Mojave Freeway
Barstow Freeway
Ontario Freeway
Corona Freeway
Temecula Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
I-105 (CA).svg Interstate 105 Century (Glenn Anderson) Freeway
I-110 (CA).svg Interstate 110 Harbor Freeway
I-210 (CA).svg Interstate 210 Foothill Freeway
I-215 (CA).svg Interstate 215 Barstow Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Moreno Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
I-405 (CA).svg Interstate 405 San Diego Freeway
I-605 (CA).svg Interstate 605 San Gabriel River Freeway
I-710 (CA).svg Interstate 710 Long Beach Freeway
I-805 (CA).svg Interstate 805 Jacob Dekema Freeway
I-905 (CA).svg Future Interstate 905
U.S. Highway system
Sign U.S. Route Freeway name
US 95 (CA).svg U.S. Route 95
US 101 (CA).svg U.S. Route 101 Ventura Freeway
Hollywood Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
El Camino Real
US 395 (CA).svg U.S. Route 395

Public transportation[edit]

Union Station is southern California's busiest rail station.
See: Category: Public transportation in Southern California

Communication[edit]

Map of some major area codes in Greater Los Angeles

Telephone area codes[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

The Tech Coast is a moniker that has gained use as a descriptor for the region's diversified technology and industrial base as well as its multitude of prestigious and world-renowned research universities and other public and private institutions. Amongst these include 5 University of California campuses (Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and San Diego); 12 California State University campuses (Bakersfield, Channel Islands, Dominguez Hills, Fullerton, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo); and private institutions such as the California Institute of Technology, Chapman University, the Claremont Colleges (Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, and Scripps College), Loma Linda University, Loyola Marymount University, Occidental College, Pepperdine University, University of Redlands, University of San Diego, and the University of Southern California.

Parks and recreation areas[edit]

  • Numerous parks provide recreation and open-space, some locations include:

Sports[edit]

Professional sports teams in Southern California include teams from the NFL (Los Angeles Rams, San Diego Chargers); NBA (Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Clippers); MLB (Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, San Diego Padres); NHL (Los Angeles Kings, Anaheim Ducks); and MLS (LA Galaxy).

Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs.

Major league sports teams in Southern California
Team Sport League Venue
Los Angeles Angels Baseball Major League Baseball Angel Stadium
Los Angeles Dodgers Dodger Stadium
San Diego Padres Petco Park
Los Angeles Clippers Basketball National Basketball Association Staples Center
Los Angeles Lakers
Los Angeles Rams Football National Football League Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
San Diego Chargers Qualcomm Stadium
Anaheim Ducks Ice hockey National Hockey League Honda Center
Los Angeles Kings Staples Center
LA Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer StubHub Center

From 2005 to 2014, there were two Major League Soccer teams in Los Angeles — the LA Galaxy and Chivas USA — that both played at the StubHub Center and were local rivals. However, Chivas were suspended following the 2014 MLS season, with a second MLS team scheduled to return in 2018.

College sports are also popular in southern California. The UCLA Bruins and the USC Trojans both field teams in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference, and there is a longtime rivalry between the schools.

Rugby is also a growing sport in southern California, particularly at the high school level, with increasing numbers of schools adding rugby as an official school sport.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy". Touring Topics. Los Angeles, California: Automobile Club of Southern California. 8 (2): 38–9. March 1916. 
  2. ^ Cooley, Timothy J. (2014). Surfing about Music. University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780520957213. 
  3. ^ [1970 Census of Population and Housing: Final Report. General demographic trends for metropolitan areas, California, p. 7]
  4. ^ "Megaregions". Retrieved October 1, 2014. 
  5. ^ The three metropolitan areas are:
    1. Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana (the second largest in the US),
    2. Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario (the Inland Empire) and
    3. San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos – see: United States metropolitan areas
  6. ^ [1] Archived March 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Yoon, Peter (August 7, 2006). "X Games Take a Turn for the Better". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  8. ^ Higgins, Matt (September 13, 2006). "Construction Stirs Debate on Effects on 'Perfect Wave'". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2008. 
  9. ^ Michael DiLeo, Eleanor Smith, Two Californias: The Truth about the Split-state Movement, Island Press, Covelo, California, 1983. pp. 9–30.
  10. ^ J. M. Guinn, HOW CALIFORNIA ESCAPED STATE DIVISION, The Quarterly, Volumes 5–6 By Historical Society of Southern California, Los Angeles County Pioneers of Southern California
  11. ^ Leilah Bernstein, "Then and Now" – Los Angeles Times, December 31, 1999, page 1 A library card is needed to access this link.
  12. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Los Angeles County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  13. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Diego County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  14. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Orange County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  15. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Riverside County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  16. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Bernardino County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  17. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Kern County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  18. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Ventura County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  19. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Santa Barbara County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  20. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Luis Obispo County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  21. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Imperial County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  22. ^ "USGS facts". data from Southern California Earthquake Center. Retrieved March 18, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Northridge Earthquake". http://nisee.berkeley.edu/northridge/. 2005. Retrieved 2013-12-11.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  24. ^ California Earthquake forecast – UCERF3 – USGS Factsheet (non-technical) Mar, 2015. predicts Earthquake risk for 30 years in California, California earthquake forecast.
  25. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 23, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  26. ^ "World Gazetteer; San Diego-Tijuana". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  27. ^ U.S. Census Bureau – Combined statistical area population and estimated components of change: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008
  28. ^ "California Coast, Los Angeles to San Diego Bay". 
  29. ^ Loucky, James (ed.). Transboundary policy challenges in the Pacific border regions of North America. University of Calgary Press. p. 8. ISBN 1-55238-223-0. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  30. ^ Peter J. Westwick, ed. Blue Sky Metropolis: The Aerospace Century in southern California Huntington Library/University of California Press
  31. ^ https://www.faa.gov/airports/planning_capacity/passenger_allcargo_stats/passenger/media/cy11_primary_enplanements.pdf
  32. ^ "Torrey Pines Gets Official School Status", Goff Rugby Report, November 19, 2014.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°00′N 117°00′W / 34.000°N 117.000°W / 34.000; -117.000