Southern California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"SoCal" and "Socal" redirect here. For other uses, see SoCal (disambiguation).
Southern California
Southern CaliforniaImages top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black's Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
Red: The eight traditionally included counties.Light red: San Luis Obispo and Kern counties in the expanded ten county definition.
Red: The eight traditionally included counties.
Light red: San Luis Obispo and Kern counties in the expanded ten county definition.
Country  United States
State  California
Counties Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura
Largest city Los Angeles
Population (2010) 22,680,010

Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost 10 counties.[1][2] The region is traditionally described as "eight counties," based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura.[3] The more extensive 10-county definition, including Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used based on historical political divisions.[1] Southern California is a major economic center for the state of California and the United States.

The eight- and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas, Nevada and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.[4]

Southern California includes the heavily built-up urban area stretching along the Pacific coast from Ventura through the Greater Los Angeles Area and down to Greater San Diego.

Southern California's population encompasses seven metropolitan areas (MSAs): the Los Angeles metropolitan area, consisting of Los Angeles County and Orange County; the Inland Empire, consisting of Riverside and San Bernardino counties; the San Diego metropolitan area; the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area; the Santa Barbara metropolitan area; the San Luis Obispo metropolitan area; and the El Centro area. Out of these, three are heavily populated areas: the Los Angeles metropolitan area with over 12 million inhabitants, the Inland Empire with over 4 million inhabitants, and the San Diego area with over 3 million inhabitants. For Combined Statistical Area (CSA) purposes, the Los Angeles metro area, the Inland Empire, and the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metro area are combined into one area called the Greater Los Angeles Area with a population of over 18 million people.

With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of California's population.

East of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada. South of Southern California is the Mexico–United States border.

Significance[edit]

Sunset in Venice, a district in Los Angeles

Within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas.[5] With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation.

Three Arch Bay in Laguna

Its counties of Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state and all are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.[6]

Universal Studios at Hollywood

The motion picture, television, and music industries are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a neighborhood within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, though moviemaking is spread throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area vs. being specifically centered in the Hollywood neighborhood. Headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company (which also owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony also run major record companies as well.

Southern California is also home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, and Body Glove are all headquartered here. Professional skateboarder Tony Hawk, professional surfers Rob Machado, Tim Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O'Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward, and professional snowboarder Shaun White live in Southern California. Some of the world's legendary surf spots are in Southern California as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, and Malibu, and it is second only to the island of Oahu in terms of famous surf breaks. Some of the world's biggest action sports events, including the X Games,[7] Boost Mobile Pro,[8] and the U.S. Open of Surfing , are all held in Southern California. Southern California is also important to the world of yachting. The annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachting's premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time.

The tech industry in the Los Angeles Area is known as Silicon Beach, where Snapchat, Dollar Shave Club, Dog Vacay and others are headquartered[9] and tech giants like Apple Inc., Google, and Salesforce.com and more have offices.

Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net.

Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches. The desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces.

Northern Boundary of Southern California[edit]

California counties below the thirty sixth standard parallel

Southern California is not a formal geographic designation, and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, California's north-south midway point lies at exactly 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles (18 km) south of San Jose; however, this does not coincide with popular use of the term. When the state is divided into two areas (Northern and Southern California), the term "Southern California" usually refers to the ten southernmost counties of the state. This definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties. Another definition for Southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary.

Topography of the border region

Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of Southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California, and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing Southern California from becoming its own separate slave state.

Subsequently, Californios (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery Southerners in the lightly populated "Cow Counties" of Southern California attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature and signed by the state governor John B. Weller. It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75 percent of voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado. This territory was to include all the counties up to the then much larger Tulare County (that included what is now Kings, most of Kern, and part of Inyo counties) and San Luis Obispo County. The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and the subsequent American Civil War led to the proposal never coming to a vote.[10][11]

In 1900, the Los Angeles Times defined Southern California as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura and Santa Barbara." In 1999, the Times added a newer county, Imperial, to that list.[12](subscription required)

The state is most commonly divided and promoted by its regional tourism groups, consisting of northern, central, and Southern California regions. The two American Automobile Association (AAA) Auto Clubs of the state, the California State Automobile Association, and the Automobile Club of Southern California, choose to simplify matters by dividing the state along the lines where their jurisdictions for membership apply, as either northern or Southern California, in contrast to the three-region point of view. Another influence is the geographical phrase South of the Tehachapis, which would split the Southern region off at the crest of that transverse range, but in that definition, the desert portions of north Los Angeles County and eastern Kern and San Bernardino Counties would be included in the Southern California region due to their remoteness from the central valley and interior desert landscape.

Population, Land Area & Population Density (07-01-2008 est.)
County
Ref.
Population
Land
mi²
Land
km²
Pop.
/mi²
Pop.
/km²
Los Angeles County[13] 9,862,049 4,060.87 10,517.61 2,428.56 937.67
San Diego County[14] 3,095,313 4,199.89 10,877.67 714.56 275.89
Orange County[15] 3,010,759 789.40 2,044.54 3,813.98 1,472.59
Riverside County[16] 2,100,516 7,207.37 18,667.00 291.44 112.53
San Bernardino County[17] 2,015,355 20,052.50 51,935.74 100.50 38.80
Kern County[18] 800,458 8,140.96 21,084.99 98.32 37.96
Ventura County[19] 797,740 1,845.30 4,779.31 432.31 166.92
Santa Barbara County[20] 405,396 2,737.01 7,088.82 148.12 57.19
San Luis Obispo County[21] 265,297 3,304.32 8,558.15 80.29 31.00
Imperial County[22] 163,972 4,174.73 10,812.50 39.28 15.17
Southern California 22,422,614 56,512.35 146,366.31 396.77 153.19
California 36,756,666 155,959.34 403,932.84 235.68 91.00

Urban landscape[edit]

Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts.

Southern California consists of a heavily developed urban environment, home to some of the largest urban areas in the state, along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped. It is the third most populated megalopolis in the United States, after the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the Northeastern megalopolis. Much of Southern California is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, and Riverside-San Bernardino, each of which is the center of its respective metropolitan area, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities. The urban area is also host to an international metropolitan region in the form of San Diego–Tijuana, created by the urban area spilling over into Baja California.

Traveling south on Interstate 5, the main gap to continued urbanization is Camp Pendleton. The cities and communities along Interstate 15 and Interstate 215 are so interrelated that Temecula and Murrieta have as much connection with the San Diego metropolitan area as they do with the Inland Empire. To the east, the United States Census Bureau considers the San Bernardino and Riverside County areas, Riverside-San Bernardino area as a separate metropolitan area from Los Angeles County. While many commute to Los Angeles and Orange Counties, there are some differences in development, as most of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties (the non-desert portions) were developed in the 1980s and 1990s. Newly developed exurbs formed in the Antelope Valley, north of Los Angeles, the Victor Valley, and the Coachella Valley with the Imperial Valley. Also, population growth was high in the Bakersfield-Kern County, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas.

The Downtown Los Angeles skyline seen at sunset on an October day. At 1,018 feet (310 m), 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower stands as the West Coast's tallest building since 1989.

Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types of Southern California

Southern California contains different types of climate, including Mediterranean, semi-arid and desert, with infrequent rain and many sunny days. Summers are hot or warm, and dry, while winters are mild, and rainfall is low or moderate depending on area. Although heavy rain can occur, it is unusual. This climatic pattern was alluded to in the 1990 Tony! Toni! Toné! hit song, It Never Rains (In Southern California). While snow is very rare in the Southwest of the state, it occurs occasionally in the Southeast region of the state.

Natural landscape[edit]

Autumn of 2008 in Southern California.

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, and into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California.

Introductory categories include:

Geography[edit]

Satellite view of Southern California, including the Channel Islands

Southern California is also divided into:

  • The Coastal Region, which is densely populated with more affluence than inland areas and includes the coastal interior valleys west of the coastal mountains with all of Orange County and portions of San Diego, Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and San Luis Obispo counties
  • The Desert Region, which is larger and sparsely populated with portions of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, and San Diego counties. The division between the Coastal Region and the Inland Empire/Imperial Valley winds along the backs of coastal mountain ranges such as the Santa Ana Mountains.
    • A related floristic province term is the Transmontane Region on the rain shadow side of the same mountain ranges, with the term "Southern California" including this zone geographically and when distinguishing all the 'southland' from northern California

Geographic features[edit]

View from La Jolla Cove in San Diego.
Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino County.
Yucca Valley after a winter storm in the Morongo Basin.
Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego.

Geology[edit]

Earthquakes[edit]

Northridge earthquake shake map

Each year, Southern California has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred have been greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15–20 have been greater than magnitude 4.0.[23] The magnitude 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake was particularly destructive, causing a substantial number of deaths, injuries, and structural collapses. It caused the most property damage of any earthquake in U.S. history, estimated at over $20 billion.[24]

Many faults are able to produce a magnitude 6.7+ earthquake, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce a magnitude 8.0 event. Other faults include the San Jacinto Fault, the Puente Hills Fault, and the Elsinore Fault Zone. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has released a California Earthquake forecast,[25] which models Earthquake occurrence in California.

Regions[edit]

Divisions[edit]

The Oceanside Pier on the San Diego County coast.

Southern California is divided culturally, politically, and economically into distinct regions, each containing its own culture and atmosphere, anchored usually by a city with both national and sometimes global recognition, which are often the hub of economic activity for its respective region and being home to many tourist destinations. Each region is further divided into many culturally distinct areas but as a whole combine to create the Southern California atmosphere.

*Part of multiple regions

Populace[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, Southern California has a population of 22,680,010. Despite a reputation for high growth rates, Southern California's rate grew less than the state average of 10.0 percent in the 2000s. This was due to California's growth becoming concentrated in the northern part of the state as result of a stronger, tech-oriented economy in the Bay Area and an emerging Greater Sacramento region.

Southern California consists of one Combined Statistical Area, eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas, one international metropolitan area, and multiple metropolitan divisions. The region is home to two extended metropolitan areas that exceed five million in population. These are the Greater Los Angeles Area at 17,786,419, and San Diego–Tijuana at 5,105,768.[26][27] Of these metropolitan areas, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, and Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metropolitan area form Greater Los Angeles;[28] while the El Centro metropolitan area and San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area form the Southern Border Region.[29][30] North of Greater Los Angeles are the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Bakersfield metropolitan areas.

Cities[edit]

Los Angeles (at 3.7 million people) and San Diego (at 1.3 million people), both in Southern California, are the two largest cities in all of California (and two of the eight largest cities in the United States). In Southern California there are also 12 cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 residents. Many of Southern California's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino and Riverside.

Counties[edit]

Economy[edit]

Industries[edit]

Southern California's economy is diverse and one of the largest in the United States. It is dominated and heavily dependent upon abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles are not nearly as dominant, being that the vast majority of transport runs on this fuel. Southern California is famous for tourism and Hollywood (film, television, and music). Other industries include software, automotive, ports, finance, tourism, biomedical, and regional logistics. The region was a leader in the housing bubble from 2001 to 2007, and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash.

Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum, and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands were turned into suburbs. Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor.[31]

Major central business districts[edit]

Irvine Taco Bell Headquarters

Southern California is home to many major business districts. Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown San Diego, Downtown San Bernardino and South Coast Metro. Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Los Angeles itself has many business districts, such as the Downtown Los Angeles CBD, as well as those lining the Wilshire Boulevard Miracle Mile, including Century City, Westwood, and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley. The area of Santa Monica and Venice (and perhaps some of Culver City) is informally referred to as "Silicon Beach" because of the concentration of financial and marketing technology-centric firms located in the region.

The San Bernardino-Riverside area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University Town which are in San Bernardino and Downtown Riverside.

Orange County is a rapidly developing business center that includes Downtown Santa Ana, the South Coast Metro, and Newport Center districts, as well as the Irvine business centers of The Irvine Spectrum, West Irvine, and international corporations headquartered at the University of California, Irvine. West Irvine includes the Irvine Tech Center and Jamboree Business Parks.

Downtown San Diego is the CBD of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego and some within North County regions.

Theme parks and waterparks[edit]

Los Angeles

Orange County

Riverside & San Bernardino

San Diego

Vinyard-Winery American Viticultural Area (AVA) districts[edit]

California wine AVA-American Viticultural Areas in Southern California:

Transportation[edit]

See: Category: Transportation in Southern California

Southern California's freeway system is the world's busiest.

Southern California is home to Los Angeles International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the United States by passenger volume (see World's busiest airports by passenger traffic) and the third by international passenger volume (see Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic); San Diego International Airport the busiest single runway airport in the world; Van Nuys Airport, the world's busiest general aviation airport; major commercial airports at Orange County, Bakersfield, Ontario, Burbank and Long Beach; and numerous smaller commercial and general aviation airports.

Six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system, Metrolink, run out of Downtown Los Angeles, connecting Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties with the other line connecting San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties directly.

Southern California is also home to the Port of Los Angeles, the United States' busiest commercial port; the adjacent Port of Long Beach, the United States' second busiest container port; and the Port of San Diego.

Airports[edit]

The following table shows all airports listed by the FAA as a hub airport:[32]

Airport ID City
(Metro area)
Category Enplanements
(2011) (mil)
Los Angeles International Airport LAX Los Angeles Large Hub 30.5m
San Diego International Airport SAN San Diego Large Hub 8.5m
John Wayne Airport SNA Orange County Medium Hub 4.2m
LA/Ontario International Airport ONT Los Angeles Medium hub 2.3m
Bob Hope Airport BUR Burbank (LA) Medium Hub 2.1m
Long Beach Airport LGB Long Beach (LA) Small Hub 1.5m
Palm Springs International Airport PSP Palm Springs Small Hub 0.8m
Santa Maria Public Airport SBA Santa Barbara Small Hub 0.4m
Sign at the Century Blvd. entrance to Los Angeles International Airport greets visitors
I-10, 215 Interchange traffic, downtown San Bernardino.

Freeways and highways[edit]

Sections of the Southern California freeway system are often referred to by names rather than by the official numbers

Interstate Highways
Sign Interstate Freeway name
I-5 (CA).svg Interstate 5 Golden State Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
San Diego Freeway
Montgomery Freeway
I-8 (CA).svg Interstate 8 Ocean Beach Freeway
Mission Valley Freeway
I-10 (CA).svg Interstate 10 Santa Monica (Rosa Parks) Freeway
Golden State Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Indio (Dr. June McCarroll) Freeway
Blythe Freeway
I-15 (CA).svg Interstate 15 Mojave Freeway
Barstow Freeway
Ontario Freeway
Corona Freeway
Temecula Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
I-105 (CA).svg Interstate 105 Century (Glenn Anderson) Freeway
I-110 (CA).svg Interstate 110 Harbor Freeway
I-210 (CA).svg Interstate 210 Foothill Freeway
I-215 (CA).svg Interstate 215 Barstow Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Moreno Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
I-405 (CA).svg Interstate 405 San Diego Freeway
I-605 (CA).svg Interstate 605 San Gabriel River Freeway
I-710 (CA).svg Interstate 710 Long Beach Freeway
I-805 (CA).svg Interstate 805 Jacob Dekema Freeway
I-905 (CA).svg Future Interstate 905
U.S. Highway system
Sign U.S. Route Freeway name
US 95 (CA).svg U.S. Route 95
US 101 (CA).svg U.S. Route 101 Ventura Freeway
Hollywood Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
El Camino Real
US 395 (CA).svg U.S. Route 395

Public transportation[edit]

Union Station is Southern California's busiest rail station.
See: Category: Public transportation in Southern California

Communication[edit]

Map of some major area codes in Greater Los Angeles

Telephone area codes[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

The Tech Coast is a moniker that has gained use as a descriptor for the region's diversified technology and industrial base as well as its multitude of prestigious and world-renowned research universities and other public and private institutions. Amongst these include 5 University of California campuses (Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and San Diego); 12 California State University campuses (Bakersfield, Channel Islands, Dominguez Hills, Fullerton, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo); and private institutions such as the California Institute of Technology, Chapman University, the Claremont Colleges (Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, and Scripps College), Loma Linda University, Loyola Marymount University, Occidental College, Pepperdine University, University of Redlands, University of San Diego, and the University of Southern California.

Parks and recreation areas[edit]

  • Numerous parks provide recreation and open-space, some locations include:

Sports[edit]

Professional sports teams in Southern California include teams from the NFL (Los Angeles Rams, San Diego Chargers); NBA (Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Clippers); MLB (Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, San Diego Padres); NHL (Los Angeles Kings, Anaheim Ducks); and MLS (LA Galaxy).

Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs. The Bruins and the Trojans both field teams in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference, and there is a longtime rivalry between the schools.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy". Touring Topics. Los Angeles, California: Automobile Club of Southern California. 8 (2): 38–9. March 1916. 
  2. ^ Cooley, Timothy J. (2014). Surfing about Music. University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780520957213. 
  3. ^ [1970 Census of Population and Housing: Final Report. General demographic trends for metropolitan areas, California, p. 7]
  4. ^ "Megaregions". Retrieved October 1, 2014. 
  5. ^ The three metropolitan areas are:
    1. Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana (the second largest in the US),
    2. Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario (the Inland Empire) and
    3. San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos – see: United States metropolitan areas
  6. ^ "California County Population Estimates" (PDF). California Department of Finance. 2009-01-07. Retrieved 2016-10-17. 
  7. ^ Yoon, Peter (August 7, 2006). "X Games Take a Turn for the Better". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  8. ^ Higgins, Matt (September 13, 2006). "Construction Stirs Debate on Effects on 'Perfect Wave'". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2008. 
  9. ^ "The 25 hot LA startups you need to watch". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016-12-08. 
  10. ^ DiLeo, Michael; Smith, Eleanor (1983). Two Californias: The Myths And Realities Of A State Divided Against Itself. Covelo, California: Island Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780933280168. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  11. ^ California, Historical Society of Southern; California, Los Angeles County Pioneers of Southern. The Quarterly. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  12. ^ "ProQuest". Retrieved 2016-10-17. 
  13. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Los Angeles County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  14. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Diego County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  15. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Orange County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  16. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Riverside County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  17. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Bernardino County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  18. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Kern County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  19. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Ventura County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  20. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Santa Barbara County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  21. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Luis Obispo County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  22. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Imperial County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  23. ^ "USGS facts". data from Southern California Earthquake Center. Retrieved March 18, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Northridge Earthquake". 2005. Retrieved 2013-12-11. [dead link]
  25. ^ "UCERF3: A New Earthquake Forecast for California's Complex Fault System" (PDF). USGS. 2015-03-03. Retrieved 2016-10-17. 
  26. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 23, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  27. ^ "World Gazetteer; San Diego-Tijuana". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  28. ^ [http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/files/2008/CSA-EST2008-alldata.csv
  29. ^ "California Coast, Los Angeles to San Diego Bay". 
  30. ^ Loucky, James (ed.). Transboundary policy challenges in the Pacific border regions of North America. University of Calgary Press. p. 8. ISBN 1-55238-223-0. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  31. ^ Peter J. Westwick, ed. Blue Sky Metropolis: The Aerospace Century in Southern California Huntington Library/University of California Press
  32. ^ "Calendar Year 2011 Primary Airports" (PDF). 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2016-10-17. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Deverell, William, and David Igler, eds. A companion to California history (John Wiley & Sons, 2013).
  • Fogelson, Robert M. The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850–1930 (1967), focus on planning, infrastructure, water, and business
  • Friedricks, William. Henry E. Huntington and the Creation of Southern California (1992), on Henry Edwards Huntington (1850–1927), railroad executive and collector, who helped build LA and Southern California through the Southern Pacific railroad and also trolleys.
  • Garcia, Matt. A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970. (2001). 330 pp.
  • Garcia, Mario T. "A Chicano Perspective on San Diego History," Journal of San Diego History (1972) 18#4 pp 14–21 online
  • Lotchin, Roger. Fortress California, 1910-1961 (2002) excerpt and text search, covers military and industrial roles
  • Mills, James R. San Diego: Where California Began (San Diego: San Diego Historical Society, 1960), revised edition online
  • O'Flaherty, Joseph S. An End and a Beginning: The South Coast and Los Angeles, 1850–1887. (1972). 222 pp.
  • O'Flaherty, Joseph S. Those Powerful Years: The South Coast and Los Angeles, 1887–1917 (1978). 356 pp.
  • Pryde, Philip R. San Diego: An Introduction to the Region (4th ed. 2004), a historical geography
  • Shragge, Abraham. "'A new federal city': San Diego during World War II," Pacific Historical Review (1994) 63#3 pp 333–61 in JSTOR
  • Starr, Kevin. The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s (1997) pp 90–114, covers 1880s-1940
  • Starr, Kevin. Golden Dreams: California in an Age of Abundance, 1950-1963 (2011) pp 57–87
  • Starr, Kevin. Coast of Dreams: California on the Edge, 1990-2003 (2004) 372-81

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°00′N 117°00′W / 34.000°N 117.000°W / 34.000; -117.000