Southern Command (United Kingdom)

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Southern Command
Southern Command (United Kingdom) Badge.jpg
Active 1793–1972
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Type Command
Size 62,000 troops
Garrison/HQ Portsmouth (1793-1901)
Tidworth Camp (1901-1949)
Fugglestone St Peter (1949-1972)

Southern Command was a Command of the British Army.

Nineteenth century[edit]

Government House, Grand Parade, Portsmouth, command headquarters from 1793 to 1826
Government House, High Street, Portsmouth, command headquarters from 1826 to 1882
Government House, Cambridge Road, Portsmouth, command headquarters from 1882 to 1901
Tidworth Camp, command headquarters from 1901 to 1949
Erskine Barracks, Fugglestone St Peter, command headquarters from 1949 to 1972

Great Britain was divided into military districts on the outbreak of war with France in 1793.[1] By the 1830s the command included the counties of Kent and Sussex (the original Southern District during the Napoleonic Wars) as well as Bedfordshire, Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire (the original South Inland District) and Hampshire, Wiltshire and Dorset (the original South-West District) and Gloucestershire, Worcestershire and Herefordshire (the original Severn District).[2]

The role of South-West District Commander, which was doubled hatted with that of Lieutenant-Governor of Portsmouth, was originally based at Government House in Grand Parade in Portsmouth.[3] This building became very dilapidated and a new Government House was established in the High Street in Portsmouth in 1826.[4][5] In January 1876 a ‘Mobilization Scheme for the forces in Great Britain and Ireland’ was published, with the ‘Active Army’ divided into eight army corps based on the District Commands. 5th Corps was to be formed within Southern Command, based at Salisbury. This scheme disappeared in 1881, when the districts were retitled ‘District Commands.[6] A third Government House, which was built in red brick on Cambridge Road in Portsmouth, was completed in 1882.[3]

Twentieth century[edit]

The 1901 Army Estimates introduced by St John Brodrick allowed for six army corps based on six regional commands. As outlined in a paper published in 1903, II Corps was to be formed in a reconstituted Southern Command, with HQ at Salisbury Plain.[7] Lieutenant General Sir Evelyn Wood was appointed acting General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOCinC) of Southern Command on 1 October 1901.[8] Southern Command was initially based at Tidworth Camp.[9]

First World War[edit]

At the end of 1914, Lieutenant General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien, the GOCinC, left Southern Command to form II Corps in France, and Lieutenant General William Campbell was placed in command.[10]

Second World War[edit]

In 1939 regular troops reporting to Southern Command included 1st Armoured Division, based at Andover, and 3rd Infantry Division, based at Bulford.[11] Other Regular Troops reporting to Southern Command at war time included:[11]

  • 8th Royal Tank Regiment
  • 9th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • 6th/23rd Field Battery, 12th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • 3rd Medium Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • 4th Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • 1st Survey Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • 2nd Survey Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • 2nd Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery

Post War[edit]

The command moved to Erskine Barracks near Fugglestone St Peter in Wiltshire in 1949.[12][13] It was merged into HQ UK Land Forces (HQ UKLF) in 1972.[14]

General Officers Commanding-in-Chief[edit]

GOCs and GOCinCs have included:[15][16][17]
General Officer Commanding South-West District

General Officer Commanding Southern District

Commander Second Army Corps

In 1901 Second Army Corps was formed, with South East District at Dover, Southern District at Portsmouth and Western District at Devonport under command.

General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Southern Command

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Burnham and Ron McGuigan, The British Army Against Napoleon: Facts, Lists and Trivia, 1805–1815 (2010) p. 7.
  2. ^ Adolphus, John (1818). "The political state of the British empire: Containing a General View of the Domestic and Foreign Possessions of the Crown; the Laws, Commerce, Revenues, Offices, and Other Establishments, Civil and Military". University of Michigan Library. p. 363. 
  3. ^ a b Quail, Sarah (2014). "Portsmouth in the Great War". Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1783462766. 
  4. ^ Smythies, p. 442
  5. ^ "Saxe Weimar Road" (PDF). Portsmouth Encyclopaedia. p. 316. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Army List 1876–1881.
  7. ^ Col John K. Dunlop, The Development of the British Army 1899–1914, London: Methuen, 1938.
  8. ^ "A command for Sir Evelyn Wood" The Times (London). Thursday, 5 September 1901. (36552), p. 4.
  9. ^ General Sir Ian Hamilton at the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives
  10. ^ "William Campbell". Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives. 
  11. ^ a b Patriot Files
  12. ^ 'Fugglestone St Peter', in A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 6 (1962), pp. 37-50 online
  13. ^ Subterranea Britannica
  14. ^ "Army Command Structure (United Kingdom)". Hansard. 17 December 1970. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  15. ^ Whitaker's Almanacks 1905 - 1972
  16. ^ Southern Command at Regiments.org
  17. ^ "Army Commands" (PDF). Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  18. ^ Henry Colburn, The United Service Magazine, vol. 29 (1839) p. 111.
  19. ^ "Wood, Sir (Henry) Evelyn (1838–1919), army officer". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/37000.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Sources[edit]