|Common languages||Late Middle Japanese|
• Fall of Kyoto
|February 23 1338|
• Re-unification of Imperial courts
|August 11 1392|
The Southern Court (南朝 Nanchō) were a set of four emperors (Emperor Go-Daigo and his line) whose claims to sovereignty during the Nanboku-chō period spanning from 1336 through 1392 were usurped by the Northern Court. This period ended with the Southern Court definitively losing the war, and they were forced to completely submit sovereignty to the Northern Court. This had the result that, while later Japanese sovereigns were descended from the Northern Court, posterity assigns sole legitimacy during this period to the Southern Court.
The Southern descendants are also known as the "junior line" and the Daikakuji line (大覚寺統 Daikakuji-tō), Daikaku-ji being the cloistered home of Go-Uda, a Southern ruler. Because it was based in Yoshino, Nara, it is also called the Yoshino court (吉野朝廷 Yoshino chōtei).
The genesis of the Northern Court go back to Emperor Go-Saga, who reigned from 1242 through 1246. Go-Saga was succeeded by two of his sons, Emperor Go-Fukakusa and Emperor Kameyama, who took turns on the throne. This was because on his death bed in 1272, Go-Saga had insisted that his sons adopt a plan in which future emperors from the two fraternal lines would ascend the throne in alternating succession. This plan proved to be unworkable, resulting in rival factions and rival claimants to the throne.
In 1333, when the Southern Emperor Go-Daigo staged the Kenmu Restoration and revolted against the Kamakura shogunate, the shōgun responded by declaring Emperor Kōgon, Go-Daigo's second cousin once removed and the son of an earlier emperor, Emperor Go-Fushimi of the Jimyōin-tō, as the new emperor. After the destruction of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, Kōgon lost his claim, but his brother, Emperor Kōmyō, and two of his sons were supported by the new Ashikaga shōguns as the rightful claimants to the throne. Kōgon's family thus formed an alternate Imperial Court in Kyoto, which came to be called the Northern Court because its seat was in a location north of its rival.
During the Meiji period, an Imperial decree dated March 3, 1911 established that the legitimate reigning monarchs of this period were the direct descendants of Emperor Go-Daigo through Emperor Go-Murakami, whose Southern Court had been established in exile in Yoshino, near Nara.
These are the Hokuchō or Northern Court emperors:
- Emperor Kōgon 1332–1333.
- Emperor Kōmyō 1336–1348.
- Emperor Sukō 1348–1351.
- Emperor Go-Kōgon 1352–1371.
- Emperor Go-En'yū 1371–1382.
- Emperor Go-Komatsu 1382–1392 (then went on to reign as legitimate emperor 1392–1412)
The Imperial Court supported by the Ashikaga shōguns was rivaled by the Southern Court of Go-Daigo and his descendants. This came to be called the Southern Court because its seat was in a location south of its rival. Although the precise location of the emperors' seat did change, it was often identified as simply Yoshino.
In 1392, Emperor Go-Kameyama of the Southern Court was defeated and abdicated in favor of Kōgon's great-grandson, Emperor Go-Komatsu, thus ending the divide. But the Northern Court was under the power of the Ashikaga shōguns and had little real independence. Partly because of this, since the 19th century, the Emperors of the Southern Imperial Court have been considered the legitimate Emperors of Japan. Moreover, the Southern Court controlled the Japanese imperial regalia. The Northern Court members are officially called pretenders.
One Southern Court descendant, Kumazawa Hiromichi, declared himself to be Japan's rightful Emperor in the days after the end of the Pacific War. He claimed that Emperor Hirohito was a fraud, arguing that Hirohito's entire line is descended from the Northern Court. Despite this, he was not arrested for lèse-majesté, even when donning the Imperial Crest. He could and did produce a koseki detailing his bloodline back to Go-Daigo in Yoshino, but his claims and rhetoric failed to inspire anything other than sympathy.
Southern Court emperors
These are the Nanchō or Southern Court emperors:
- Emperor Go-Daigo 1336–1339.
- Emperor Go-Murakami 1339–1368.
- Emperor Chōkei 1368–1383.
- Emperor Go-Kameyama 1383–1392.
Re-unification of Imperial Courts
Go-Kameyama reached an agreement with Go-Komatsu to return to the old alternations on a ten-year plan. However, Go-Komatsu broke this promise, not only ruling for 20 years, but being succeeded by his own son, rather than by one from the former Southern Court.
- Kanai, Madoka; Nitta, Hideharu; Yamagiwa, Joseph Koshimi (1966). A Topical History of Japan. UM Libraries. p. 42. UOM:39015005373116.
- Brownlee, John S. (2011). Japanese Historians and the National Myths. UBC Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7748-4254-9.
[A 1911 Japanese textbook reads: 'After 1336,] the Yoshino Court was called the Southern Court, and the Kyoto Court was called the Northern Court.'
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 245-247.
- Titsingh, pp. 248-255.
- Titsingh, pp. 255-261.
- Titsingh, p. 261.
- Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring modernity: concepts of nature in Japanese political ideology, p. 199 n57, citing Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. p. 140-147.
- Titsingh, pp. 286–289.
- Titsingh, pp. 294–298.
- Titsingh, pp. 298–301.
- Titsingh, pp. 302–309.
- Titsingh, pp. 310–316, 320.
- Titsingh, pp. 317–327.
- Dower, John W. (1999). Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II, pp. 306–307.
- Titsingh, pp. 281–295; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 241–269.
- Titsingh, pp. 295–308; Varley, pp. 269–270.
- Titsingh, p. 308; Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 158.
- Titsingh, p. 320.
- Dower, John W. (1999). Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1; OCLC 39143090
- Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-21160-8; OCLC 419870136
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring Modernity: Concepts of Nature in Japanese Political Ideology. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22854-2; OCLC 47916285
- (in French) Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. (written by Hayashi Gahō in 1652). Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 251800045
- Varley, H. Paul, ed. (1980). A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki (translated from the 1359 Kitabatake Chikafusa work). New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 311157159