Southern Norway

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Southern Norway
Lindesnes fyr
Kardemommeby in Kristiansand Zoo
Lista beach
Brekkestø in Lillesand
Mandal sentrum og Mandalselva.jpg
Descending, from top: Lindesnes fyr, Bystranda in Kristiansand, Kardemommeby in Kristiansand Zoo, The Lista beaches, Downtown Kristiansand, Flekkerøy outside Kristiansand, Arendal, Risør, Brekkestø in Lillesand, Mandal.
Collage of Sørlandet
Sorlandet in Norway (plus).svg
Coordinates: 58°36′N 7°48′E / 58.6°N 7.8°E / 58.6; 7.8Coordinates: 58°36′N 7°48′E / 58.6°N 7.8°E / 58.6; 7.8
County (fylke)Agder
 • Total16,434 km2 (6,345 sq mi)
 • Total277,250
 • Density17/km2 (44/sq mi)
Nominal GDP(2001)EUR 6 billion
Nominal GDP per capita (2001)EUR 24,000

Southern Norway (Norwegian: Sørlandet; lit. "The Southland") is the geographical region (landsdel) along the Skagerrak coast of southern Norway. The region is an informal description since it does not have any governmental function. It roughly corresponds to the old petty kingdom of Agder as well as the two former counties of Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder. From New Year 2020, the two counties have been merged into one county, Agder. The total combined area of Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder counties is 16,493 square kilometres (6,368 sq mi). The name is relatively new, having first been used in Norway around 1900.[1][2]

The region includes coastal areas along the Skagerrak and extends inland to the Setesdalsheiene mountains. There are many large valleys running from the mountains to the south and east to the sea. The highest point in the region is Sæbyggjenuten at 1,507 m (4,944 ft).[3][2]


Sørlandet refers to the region along the Skaggerak in southeastern Norway. This name should not be confused with the Norwegian term Sør-Norge which literally means South Norway (as opposed to North Norway). This region was historically called Agder and it was a petty kingdom centuries ago. The name Agder was known in Old Norse as "Agðir", and is assumed to be connected to the word ǫgd (sharp).[4]


Southern Norway is the "youngest" of the many old regions within Norway; it was established shortly after the region of Northern Norway. The name Sørlandet was first used by the author Vilhelm Krag.[1] Krag proposed that Sørlandet should have been bigger than it is today, he suggested from Egersund to Grenland. The present day use of Sørlandet usually refers to an area smaller than that, but there is no official border. All the way back in 1865, it was talked about "the southern Norway boats".

The name and modern concept of this part of the country being considered as a separate region was introduced as late as 1902 by the local author Vilhelm Krag. Prior to this, the area was considered part of Western Norway.[1] Southern Norway coincides roughly with the historic petty kingdom of Agder, which lends its name to the two constituent counties: Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder, as well as the University of Agder.

Religion in Southern Norway[5][6]
religion percent

If defined as an informal region, Southern Norway is perhaps more properly defined as the Skagerrak coastal belt, thus excluding the inland valleys to the north. Occasionally, adjacent parts of the county of Rogaland and Telemark might be considered part of this region, as well.

Traditionally, the easternmost border of Agder was Rygjarbit, which was thought to be Gjernestangen in the present-day municipality of Risør, but it could also be the strait between Askerøya and Lyngør in Tvedestrand.[7]


Historical population
Source: Statistics Norway [1][2].


The Arendal Airport, Gullknapp is a general aviation airport located outside of Arendal city. The airport was founded in 1984 with a 500-metre (1,600 ft) long runway. Arendal Airport, Rådhuskaien is a former water airport in the cove of downtown Arendal, but it is now closed.

Farsund Airport, Lista is a former public airport located with Lista. It opened in 1941 and closed in 1999. The airport was located at Lista. Mandal Airfield is a former military owned airport that is now closed.

Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik is the only public airport in Southern Norway, in 2014 there were over 1 million travelers from the airport. Kjevik Airport has destinations to charter places, European cities and some of the largest Norwegian cities. The Airport opened in 1918 and is located at Tveit, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from downtown Kristiansand, Kvadraturen. The IATA code is KRS and ICAO is ENCN. It is owned by Avinor. Kristiansand Airport, Kongsgårdbukta is a former water-airport located at Lund from 1934 to 1939. Kristiansand Naval Air Station is also a former water-airport located at Tangen from 1919 to 1949.


All bus lines and buses in Southern Norway are owned by Agder Kollektivtrafikk (AKT). Nettbuss serves the Kristiansand Region with local blue buses. In Kristiansand, the city buses are in service every day from 4:00 AM until 1:00 AM, extra night buses during the weekend and direct/extra buses during the rush hours. Setesdal Bilruter serves the Setesdal, Østre Agder, and Lillesand areas. Line 100 goes connects ArendalGrimstadLillesandKristiansand. Bus lines from Setesdal go to both Arendal and Kristiansand. Line 150 goes from Arendal to Tvedestrand and Risør. Sørlandsruta serves the coastal towns and villages in Vest-Agder county. Line 200 is the main line going from Kristiansand to Mandal, Vigeland, Lyngdal, and Farsund. Some of the buses collaborate with the local buses from Lyngdal to Flekkefjord and Kvinesdal.


The European route E18 highway goes through Aust-Agder county to the east side of Kristiansand. The E18 goes near the shore and coastal towns and ends at Kristiansand. The European route E39 highway starts at the Kristiansand ferry port where it connects to Denmark and from the ferry port it heads west through Vest-Agder county. The E39 also follows the shore and coastal towns all the way to Stavanger and beyond in Western Norway. Norwegian National Road 9 starts in Kristiansand and up to Evje and through Setesdal. Norwegian National Road 41 starts in Tveit in Kristiansand, and goes past the Airport, it continues to Birkenes and Åmli in Aust-Agder and continues to Telemark county. Norwegian County Road 43 goes from Farsund and Lista to Lyngdal and Eiken in Hægebostad.


From the Kristiansand harbour, there are ferries from Kristiansand to Hirtshals in Denmark three times daily. In Arendal, there are local ferries to the island of Tromøya.


Trains from Oslo to Stavanger go through the entire Southern Norway region. There are trains from Oslo Central Station to Kristiansand Station and from Stavanger Station to Kristiansand Station. From Nelaug Station there is a local train going to Arendal Station, since the main railroad runs inland and not along the coast at Arendal.


Key industries in Southern Norway are forestry, agriculture, and tourism. Tourism is very important in the summer due to the mild climate as well as the winter with its good skiing conditions. There are popular ski resorts like Hovden in the Setesdal valley as well as Bortelid in Åseral municipality. The farms in this region are generally small due to the topography. Dairy farming is the largest agricultural use, predominantly in Vest-Agder. The interior areas of the region tend to have more sheep farming than dairy. The most productive forests are in the interior of the region as well. The fishing industry is not very large in this region, but it does exist. Hydroelectric power generation is also a larger part of the economy in this region with many power stations on most of the larger river systems throughout the region.[2][8][9]

List of municipalities[edit]

About 80% of the population of the two counties live along the coast, which has the warmest climate in Norway as well as offering quick access to the rich fishing grounds and maritime routes of the Skagerrak.[2] In Southern Norway there are also a number of less populated inland municipalities. The list of the municipalities in Southern Norway are:

Coat of
City Admin.
Region Location County Photo Location
in Sørlandet
Kristiansand komm.svg Kristiansand Kvadraturen 87,446 Kristiansandregionen Coast Vest-Agder Kvadraturen, Kristiansand1.jpg NO 1001 Kristiansand.svg Bokmål
Arendal komm.svg Arendal Arendal 44,219 Østre Agder Coast Aust-Agder Arendal Trefoldighetskirke a.jpg NO 0906 Arendal.svg Bokmål
Grimstad komm.svg Grimstad Grimstad 20,497 Østre Agder Coast Aust-Agder Grimstad 078.jpg NO 0904 Grimstad.svg Bokmål
Mandal komm.svg Mandal Mandal 15,061 Lindesnesregionen Coast Vest-Agder Mandal. gjestehavn og bryggegata.JPG NO 1002 Mandal.svg Bokmål
Vennesla komm.svg Vennesla Vennesla 14,095 Kristiansandregionen Inland Vest-Agder Vennesla kirke.jpg NO 1014 Vennesla.svg Neutral
Søgne komm.svg Søgne Tangvall 11,217 Kristiansandregionen Coast Vest-Agder Søgne 01.jpg NO 1018 Søgne.svg Bokmål
Farsund komm.svg Farsund Farsund 9,433 Listerregionen Coast Vest-Agder Farsundd.jpg NO 1003 Farsund.svg Bokmål
Flekkefjord komm.svg Flekkefjord Flekkefjord 9,069 Listerregionen Coast Vest-Agder 2010-07-04 Flekkefjord hustak.jpg NO 1004 Flekkefjord.svg Bokmål
Lillesand komm.svg Lillesand Lillesand 9,040 Kristiansandregionen Coast Aust-Agder Lillesand-1.jpg NO 0926 Lillesand.svg Bokmål
Lyngdal komm.svg Lyngdal Alleen 8,335 Listerregionen Coast Vest-Agder Lyngdal City Hall.jpg NO 1032 Lyngdal.svg Bokmål
Risør komm.svg Risør Risør 6,894 Østre Agder Coast Aust-Agder Risor2.jpg NO 0901 Risør.svg Neutral
Songdalen komm.svg Songdalen Nodeland 6,354 Kristiansandregionen Inland Vest-Agder Greipstad.jpg NO 1017 Songdalen.svg Neutral
Kvinesdal komm.svg Kvinesdal Liknes 5,984 Listerregionen Coast Vest-Agder Liknes, Kvinesdal kommune 2010.jpg NO 1037 Kvinesdal.svg Neutral
Froland komm.svg Froland Blakstad 5,532 Østre Agder Inland Aust-Agder Krk-Froland.jpg NO 0919 Froland.svg Neutral
Lindesnes komm (2020).svg Lindesnes Vigeland 4,880 Lindesnesregionen Coast Vest-Agder 20090430-2058-09 - Vigeland.jpg NO 1029 Lindesnes.svg Bokmål
Birkenes komm.svg Birkenes Birkeland 4,689 Kristiansandregionen Inland Aust-Agder Mollestadeika.jpg NO 0928 Birkenes.svg Neutral
Evje og Hornnes komm.svg Evje og Hornnes Evje 3,567 Setesdal Inland Aust-Agder Fennefoss.jpg NO 0937 Evje og Hornnes.svg Neutral
Gjerstad komm.svg Gjerstad Gjerstad 2,478 Østre Agder Inland Aust-Agder Gjerstad kirke 20120826-16.JPG NO 0911 Gjerstad.svg Bokmål
Marnardal komm.svg Marnardal Heddeland 2,294 Lindesnesregionen Inland Vest-Agder NO 1021 Marnardal.svg Neutral
Vegårshei komm.svg Vegårshei Myra 2,018 Østre Agder Inland Aust-Agder Vegårshei kirke.jpg NO 0912 Vegårshei.svg Neutral
Sirdal komm.svg Sirdal Tonstad 1,838 Listerregionen Inland Vest-Agder NO 1046 Sirdal.svg Neutral
Åmli komm.svg Åmli Åmli 1,832 Østre Agder Inland Aust-Agder Åmli Nidelva bro.JPG NO 0929 Åmli.svg Nynorsk
Audnedal komm.svg Audnedal Konsmo 1,750 Lindesnesregionen Inland Vest-Agder NO 1027 Audnedal.svg Neutral
Hægebostad komm.svg Hægebostad Tingvatn 1,693 Lindesnesregionen Inland Vest-Agder NO 1034 Hægebostad.svg Nynorsk
Iveland komm.svg Iveland Birketveit 1,315 Kristiansandregionen Inland Aust-Agder NO 0935 Iveland.svg Neutral
Valle komm.svg Valle Valle 1,251 Setesdal Inland Aust-Agder NO 0940 Valle.svg Nynorsk
Bygland komm.svg Bygland Bygland 1,189 Setesdal Inland Aust-Agder NO 0938 Bygland.svg Nynorsk
Bykle komm.svg Bykle Bykle 933 Setesdal Inland Aust-Agder Bygland and Jordalsboe.JPG NO 0941 Bykle.svg Nynorsk
Åseral komm.svg Åseral Kyrkjebygda 925 Lindesnesregionen Inland Vest-Agder NO 1026 Åseral.svg Nynorsk

Image gallery[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Store norske leksikon. "Sørlandet – landsdel" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2010-04-15.
  2. ^ a b c d The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ed. (2009-10-22), "Sorlandet", Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., retrieved 2016-12-31
  3. ^ "Sæbyggjenuten - Sørlandets høyeste punkt" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  4. ^ Thorsnæs, Geir. "Agder" (in Norwegian). Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  5. ^ Statistics Norway - Church of Norway. Archived 2012-07-16 at
  6. ^ Statistics Norway - Members of religious and life stance communities outside the Church of Norway, by religion/life stance. County. 2006-2010
  7. ^ Store norske leksikon. "Rygjarbit" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  8. ^ Store norske leksikon. "Aust-Agder" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-12-31.
  9. ^ Store norske leksikon. "Vest-Agder" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-12-31.

External links[edit]