Culture of the Southern United States
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2014)|
The Culture of the Southern United States, or Southern Culture, is a subculture of the United States. The combination of its unique history and the fact that many Southerners maintain—and even nurture—an identity separate from the rest of the country has led to its being the most studied and written-about region of the U.S.
"More than any other part of America, the South stands apart. Thousands of Northerners and foreigners have migrated to it ... but Southerners they will not become. For this is still a place where you must have either been born or have 'people' there, to feel it is your native ground.
"Natives will tell you this. They are proud to be Americans, but they are also proud to be Virginians, South Carolinians, Tennesseeans, Mississippians and Texans. But they are conscious of another loyalty too, one that transcends the usual ties of national patriotism and state pride. It is a loyalty to a place where habits are strong and memories are long. If those memories could speak, they would tell stories of a region powerfully shaped by its history and determined to pass it on to future generations."
— Tim Jacobson, 'Heritage of the South'
Southern culture has been and remains generally more socially conservative than that of the rest of the country. Because of the central role of agriculture in the antebellum economy, society remained stratified according to land ownership, and communities often developed strong attachment to their churches as the primary community institution.
- 1 History
- 2 People
- 3 Religion
- 4 Southern dialect
- 5 Regional variations
- 6 Cuisine
- 7 Literature
- 8 Music
- 9 Sports
- 10 Film
- 11 Television
- 12 Popular images of Southerners
- 13 Art
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
- 17 Further reading
Slavery in the United States had a major role in shaping the south, its agricultural practices, the American Civil War, and segregation in the United States. The presence and practices of Native Americans and the landscape also played a role in southern culture. The climate is conducive to growing tobacco, cotton, and other crops, and the red clay in many areas was used for the distinctive red brick architecture of many commercial buildings.
In the time of their conception, the predominant cultural influence on the Southern states was that of the English colonists who established the original English colonies in the region. In the 17th century, most were of Southern English origins, mostly from regions such as Kent, East Anglia and the West Country who settled mostly on the coastal regions of the South but pushed as far inland as the Appalachian mountains by the 18th century. In the 18th century, large groups of Scots lowlanders, Northern English and Ulster-Scots (later called the Scots-Irish) settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont. Following them were larger numbers of English indentured servants from across the English Midlands and Southern England, they would be the largest group to settle in the Southern Colonies during the colonial period. They were often called "crackers", a term associated with the cowboys of Georgia and Florida. Before the American Revolution, the term was applied by the English, as a derogatory epithet for the non-elite settlers of the southern backcountry. This usage can be found in a passage from a letter to the Earl of Dartmouth, "I should explain ... what is meant by Crackers; a name they have got from being great boasters; they are a lawless set of rascals on the frontiers of Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia, who often change their places of abode." Most Southerners today are of partial or majority English and Scots-Irish ancestry. In previous censuses, over a third of Southern responders identified as being of English or partly English ancestry with 19,618,370 self-identifying as "English" on the 1980 census, followed by 12,709,872 identifying as Irish, 11,054,127 as Afro-American, and 10,742,903 as German. It should also be noted that those who did identify themselves of German ancestry were almost exclusively found in the northern border areas of the region which are adjacent to the American Mid-West. Those from the Tidewater area identified themselves almost exclusively as of English origins, while those from the Piedmont areas were a mixture of English, Scotch-Irish, Scottish and Irish origins. South Georgia has a large Irish presence, the ancestors of whom were largely at one time Roman Catholic; however, many were converted to various Protestant sects due to the lack of a missionary presence of the Catholic church in the 18th and 19th centuries. The predominance of Irish surnames in South Georgia has been noted by American historians for some time.
The other primary population group in the South is made up of the African American descendants of the slaves brought into the South. African Americans comprise the United States'largest racial minority, accounting for 13.6 percent of the total population according to the 2010 census. Despite Jim Crow era outflow to the North (see Great Migration (African American)), the majority of the black population has remained concentrated in the southern states, and blacks have been returning to the South in large numbers since the end of formal segregation (see New Great Migration).
People of many nationalities established communities in the American South. Some examples are the German American population of the Edwards Plateau of Texas, whose ancestors arrived in the region in the 1840s. German cultural influence continues to be felt in cities like New Braunfels, Texas near Austin and San Antonio  Much of the population of Louisiana and coastal Mississippi and Alabama traces its primary ancestry to French colonists of the 18th century. Also important is the French community of New Orleans, Louisiana dating back to the 1880s.
To this day most Southerners adhere to denominations of Protestant Christianity with origins in Great Britain such as Baptist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian and Methodist. Part of the South is known as the "Bible Belt", because of the prevalence there of evangelical Protestantism. South Florida has a large Jewish element that migrated from New York. Immigrants from Southeast Asia and South Asia have brought Buddhism and Hinduism to the region as well. (For more information, see Charles Reagan Wilson, Southern Spaces, March 16, 2004). Most Southerners attend church on a regular basis.
In the colonial period and early 19th century the First Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening transformed Southern religion. The evangelical religion was spread by religious revivals led by local lay Baptist ministers or itinerant Methodist ministers. They fashioned the nation's "Bible Belt."
After the Revolution, the Anglican Church of England was disestablished (meaning it no longer received local tax money) and was reorganized as the nationalised Protestant Episcopal Church of the USA. The Revolution turned more people toward Methodist and Baptist preachers in the South. The Cane Ridge Revival and subsequent "camp-meetings" on the Kentucky and Tennessee frontiers were the impetus behind the Restoration Movement. Traveling preachers used music and song to convert new members. Shape-note singing became a fundamental part of camp meetings in frontier regions. In the early decades of the 18th century, the Baptists in the South reduced their challenge to class and race. Rather than pressing for freedom for slaves, they encouraged planters to improve treatment of them, and ultimately used the Bible to justify slavery.
In 1845, the Southern Baptist Convention separated from other regions. Baptist and Methodist churches proliferated across the Tidewater region, usually attracting common planters, artisans and workers. The wealthiest planters continued to be affiliated with the Episcopal Church. By the beginning of the Civil War, the Baptist and Methodist churches had attracted the most members in the South, and their churches were most numerous in the region. Today, probably more than any other region of any developed nation, the South has a high concentration of evangelical and fundamentalist Christian adherents.
Historically Catholic colonists were primarily those from Spain and France who settled in coastal areas of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. Today, there are significant Roman Catholic populations along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico (especially the port cities of New Orleans, Biloxi, Pensacola and Mobile), which preserve the continuing (and broadly popularized) Catholic traditions of Carnival at the beginning of Lent in Mardi Gras parades and related customs. Elsewhere in the region, Catholics are typically a minority and of mainly Irish, German and French or modern Hispanic ancestry.
Atlanta, Georgia, in comparison to some other Southern cities had a relatively small Roman Catholic population prior to the 1990s . The population has been growing rapidly since then. The number of Catholics grew from 292,300 members in 1998 to 900,000 members in 2010, an increase of 207 percent. The population is expected to top 1 million by 2011. The increase is fueled by Catholics moving to Atlanta from other parts of the U.S. and the world, and from newcomers to the church. About 16 percent of all metropolitan Atlanta residents are Catholic, comparable to many of Midwestern metropolitan areas.
Raleigh, North Carolina also has a rapidly growing number of Catholics, with Catholicism having the largest number of affiliates out of any other religious group (11.3%) and the second largest number in Wake County (22%).
Maryland, which was settled by the British, is historically Catholic as well and many historians believe it was named after the Queen Henrietta Maria by Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron of Baltimore. Maryland was the only Roman Catholic British colony in the Americas, and was considered a refuge for England's Roman Catholic minority which was being persecuted by the Church of England. When William of Orange rose to power in England, Catholicism was outlawed in Maryland, causing a decrease in the number of practicing Catholics. In the 1840s, the Catholic population rebounded with the mass immigration of Irish due to the Great Potato Famine. Maryland also became home to many Polish and Italian immigrants.
In general, the inland regions of the Deep South and Upper South, such as Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama were less attractive to immigrants and have stronger concentrations of Baptists, Methodists, Churches of Christ and other Protestant or non-Catholic fellowships. Eastern and northern Texas are heavily Protestant, while the southern and western parts of the state are predominantly Catholic.
The city of Charleston, South Carolina, has had a significant Jewish population since the colonial period. The first were Sephardic Jews who had been living in London or on the island of Barbados. They were connected to Jewish communities in New England as well. The community figured prominently in the history of South Carolina. Richmond also had a Sephardic Jewish community before the Revolution. They built the first synagogue in Virginia about 1791. New Orleans also historically (and in the present day) has a significant Jewish community.
The South Florida area is home to the nation's second largest concentration of Jewish Americans outside New York, most of them early 20th century migrants and descendants from the Northeast. They were descendants of Ashkenazi Jews from Germany, Russia, Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe. Twentieth-century migration and business development have brought significant Jewish and Muslim communities to most major business and university cities, such as Miami, Atlanta, Dallas, Houston and more recently, Charlotte.
Southern American English is a group of dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from West Virginia and Kentucky to the Gulf Coast, and from the mid-Atlantic coast to throughout most of Texas and Oklahoma.
Southern dialects make up the largest accent group in the United States. Southern American English can be divided into different sub-dialects, with speech differing between regions. African American Vernacular English (AAVE) shares similarities with Southern dialect due to African Americans' strong historical ties to the region.
It has been said that Southerners are most easily distinguished from other Americans by their speech, both in terms of accent and idiom. However, there is no single "Southern Accent." Rather, Southern American English is a collection of dialects of the English spoken throughout the South. Southern American English can be divided into different sub-dialects, with speech differing between, for example, that of Appalachian region and the coastal "low country" around Charleston, South Carolina. Folklorists in the 1920s and later argued that because of the region's isolation, Appalachian language patterns more closely mirrored Elizabethan English than other accents in the United States. The dialect spoken to various degrees by many African Americans, African American Vernacular English (AAVE), shares many similarities with Southern dialect, unsurprising given that group's strong historical ties to the South.
While traces of African language remain in AAVE, there are a few distinctively African dialect groups in the South, the Gullah the most famous among them. Gullah is still spoken by some African Americans in the Low Country of South Carolina, Georgia and Northeast Florida, particularly the older generation. Also called Geechee in Georgia, the language and a strongly African culture developed because of the people's relative isolation in large communities, and continued importation of slaves from the same parts of Africa. As the enslaved people on large plantations were relatively undisturbed by whites, Gullah developed as a creole language, based on African forms. Similarly the people kept many African forms in religious rituals, foodways and similar transportable culture, all influenced by the new environment in the colonies. Other, less known African American dialect groups are the rural blacks of the Mississippi Basin, and Africantown near Mobile, Alabama, where the last known ship to arrive in the Americas with slaves was abandoned in 1860.
There are several other unique linguistic enclaves in the American South. Among them is that of Tangier Island, Virginia, as well as the Outer Banks, which some scholars claim preserves a unique English dialect from the colonial period. The New Orleans or "Yat" dialect is similar to Northeastern port city accents because of an influx of German and Irish immigrants similar to those of the Northeast. Many are familiar with the French-based Cajun French that is spoken in the southern half of Louisiana.
The US South also contains many indigenous languages from the Native American Muskogean, Caddoan, Siouan–Catawban, Iroquoian, Algonquian, Yuchi, Chitimacha, Natchez, Tunica, Adai, Timucua and Atakapa families. The historical record seems to suggest a picture of great linguistic diversity (similar to California) although most languages mentioned were not documented. Several southeastern languages have become extinct and all are endangered. The influence of native languages has led to distinct Indian varieties of English.
There continues to be debate about what constitutes the basic elements of Southern culture. This debate is influenced partly because the South is such a large region. As a result, there are a number of cultural variations among states in the region.
Among the variations found in Southern culture are:
- The lowland South was first settled by the English in the Chesapeake colonies of Virginia and Maryland, and South Carolina. This was the first area developed as plantations for cash crops of tobacco, rice and indigo. Later, cotton, and hemp became important cash crops, as well. Planters imported large numbers of Africans as slave labor. The coastal areas were dominated by wealthy planters, who controlled local government.
- Historical, political, and cultural divisions continue to divide the "upcountry" or "hill" culture of the Appalachian and Ozark mountain regions from that of low-lying areas such as the Virginia Tidewater, Gulf Coast, the Low Country of South Carolina and the Mississippi Delta. By contrast, farmers in the hill country cultivated land for subsistence, and few held slaves. The hill country's population has chiefly Scots-Irish and northern English ancestry. Because they were chiefly yeoman farmers, many upland areas did not support the Confederate cause during the American Civil War (see Andrew Johnson). Those in the hill country continued to support the Republican Party when the remainder of the white South supported Democrats.
- Areas having experienced a large influx of newcomers typically have been less likely to hold onto a distinctly Southern identity and cultural influences. For this reason, urban areas during the Civil War were less likely to favor secession than agricultural areas. Today, partly because of continuing population migration patterns between urban areas in the North and South, historically "Southern" larger urban areas, such as Atlanta, Austin, Charlotte, Raleigh-Durham, Richmond, Jacksonville, Dallas and Houston, have assimilated modern metropolitan identities distinct from their historic "Southern" heritage. However, while these metropolitan areas have had their original southern culture somewhat diluted, they nonetheless have largely preserved their distinct "Southern" identity.
- Over the past half-century, numerous Latinos have migrated to the American South from Latin America, most notably in the cases of Texas and Florida. Urban areas such as Atlanta, New Orleans and Nashville have seen a major increase in Latino immigrants over the past ten to fifteen years. Factory and agribusiness jobs have also attracted Mexican and Latin American workers to more rural regions of the South.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015)|
Florida is a unique state. There is a popular saying in Florida that "The North is in the South, and the South is in the North" or "The more north you go the more Southern it gets." This refers to the vast cultural difference between peoples of North and South Florida. Despite being the most geographically southeastern state, it has experienced such rapid population growth from regions outside of the traditional South that it is sometimes no longer considered to be "culturally Southern" in some areas (especially true of South Florida). However, this depends on the area of the state. For example, while the culturally Southern Florida Panhandle counts for only 7% of the state's population, largely non-Southern South Florida accounts for a full third of the state's population, with Miami-Dade County (where a majority of residents were born outside of the United States) alone having approximately twice as many residents as the entire Panhandle.
North Floridians commonly are staunch defenders of their southern heritage, often noting that they were the third state after South Carolina and Mississippi to secede from the Union prior to the US Civil War and also that Tallahassee was the only capital east of the Mississippi never captured by Union forces during the war, solidifying their placement within traditional southern culture. Florida and Oklahoma are the only two states in the Census-defined South in which the largest ancestry group is German-American, as opposed to the "American" ancestry that is most common in the South among whites; in this manner, these states more closely resemble states of the Midwest and Mountain West than they do Southern states. While Southern American English is the dominant dialect across the entire South, this accent is largely absent from South Florida unlike certain areas in the western, northern, and central regions of the state and other rural areas.
The religious composition of Florida is also highly atypical for the South; Florida, Louisiana, Maryland and Texas are the only Census-defined Southern states in which Catholics outnumber Southern Baptists. Florida has the largest Jewish population by a significant margin among Census-defined Southern states.
The least "Southern" part of the state is South Florida, which has been transformed by the rapid influx of Northern migrants and immigration from (especially) Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe, and Asia. Miami-Dade County is the only county in the entire United States in which a majority (51.4%) of residents were born outside of the country, with Broward, Palm Beach and Monroe counties all having far more transplanted residents than native-born Floridians. The northern, central and rural areas are more "southern", with such areas as most of Central Florida, the Florida Panhandle, and the Florida Heartland demonstrating the typical Southern culture (i.e. the South is in the North).
With its northern border at the confluence of the Upper South and the Midwest, Kentucky demonstrates multiple cultural influences. A study in the 1990s revealed that 79% of Kentuckians agreed they were living within the south. The study also showed that 84 percent of Texans, and 82 percent of Virginians believe they live in the south. Between 80–90% of residents in Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Tennessee, Arkansas, Georgia and the Carolinas described themselves as southerners. This is likely because regional identification often varies dramatically within Kentucky. For example, many consider northern Kentucky to be the most Midwestern region as it shares culture with Cincinnati. Studies show that a significant minority of people in Northern Kentucky still identify with the South. Conversely, southern Ohio and southern Indiana are highly Southern in comparison to most of the Midwest, as is the "little Egypt" region of southern Illinois.
Some sources treat Southern Indiana as essentially the upper tip of Upland South culture while others maintain that Southern culture, while significant, is not dominant in the region. Louisville is viewed as culturally and economically Midwestern in some analyses, because it rapidly industrialized during the late 19th century (although not to the same extent as most northern cities), as opposed to the slow industrialization that occurred in the South. Other observers consider Louisville to be southern culturally, due to dialect and various other aspects of culture. It is often described as both "the Gateway to the South" and "the northernmost Southern city and southernmost Northern city." Unlike the remainder of the state, Louisville, Covington, and Newport received large amounts of German immigrants due to manufacturing interests on the Ohio river, thus making the culture there somewhat distinct from the rest of the state. Had Kentucky been a free-state, prior to the Civil War, it would have likely drawn more German immigration, as there was usually a relatively small number of slaves in the areas where Germans did settle.
While varying degrees of southern cultural influence can be found in Kentucky inside the Cincinnati area and Louisville, smaller cities such as Owensboro, Bowling Green, Hopkinsville and Paducah, together with most of the state's rural areas, have continued to be more distinctly Southern in character. Outside of those two specific areas, southern culture, dialect, mannerisms, etc. are prominent. Southern cuisine is quite common across the state. Western Kentucky is famous for a regional style of southern barbecue, and other forms of southern food such as catfish, country ham, greens beans etc. can also be found. Today most of the state, outside of Northern Kentucky, shares a cultural identity with Tennessee and the rest of the Upland South in ancestry, dialect, and various other aspects of culture.
The state was first colonized by France and Spain rather than Great Britain, which gave it a different form of law and other distinct cultural traditions. The French, Spanish, Cajun, Creole, African, and Caribbean-influenced culture is especially strong in the southern portion of the state. Coastal Mississippi and Mobile, Alabama, were both part of early French colonial Louisiana; both areas retain strong traces of Louisiana culture which is evident in local cuisine such as gumbo and local celebrations such as Mardi Gras. Beaumont, Texas, was not originally a part of Louisiana but was settled by many Cajuns who relocated there in the early 20th century to take jobs in the oil fields. These areas are all considered as "culturally Louisiana."
In the antebellum years, a significant population of free people of color or Creoles of color, as opposed to white Creoles known as French Creoles, had formed in New Orleans, in part because of the system of plaçage during the colonial period. Many became educated, had their own businesses, and owned property. They formed a distinct third class between Europeans Americans and enslaved Africans, although their freedoms were reduced after the Louisiana Purchase and imposition of Americans' binary racial views.
Together with the cosmopolitan views of an international seaport, Roman Catholics in metropolitan New Orleans had relatively tolerant attitudes toward alcohol consumption, gambling, and prostitution in contrast to the outwardly conservative, sometimes evangelical, Protestant beliefs of many in the Deep South.
Some say that the most recent shift in Southern cultural influence and demographics has occurred in North Carolina. The state's metropolitan areas, notably that of the Research Triangle, have a more liberal tendency, while the rural piedmont, coastal and appalachian regions remain strongly conservative.
Many new residents have come for work from the North and Midwest, especially from the New York City and Cleveland metropolitan areas. The Charlotte and Raleigh-Durham areas have attracted the most new residents because of economic growth: banking/finance in Charlotte; universities and high-tech in Raleigh-Durham. The Asheville area has attracted more retirees.
In addition to Northerners, the job markets in North Carolina's three largest metropolitan regions — Charlotte, Raleigh-Durham and the Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point Piedmont Triad — have also attracted large and growing Latino and Asian American immigration and migration. A report released by the Brookings Institution in May 2006 entitled Diversity Spreads Out, noted that the Charlotte metro area ranked second nationally with a 49.8% growth rate in its Hispanic population between 2000 and 2004. The Raleigh-Durham metro area followed in third place with a 46.7% rate of growth.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2015)|
The United States Census Bureau, Oklahoma classifies Oklahoma as part of the southern United States. Other sources describe it as a transition zone from the South to the West. Before being admitted as a state in 1907, Oklahoma was known as "Indian Territory." It was the site where the Five Civilized Tribes were relocated after having been removed from areas east of the Mississippi River, most of them from the South. The "Five Civilized Tribes" are the Seminoles, Creeks, Chickasaws, Choctaws and Cherokees. The majority of the Native American tribes in Indian Territory sided with the Confederacy during the Civil War, in part because many of them had slaveholding members. Indian Territory maintained a non-voting delegate in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. Southeastern parts of Oklahoma are sometimes referred to as "Little Dixie" due to the strong Southern cultural ties and characteristics found there.
Oklahoma has the nation's largest Native American population. Its cultural heritage is both southern and western. Oklahoma is home of the Gilcrease Museum, which houses the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art of the American West. This includes Native American art and artifacts and historical manuscripts, documents and maps. Oklahoma is sometimes described as being part of the "Great Southwest". Because of its geographic location, eastern Oklahoma is more connected to southern culture than areas in the western half.
Because of its size and unique history, particularly having once been Mexican territory, and later a nation in its own right (i.e. the Republic of Texas), Texas' modern-day relationship to the rest of the South is often a subject of debate and discussion. It has been described as "a Southern state, certainly, yet not completely in or of the South." The size and cultural distinctiveness of Texas prohibit easy categorization of the entire state into any recognized region. Geographic, economic and cultural diversity among regions of the state preclude treating Texas as a region in its own right. Notable extremes range from East Texas, which is often considered an extension of the Deep South, to Far West Texas, which is generally acknowledged to be part of the interior Southwest.
The upper Texas Panhandle and the South Plains areas of West Texas do not easily fit into either category. The former has much in common both culturally and geographically with Midwestern states like Kansas and Nebraska. The South Plains, though originally settled primarily by Anglo Southerners, has become a blend of both Southern and Southwestern culture due to rapidly increasing Hispanic population.
The larger cities of Texas, such as Austin, Dallas and Houston—with their burgeoning knowledge-based economies—have attracted migrants from other regions of the United States, particularly the Midwest and West Coast. Combined with the influence of increasing numbers from Latin America and Asia, the historic "Southern culture" has been transformed.
However—partly due to its membership in the Confederacy and history as part of the Solid South—and the fact much of the state is in the Bible Belt—it is usually considered more of a Southern than a Western state. Also, linguistic maps of Texas place most of it within the spheres of upper, mid- and Gulf- Southern dialects, helping to further identify the state as being essentially Southern (use of Southern colloquialisms such as y'all and ain't are still very much widespread in Texas).
Northern Virginia has attracted many internal migrants coming for job opportunities with the federal government and related businesses during and after World War II, due to the emergence and expansion of the Northeast Megalopolis. More expansion resulted from the dot-com bubble around the start of the 21st century. Economically linked to Washington, D.C., residents of the northern part of the state tend to consider its culture more Mid-Atlantic than Southern. The rest of the state is considered more southern in culture, with its capital, Richmond, also having served as the capital of the Confederacy. Overall, however, based on a study from the late 1990s, 82% of Virginians believe they live in the south and most identify more with the South than with any other region.
The formation of West Virginia in 1863 underlined the old divide between the highlands and the rest of the South. West Virginia is classified by the Census Bureau as a southern state. Its peculiar geographic shape means that the northernmost tip is at about the same latitude as central New Jersey, while its southern extreme runs farther south than two thirds of Virginia. The northernmost part of the state, as well as a number of northern non-panhandle cities, such as Morgantown, about an hour's drive from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, have become exurbs of the former industrial city, resulting in a less "Southern" culture.
The easternmost tip of the state is close enough to Washington, D.C. that it is becoming an exurb of that area with a unique North-South "hybrid" culture. The Census Bureau classifies the two easternmost counties, Berkeley and Jefferson, as part of the larger Washington Metropolitan Area.
Huntington, near the state's boundary with Ohio and Kentucky, is sometimes identified with the Rust Belt. It has more of a Southern climate and environment compared to the state's Northern Panhandle and North-Central regions.
Lastly, Bluefield and other towns on the southern border of West Virginia are less than a 3-hour drive (170 miles) to Charlotte, North Carolina. They are only an hour and a half (70 miles) to the North Carolina border. For residents of such areas, Charlotte is their closest major city.
West Virginia was created from 50 western counties of Virginia during the Civil War. Although two-thirds of the territory of the proposed state consisted of secessionist counties, the Wheeling Unionists were successful in guiding their statehood bill through Congress. It was signed by President Lincoln. Because of the confusing circumstances of the state's creation, some do not consider West Virginia to be part of the South. People in West Virginia have typically shared ancestry and heritage with the Appalachian culture that extends down the spine of a large swath of the backcountry South.
Similar to other Border States, Maryland has regions that are culturally Southern. Prior to the second half of the 20th Century, Maryland was largely Southern. However, after the economic growth and demographic shifts of the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, a considerable portion of Maryland's Southern culture faded. The growing service economy and ensuing southward migration of New Englanders and more solidly Mid-Atlantic workers transformed the I-95 corridor and the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area into robustly Mid-Atlantic areas.
Portions of Maryland, specifically Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore of Maryland remain largely culturally Southern, driven by agriculture and commercial fishing. Most of the land is rural and there are but a few large population centers. Many local restaurants in those two areas still serve sweet tea and dishes including or composed entirely of greens in addition to menus heavy with fried food. Many dialectic studies show that St. Mary's County in Southern Maryland and Dorchester County, Somerset County, Wicomico County, and Worcester County in the Eastern Shore have southern accents.
Beyond the Census-classified South
Missouri is classified as a Midwestern state by the Census Bureau and many of its residents. St. Louis was known as the "Gateway to the West" when settlement was expanding. Some observers include the Missouri Ozarks with the Highland South and its predominantly Scots-Irish culture. The northern edge of the Ozark Plateau was settled chiefly by mid-to-late 19th century German immigrants, however, who founded numerous vineyards and wineries. Due to this, Missouri was the second-largest wine-producing state before Prohibition, which destroyed the industry. Wineries have been rebuilt since the later decades of the 20th century, and Missouri wineries are competing well in national festivals. Part of the Missouri River valley, from beyond St. Louis suburbs in St. Charles County to east of Jefferson City, is known as the Missouri Rhineland because of the extensive vineyards and wineries based on German immigrant tradition and descendants.
In the antebellum years, many settlers from Upper South states such as Virginia and Kentucky migrated to the counties of central and western Missouri along the Missouri River, where they could cultivate tobacco and hemp. Because these southerners brought their culture and slaveholding with them, Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slaveholding state. In modern times, this area became known as Little Dixie. Before the Civil War, six of the counties included in this area had populations in which more than 25% were enslaved African Americans, the highest concentrations in the state outside the cotton plantations in the Mississippi Delta. Antebellum houses typical of the South still stand in some of Little Dixie, although for the most part all of Little Dixie is considered to be Midwestern by modern standards. All the crops grown there today are corn, soybeans and wheat, of which the area was far more suited than for Southern crops like cotton, hemp or tobacco, the latter three of which essentially ceased their presence there after the Civil War along with the dominance of Southern culture. However, rural southern Missouri in the Ozark Plateau and the bootheel are still very much culturally southern.
Midwest, Southwest, and West
Many areas of New Mexico, Arizona and California were predominantly settled by European American southerners as they moved west in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For instance, pro-Confederate governments were established in what is now Arizona and New Mexico during the Civil War and, at one point, southern California was on the cusp of breaking away from northern California and joining the Confederacy.
Southerners migrated to industrial cities in the Midwest for work before and after World War II. They went to Michigan, Indiana and Ohio, as well as Missouri and Illinois. During the Great Depression and Dust Bowl crisis, a large influx of migrants from areas such as Oklahoma, Arkansas and the Texas Panhandle settled in California. These "Okie" and "Arkie" migrants and their descendants remain a strong influence on the culture of the Central Valley of California, especially around the cities of Bakersfield and Fresno.
More than 6.5 million African Americans left the segregated South for the industrial cities of the Midwest and West Coast during the Great Migration, beginning in World War I and extending to 1970. Many migrants from Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas moved to California during and after World War II because of jobs in the defense industry. As a result, many African Americans as well as European Americans have "Northern" and "Southern" branches of their families. Significant parts of African-American culture, such as music, literary forms and cuisine, have been rooted in the South but have changed with urban northern and western influences, too.
As an important feature of Southern culture, the cuisine of the South is often described as one of its most distinctive traits. Popular sayings include "Food is Love" and "If it ain't fried it ain't cooked". Southern culinary culture has readily adopted Native American influences. Corn meal cereal known as "grits", cornfritters, cornbread and brunswick stew are a few of the more common examples of foods adopted directly from southeastern Indians. Nevertheless, a great many regional varieties have also developed. The variety of cuisines range from Tex-Mex cuisine, Cajun and Creole, traditional antebellum fare, all types of seafood, and Texas, Carolina, Virginia (which shares strong similarities with North Carolina) and Memphis styles of Barbecue.
Traditional African American Southern food is often called soul food. While not typically as spicy as cajun food, it incorporates a variety of herbs, flour, and can also be called stick-to-your-ribs food. Of course, most Southern cities and even some smaller towns now offer a wide variety of cuisines of other origins such as Chinese, Italian, French, Middle Eastern, as well as restaurants still serving primarily Southern specialties, so-called "home cooking" establishments. Some notable "home cooking" meals include: fried chicken, corn on the cob, greens with pot liquor, vegetable stew, chicken and dumplings, and chicken fried steak.
Iced tea is commonly associated with the South. Specifically, sweet tea, or brewed iced tea sweetened with granulated sugar, has traditionally been served in the South. In fact, most southern restaurants serve sweet tea in addition to "unsweet tea," whereas most northern restaurants serve only (unsweetened) iced tea.
Many of the most popular American soft drinks originated in the South (Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, Mountain Dew, Big Red, Dr Pepper, RC Cola, and RC Cola's Nehi brand products). In much of Oklahoma, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Texas, and other parts of the South, the term "soft drink" or "soda" is discarded in favor of "Coke" (see Genericized trademark). Some people use the term "co-cola," shortened from Coca-Cola, when ordering a soft drink.
Traditionally, the term "soft drink" was seldom used in the South. Many older southerners call soft drinks "soda pop" or "soda water." In addition, there are some soft drinks available only in the South, such as Sun Drop, Cheerwine, and Ale-8-One in Kentucky. Buffalo Rock ginger ale, a strong, dark ginger ale is available and popular in parts of Alabama and Georgia. Blenheim, another southern ginger ale, originated in South Carolina and is only found in the South. Grapico from Alabama is another Southern creation. In parts of Texas and Kentucky, Big Red is a favorite. Lemonade is a popular summer beverage.
The South has long had an attitude toward alcoholic beverages leading to the saying that "the South votes dry and drinks wet." Elite classes imported wine from Europe to enjoy, and drinking was often a major part of local festivals and court days. Today, Texas is the center of a burgeoning wine boom, due to its climate and well drained limestone-based soils, particularly in the Texas Hill Country.
New Orleans is known as "the City that Care Forgot," epitomized by the saying laissez les bons temps rouler (let the good times roll). The Crescent City's culture revolves around food, drink, and community celebrations. Hurricanes are a famous French Quarter drink, as are sazerac cocktails and absinthe.
Official support for Prohibition existed in the Southern states before and after the 18th Amendment was in force in the USA. Many[which?] southern states are control states that monopolize and highly regulate the distribution and sale of alcoholic drinks. Many counties in the South, particularly outside of the large metropolitan areas, are dry counties that do not allow for alcohol sales in retail outlets. However, many dry counties still allow for "private clubs" (often with low daily fees) to serve alcohol on the premises.
Beer is still widely popular in the South, though its consumption is frowned upon in some religious circles. Lagers and Pilsners are generally preferred to heavier/darker beers due to the predominantly humid, warm climate. The most popular beers in the south are those produced by Anheuser Busch, particularly Budweiser and Busch. Cartersville, Georgia, north of Atlanta, has a massive production facility for Anheuser Busch. Regional brands such as Dixie and Jax beers of New Orleans or Pearl beer of San Antonio, Texas, had a strong regional following.
The upper South, specifically Kentucky, is known for its production of bourbon whiskey, which is also a popular base for cocktails. Kentucky is credited with producing 95% of the world's bourbon, which has been referred to as America's only native spirit. Congress has established bourbon as such, and there are standards of law that a spirit labeled as bourbon for sale in the United States must be produced in U.S. The mint julep is traditionally depicted as a popular beverage among more affluent Southerners. Many other bourbons are produced in Kentucky including Evan Williams, Wild Turkey and Bulleit.
Another form of spirit produced in the South is Tennessee Whiskey, most notably Jack Daniel's, the number one selling whiskey in the world; it's made in Lynchburg, Tennessee. Another modern brand, George Dickel, is produced in nearby Tullahoma, Tennessee. Southern Comfort is a flavored distilled spirit modeled after bourbon and made in Louisiana. Due to widespread restrictions on alcohol production, illegally distilled liquor or moonshine has long been associated (often rather stereotypically) with working class and poor people in much of the region, especially in southern Appalachia.
Born in the Little Dixie region of Missouri to parents who had recently emigrated from Tennessee, Mark Twain is often placed within the pantheon of great Southern writers. Many of his works demonstrate his extensive knowledge of the Mississippi River and the South; also included in his works as a frequent theme were the injustice of slavery and the culture of Protestant public morality.
One of the best known southern writers of the 20th century is William Faulkner, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1949. Faulkner brought new techniques such as stream of consciousness and complex techniques to American writing (such as in his novel As I Lay Dying). Faulkner was part of the Southern Renaissance movement.
The Southern Renaissance (also known as Southern Renascence) was the reinvigoration of American Southern literature that began in the 1920s and 1930s with the appearance of writers such as Faulkner, Caroline Gordon, Elizabeth Madox Roberts, Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, Tennessee Williams, and Robert Penn Warren, among others.
The Southern Renaissance was the first mainstream movement within Southern literature to address the criticisms of Southern cultural and intellectual life that had emerged both from within the Southern literary tradition and from outsiders, most notably the satirist H.L. Mencken. In the 1920s Mencken led the attack on the genteel tradition in American literature, ridiculing the provinicialism of American intellectual life. In his 1920 essay "The Sahara of the Bozart" (a pun on a Southern pronunciation of 'beaux-arts') he singled out the South as the most provincial and intellectually barren region of the US, claiming that since the Civil War, intellectual and cultural life there had gone into terminal decline. This created a storm of protest from within conservative circles in the South. However, many emerging Southern writers who were already highly critical of contemporary life in the South were emboldened by Mencken's essay. On the other hand, Mencken's subsequent bitter attacks on aspects of Southern culture that they valued amazed and horrified them. In response to the attacks of Mencken and his imitators, Southern writers were provoked to a reassertion of Southern uniqueness and a deeper exploration of the theme of Southern identity.
Other well-known Southern writers include Erskine Caldwell, Edgar Allan Poe, Joel Chandler Harris, Sidney Lanier, Cleanth Brooks, Pat Conroy, Zora Neale Hurston, Eudora Welty, Thomas Wolfe, William Styron, Flannery O'Connor, Carson McCullers, James Dickey, Willie Morris, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote, Walker Percy, Charles Portis, Barry Hannah, Alice Walker, Cormac McCarthy, John Grisham, James Agee, Hunter S. Thompson, Wendell Berry, Bobbie Ann Mason, Harry Crews and the authors known as the Southern Agrarians.
Possibly the most famous southern novel of the 20th-century is Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell, published in 1937. Another famous southern novel, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, won the Pulitzer Prize after it was published in 1960.
The musical heritage of the South was developed by both whites and blacks, both influencing each other directly and indirectly.
The South's musical history actually starts before the Civil War, with the songs of the African slaves and the traditional folk music brought from Britain and Ireland. Blues was developed in the rural South by African Americans at the beginning of the 20th century. In addition, old-time music, gospel music, spirituals, country music, rhythm and blues, soul music, funk, rock and roll, beach music, bluegrass, jazz (including ragtime, popularized by Southerner Scott Joplin), zydeco, and Appalachian folk music were either born in the South or developed in the region.
In general, country music is based on the folk music of white Southerners, and blues and rhythm and blues is based on African American southern forms. However, whites and blacks alike have contributed to each of these genres, and there is a considerable overlap between the traditional music of blacks and whites in the South, particularly in gospel music forms. A stylish variant of country music (predominantly produced in Nashville) has been a consistent, widespread fixture of American pop since the 1950s, while insurgent forms (i.e. bluegrass) have traditionally appealed to more discerning sub-cultural and rural audiences. Blues dominated the African American music charts from the advent of modern recording until the mid-1950s, when it was supplanted by the less guttural and forlorn sounds of rock and R&B. Nevertheless, unadulterated blues (along with early rock and roll) is still the subject of reverential adoration throughout much of Europe and cult popularity in isolated pockets of the United States.
Zydeco, Cajun and swamp pop, despite having never enjoyed greater regional or mainstream popularity, still thrive throughout French Louisiana and its peripheries, such as Southeastern Texas. These unique Louisianan styles of folk music are celebrated as part of the traditional heritage of the people of Louisiana. Conversely, bluegrass music has acquired a sophisticated cachet and distinct identity from mainstream country music through the fusion recordings of artists like Bela Fleck, David Grisman, and the New Grass Revival; traditional bluegrass and Appalachian mountain music experienced a strong resurgence after the release of 2001's O Brother, Where Art Thou?.
Rock n' roll largely began in the South in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Early rock n' roll musicians from the South include Buddy Holly, Little Richard, Fats Domino, Bo Diddley, Elvis Presley, Ray Charles, James Brown, Otis Redding, Carl Perkins and Jerry Lee Lewis, among many others. Hank Williams, Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings and Johnny Cash, while generally regarded as "country" singers, also had a significant role in the development of rock music, giving rise to the original "crossover" genre of rockabilly. In the 1960s, Stax Records emerged as a leading competitor of Motown Records, laying thegroundwork for later stylistic innovations in the process.
The South has continued to produce rock music in later decades. In the 1970s, a wave of Southern rock and blues rock groups, led by The Allman Brothers Band, Lynyrd Skynyrd, ZZ Top, and 38 Special, became popular. Macon, Georgia-based Capricorn Records helped to spearhead the Southern rock movement, and was the original home to many of the genre's most famous groups. At the other end of the spectrum, along with the aforementioned Brown and Stax, New Orleans' Allen Toussaint and The Meters helped to define the funk subgenre of rhythm and blues in the 1970s.
Many who got their start in the regional show business in the South eventually banked on mainstream national and international success as well: Elvis Presley and Dolly Parton are two such examples of artists that have transcended genres.
Many of the roots of alternative rock are often considered to come from the South as well, with bands such as R.E.M., Pylon, the B-52s, and Indigo Girls forever associated with the musically fertile college town of Athens, Georgia. Cities such as Austin, Knoxville, Chapel Hill, Nashville and Atlanta also have thriving indie rock and live music scenes. Austin is home to the long-running South by Southwest music and arts festival, while several influential independent music labels (Sugar Hill, Merge, Yep Rock and the now-defunct Mammoth Records) were founded in the Chapel Hill area. Several influential death metal bands have recorded albums at Morrisound Recording in Temple Terrace, Florida and the studio is considered an important touchstone in the genre's development.
There is a large underground heavy metal scene in the Southern United States. Death metal can trace some of its origins to Tampa, Florida. Bands such as Deicide, Morbid Angel, Six Feet Under, Cannibal Corpse,Volt negative among others, have come out of this scene. The Southern United States are also the place where sludge metal was born and it's where its pioneering acts, Eyehategod  and Crowbar, come from; as well as other notable bands of the style such as Down and Corrosion of Conformity. Other well known metal bands from the South include Pantera, Hellyeah, Lamb of God, and Mastodon. This has helped coin the term southern metal which is well received by the vast majority in metal circles around the world. Other heavy metal and hardcore punk subgenres, including metalcore and post-hardcore, have also become increasingly popular in this region.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
While the South has National Football League (NFL) franchises in Dallas, Houston, Miami, Atlanta, New Orleans, Tampa, Jacksonville, Charlotte, and Nashville; the region is noted for the intensity with which people follow high school football and college football teams, especially the Southeastern Conference (SEC), Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), and Big 12 Conference (Big 12) and in Texas and Oklahoma where high school football, particularly in smaller communities, is a dominating activity.
Basketball is also popular, particularly college basketball. The Duke Blue Devils and North Carolina Tar Heels enjoy one of the great rivalries in American sports. Taken as a state, Kentucky has 11 national championships won by two schools, The University of Louisville and the University of Kentucky; North Carolina also has 11 statewide national championships, coming from the combined victories of Duke, UNC, and NC State. The National Basketball Association (NBA) is well-represented in the South as well, with franchises in Atlanta, Charlotte, Orlando, Miami, Memphis, New Orleans, Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, and Oklahoma City.
Taking advantage of warmer late-winter weather, many professional baseball teams began training in Florida in the spring, starting in the 1920s and 15 teams continue to train there each year. Regular season Major League Baseball (MLB) began in 1966, when the Milwaukee Braves transferred its franchise to Atlanta. Expansion teams were added to Texas with the Houston Astros and Texas Rangers in the 1960s and 70s, while Florida became home to the Miami Marlins in 1993 and Tampa Bay Rays in 1998. At one time a number of minor league baseball leagues flourished in the South. The region is still home to more minor league teams than any other region of the United States.
Normally associated with cold climates, five National Hockey League (NHL) franchises are based in the south: the Dallas Stars, Tampa Bay Lightning, Florida Panthers, Nashville Predators, and Carolina Hurricanes (six if the Washington Capitals are counted as Southern).
The South is also the birthplace of NASCAR auto racing; Shackleford says it flourishes there because "the violence and danger of the sport resonated with growing idealization of the traditional Southern culture." Race tracks that host NASCAR sanctioned events are found in several different locations in the South, including Martinsville, Virginia, Talladega, Alabama, Bristol, Tennessee, Darlington, South Carolina, Dover, Delaware, Sparta, Kentucky, Daytona, Florida, Charlotte, Atlanta, Miami, Richmond, Virginia, and Fort Worth, Texas.
Other popular sports in the South include golf (which can be played almost year-round because of the South's mild climate), fishing, soccer (which is the fastest growing sport in the South), and hunting wild game.
Atlanta was the host of the 1996 Summer Olympics.
Many critically acclaimed movies have been set in the cultural background of the South. A partial list of these films follows – for a more complete listing of Southern cinema, see list of films set in the Southern United States.
- Gone with the Wind (1939)
- The Yearling (1946)
- Song of the South (1946)
- All the King's Men (1949)
- A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)
- Wild River (1960)
- The Miracle Worker (1962)
- To Kill a Mockingbird (1962)
- Deliverance (1972)
- Scarface (1983)
- The Color Purple (1985)
- Mississippi Burning (1988)
- Driving Miss Daisy (1989)
- Steel Magnolias (1989)
- Fried Green Tomatoes (1991)
- Forrest Gump (1994)
- Ghosts of Mississippi (1996)
- A Time To Kill (1996)
- Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil (1997)
- O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000)
- Remember the Titans (2000)
- Big Fish (2003)
- The Notebook (2004)
- Ray (2004)
- The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008)
- The Blind Side (2009)
- The Help (2011)
- Lawless (2012)
- 12 Years a Slave (2013)
Network television shows set in the Southern United States:
Following the boom of television in the 1950s, many shows were set in the South and/or became very popular with Southerners. They included:
- The Real McCoys (1957–1963)
- The Andy Griffith Show (1960–1968)
- The Beverly Hillbillies (1962–1971)
- Petticoat Junction (1963–1970)
- Flipper (1964–1967)
- Green Acres (1965–1971)
- Hee Haw (1969–1992)
By 1971, sponsors had grown weary of this formula, and CBS consequently cancelled all of its Southern shows. (Only Hee Haw survived, in syndication.) However, in 1976, Jimmy Carter was elected as the first President of the United States from the Deep South (or arguably only the first since the Civil War). The election resulted in reporters swarming into Carter's small southern town of Plains, Georgia, speculation about his lifestyle and Southern Baptist faith, and renewed interest in Southern culture.
A new crop of television shows followed within the next decade, such as:
- Carter Country (1977–1979)
- Dallas (1978–1991)
- The Dukes of Hazzard (1979–1985)
- Mama's Family (1983–1990)
- The Golden Girls (1985–1992)
- Matlock (1986–1995)
- Designing Women (1986–1993)
- In the Heat of the Night (1988–1995)
In addition, network television shows set in the South since 1990 include:
- Evening Shade (1990–1994)
- Walker, Texas Ranger (1993–2001)
- Reba (2001–2007)
- King of the Hill (1997–2009)
- One Tree Hill (2003–2012)
- Friday Night Lights (2006–2011)
- The Riches (2007–2008)
- True Blood (2007–2014)
- Justified (2010–present)
- The Walking Dead (TV series) (2010–present)
- Hart of Dixie (2011–present)
- Nashville (2012–present)
- True Detective (2014–present)
However, critics point out that most of these shows, and most films in general, stereotype Southerners as "hapless hicks"  or "a universally simple and often silly group of inhabitants", especially in contrast to the far more complex literary portrayals, and argue that they do not fairly represent Southerners' culture.
Popular images of Southerners
Since the early 19th century Southerners have been the subject of stereotypes, epithets and ridicule. Traces remain in the media, usually in humorous form, as in the 1960s TV series, "The Beverly Hillbillies," a situation comedy, which depicts the cultural dissonance of a poor backwoods family that moves to upscale California after striking oil on their land. Many poor Southern whites make fun of the stereotypes. Images typically depict Southerners as laid-back, hospitable, jolly and carefree—and lazy. The hostile epithet "white trash" originated among house slaves in the 1830s to ridicule whites of low income or low morality.
From the colonial eras travelers often emphasized the backward, uneducated, uncouth, dirty or unhygienic, impoverished, and violent aspects of Southern life. A favorite theme especially regarding Appalachia and the Ozarks portrayed "hicks" isolated from modern culture as shiftless male hunters, violently feuding clans like the Hatfields and McCoys, degraded women smoking corncob pipes, religious snake handlers, and compulsive banjo players.
The national stereotype of the South in 1917 can be glimpsed in a study of tobacco usage in the late 19th century written by a Northern historian who paid close attention to class and gender:
- The chewing of tobacco was well-nigh universal. This habit had been widespread among the agricultural population of America both North and South before the war. Soldiers had found the quid a solace in the field and continued to revolve it in their mouths upon returning to their homes. Out of doors where his life was principally led the chewer spat upon his lands without offense to other men, and his homes and public buildings were supplied with spittoons. Brown and yellow parabolas were projected to right and left toward these receivers, but very often without the careful aim which made for cleanly living. Even the pews of fashionable churches were likely to contain these familiar conveniences. The large numbers of Southern men, and these were of the better class (officers in the Confederate army and planters, worth $20,000 or more, and barred from general amnesty) who presented themselves for the pardon of President Johnson, while they sat awaiting his pleasure in the ante-room at the White House, covered its floor with pools and rivulets of their spittle. An observant traveller in the South in 1865 said that in his belief seven-tenths of all persons above the age of twelve years, both male and female, used tobacco in some form. Women could be seen at the doors of their cabins in their bare feet, in their dirty one-piece cotton garments, their chairs tipped back, smoking pipes made of corn cobs into which were fitted reed stems or goose quills. Boys of eight or nine years of age and half-grown girls smoked. Women and girls "dipped" in their houses, on their porches, in the public parlors of hotels and in the streets.
The Progressive Era brought attention to the problems the South faced. An influential scholarly study was Horace Kephart's Our Southern Highlanders (1913), which portrayed an isolated and culturally inert people. The bleak image inspired northern philanthropy, such as the Rockefeller foundations, to intervene using modern public health techniques and to promote better schooling.
Comic strips dealt with northern urban experiences until 1934, when Al Capp introduced "L'il Abner," the first strip based in the South. Although Capp was from Connecticut, he spent 43 years teaching the world about Dogpatch, reaching 60 million readers in over 900 American newspapers and 100 foreign papers in 28 countries. Inge says Capp, "had a profound influence on the way the world viewed the American South." Other popular strips on Southern life included "Pogo," "Snuffy Smith" and "Kudzu." Cultural historian Anthony Harkins argues that Dogpatch's hillbilly setting "remained a central touchstone, serving both as a microcosm and a distorting carnival mirror of broader American society."
Collections of Southern art can be found at the Ogden Museum of Southern Art in New Orleans and the Morris Museum of Art in Augusta. Southern expressionism and folk art are types of art generally considered to be part of Southern art. The Southern Arts Federation maintains a registry of contemporary Southern artists (including visual artists, performing artists, media artists and writers) who have been recognized by their state arts councils based on the outstanding quality of their work.
Some famous folk artists from the American South include Clementine Hunter (Natchitoches, Louisiana) and Howard Finster (Summerville, Georgia) who mixed southern spirituality and traditional religious motifs with surrealism and dream-like post-modernism. Finster's work was featured on album covers by bands such as Talking Heads (Little Creatures, 1985) and R.E.M. (Reckoning, 1984). He has a permanent display at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta and his Paradise Gardens is still open to the public almost ten years after his death.
Chris Flesher (Tennessee) has sold folk art as pieces and as concepts all over the world and has a collection at the American Folk Art Museum in New York City as well as in Carmel, California. The influence of his art is mainly centered around the enchanting and beautiful landscape of the Great Smoky Mountains of Eastern Tennessee and Western North Carolina.
Walter Inglis Anderson and his art is forever associated with the natural beauty of the Mississippi Gulf Coast and many of his family members continue as artists there still today.
Pop artist Jasper Johns and African-American modernist Romare Bearden are two other prominent artists from the South: Johns was a native of Augusta, Georgia, while Bearden was born in Charlotte, North Carolina.
A major center of American modernism was located at the Black Mountain College in the town of Black Mountain, North Carolina. The history of the college – which attracted John Cage, Walter Gropius, Buckminster Fuller, Merce Cunningham, Willem de Kooning and other pioneers of varied mid-20th century arts – has been extensively detailed in several books and studies (notably, Mary Emma Harris' Arts At Black Mountain College and Vincent Katz' Black Mountain College: Experiment In Art). The school, which operated as an interdisciplinary, progressive institution for 23 years, was a key incubator for the American artistic avant-garde of the 1960s and beyond.
- Cuisine of the Southern United States
- Culture of honor (Southern United States)
- Culture of the United States
- Deep South
- History of the Southern United States
- New South
- Old South
- Plain Folk of the Old South
- Politics of the Southern United States
- Southern Agrarians
- Southern American English
- Southern literature
- Southern Spaces
- Southernization (U.S.)
- David Williamson. "UNC-CH surveys reveal where the 'real' South lies". Retrieved 22 February 2007.
- [dead link]
- Richard A. Peterson (1999-12-15). Creating Country Music: Fabricating Authenticity. University of Chicago Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-226-66285-5.
- Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America - David Hackett Fischer - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
- Bethune, Lawrence E. "Scots to Colonial North Carolina Before 1775". Lawrence E. Bethune's M.U.S.I.C.s Project.
- Table 3a. Persons Who Reported a Single Ancestry Group for Regions, Divisions and States: 1980
- Table 1. Type of Ancestry Response for Regions, Divisions and States: 1980
- "Indentured Servitude in Colonial America"
- New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgiaencyclopedia.org (2002-07-24). Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.633–639
- "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 - Table 3" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-28.
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Texas A&M Forest Service - Trees of Texas - Ecoregions - Edwards Plateau". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Overview: Religion and the U.S. South". Southernspaces.org (2004-03-16). Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- Statistics by The Barna Group
- Christine Leigh Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt (1998)
- Christine Leigh Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1998
- Nelson, Andrew (1 January 2009). "Parishes Receive Data As Catholic Population Surges". The Georgia Bulletin (The Catholic Archdiosese of Atlanta). p. 10.
- Poole, Shelia M. (9 December 2010). "Project aims to bring Catholics back to church". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "Business to Business Magazine: Not just for Sunday anymore". Btobmagazine.com. Retrieved 2010-04-05.[dead link]
- "Religion in Raleigh, North Carolina". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Religions in Wake County, North Carolina - Raleigh, Cary, Apex, Garner, Wake Forest, Southern Baptist Convention, Catholic Church, United Methodist Church". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "NCRegister - Catholics Give Thanks to God in Maryland". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Maryland Manual,. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Maryland#cite note-washingtonpost.com-9
- "Teaching American History in Maryland - Documents for the Classroom - Maryland State Archives". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Italian Jesuits in Maryland : a clash of theological cultures". Internet Archive. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Leonard E. Greenberg Center for the Study of Religion in Public Life at Trinity College in Hartford, CT (November 2004). "Religion and Public life in the Souther Crossroads". Retrieved 11 June 2008.
- "Texas - Religions". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Adler, Cyrus (1905). "Richmond". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
- ASA 147th Meeting Lay Language Papers – The Nationwide Speech Project. Acoustics.org (2004-05-27). Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- "Map 1. The urban dialect areas of the United States based on the acoustic analysis of the vowel systems of 240 Telsur informants". Ling.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- American English Dialects. Aschmann.net. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- "Do You Speak American: What Lies Ahead". pbs.org. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- Wilson, Charles Morrow. "Elizabethan America." Atlantic Monthly, August 1929, 238—44. Reprinted in Appalachian Images in Folk and Popular Culture, ed. W. K. McNeil, 205—14. 1989.
- Sanford, Jason (2005). "Where is the South in today's Southern literature?". storySouth. Retrieved 22 August 2006.
- The Georgia World Congress Center. About Atlanta, 17 Nov 2009.[dead link]
- Sanchez, George (26 April 20). "Latinos, the American South, and the Future of U.S. Race Relations". Southern Spaces. Emory University Libraries. ISSN 1551-2754. Check date values in:
- Odem, Mary (19 May 2006). "Global Lives, Local Struggles: Latin American Immigrants in Atlanta". Southern Spaces. Emory University Libraries. ISSN 1551-2754.
- Anderson, Eric Gary; Marshall Eakin, Karla Holloway, Tara McPherson, Natalie Ring, Barbara Ellen Smith, and Jamie Winders (2004). "The U. S. South in Global Contexts: A Symposium at the University of Mississippi". Southern Spaces. Emory University Libraries. ISSN 1551-2754.
- The Graduate Center, CUNY – American Religious Identification Survey. Gc.cuny.edu. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- Jewish Estimate-Number of Congregations (Association of Religion Data Archives-Year 2000). Thearda.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- "State: Born in U.S.A.? Not in Miami". Sptimes.com. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Anand Singh. "Kentucky – USA State". Retrieved 27 July 2007.
- UNC-CH surveys reveal where the real South lies. Unc.edu (1999-06-02). Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- "Traditional Arts Indiana Cultural Map – South." Traditional Arts Indiana, 2 May 2008.
- Meyer, David R. "Midwestern Industrialization and the American Manufacturing Belt in the Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Economic History, Volume 49, Issue 4, December 1989 (Pages 921–937).
- "Map 4. Cultural Regions". Faculty.smu.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Reinhart, Joseph R. (22 September 2010). "Kentucky's German Americans in the Civil War". Kygermanscw.yolasite.com. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- "Bluegrass, Blues and Barbecue Region of Western Kentucky: Home". Western Kentucky Bluegrass, Blues and Barbeque Region. Green River Tourism Committee. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Best of the Best from Mid-South Cookbook (Best of the Best Cookbook) (Best of the Best Regional Cookbook Series) (9781934193341): Gwen McKee, Barbara Moseley: Books. Amazon.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- File:Census-2000-Data-Top-US-Ancestries-by-County-1396x955.png – Wikimedia Commons. Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- Kentucky Recipes. Mountain-breeze.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- U.S. Census Regions and Divisions Map. Eia.doe.gov (2000-06-14). Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- Escape to the Southeast. Escape to the Southeast. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- National Forests in Florida – USDA Forest Service – Southern Region. Fs.fed.us. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Sacs.org. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- "Ethnic Population Change". Retrieved 7 July 2007.
- "Where is "Tidewater" in Virginia?". Virginiaplaces.org. Retrieved 2008-02-14.
- "Driving Directions from Bluefield, WV to Charlotte, NC." Mapquest, 2008.
- Richard Curry "A House Divided, pp. 142–47
- Robert J. Brugger (1996). Maryland, a Middle Temperament: 1634–1980. Johns Hopkins U.P. p. 248.
- T. J. Stiles, Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War, New York: Vintage Books pbk, 2003, pp.10–11 map
- Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development (2005). "Living the Good Life". Retrieved 11 June 2008.
- "Moonshine--Historical Overview". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Tate, Allen, The New Provincialism, 1945
- Mencken, H. L. "The Sahara of the Bozart", Prejudices, 2nd series, 1920
- Shapiro, Edward S. "The Southern Agrarians, H. L. Mencken, and the Quest for Southern Identity", American Studies 12 (1972): 75–92.
- Huey, Steve. "Eyehategod". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- Huey, Steve. "Crowbar". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- "Doom metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- Prato, Greg. "Down". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- Huey, Steve. "Corrosion of Conformity". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/ncaab/2013/03/09/five-more-college-basketball-heated-rivalries/1975171/ | date accessed: 1/29/2015
- http://www.ncaa.com/history/basketball-men/d1 | access date: 1/29/2015
- Shackleford, Ben "NASCAR Stock Car Racing: Establishment and Southern Retrenchment," International Journal of the History of Sport (2011) 28#2 pp 300–318
- Television's Simple South. Xroads.virginia.edu. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- Plains, Georgia. Plains, Georgia (1976-11-05). Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- "True Detective". Facebook. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Pop Candy. Usatoday.com (2002-10-02). Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
- Anthony A. Harkins, "The Hillbilly in the Living Room: Television Representations of Southern Mountaineers in Situation Comedies, 1952–1971," Appalachian Journal (2001) 29#1 pp 98–126.
- As in Michelle Lamar, and Molly Wendland, The White Trash Mom Handbook: Embrace Your Inner Trailerpark, Forget Perfection, Resist Assimilation into the PTA, Stay Sane, and Keep Your Sense of Humor (2008), and Kendra Morris, White Trash Gatherings: From-Scratch Cooking for down-Home Entertaining (2006).
- David Bertelson, The Lazy South (1980)
- Matt Wray, Not Quite White: White Trash and the Boundaries of Whiteness (2006) p. 2
- Henry D. Shapiro, Appalachia on Our Mind: The Southern Mountains and Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870–1920 (1979)
- Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer (1917). A History of the United States Since the Civil War: 1865–68. Macmillian. p. 93.
- Katie Algeo, "Locals on Local Color: Imagining Identity in Appalachia," Southern Cultures (2003) 9#4 pp 27–54.
- John Ettling, The Germ of Laziness: Rockefeller Philanthropy and Public Health in the New South (1981) ch 1
- Austin Wade, "The Real Beverly Hillbillies," Southern Quarterly (1981) 19#4 pp 83–94.
- M. Thomas Inge, "Li'l Abner, Snuffy, Pogo, and Friends: The South in the American Comic Strip," Southern Quarterly (2011) 48#2 pp 6–74.
- Anthony Harkins, Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon (2004, Oxford Univ. Press) pp. 124–136
- Conkin; Foner, et al. (1988). Numan V. Bartley (ed.), ed. The evolution of Southern culture. Athens, GA: University of Georgia. ISBN 0-8203-0993-1.
- Boles, John B. (2004) . A companion to the American South. Malden, MA: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21319-8.
- Botkin, B. A. A Treasury of Southern Folklore: Stories, Ballads, Traditions, and Folkways of the People of the South (1949)
- Cash, W. J. The Mind of the South (1941)
- Cobb, James C. Away Down South : A History of Southern Identity (2005)
- Fischer, D. H. Albion's seed: Four British folkways in America Oxford University Press 1989
- Gorn, E. J. "Gouge, and bite, pull hair and scratch: The social significance of fighting in the southern backcountry". American Historical Review (1985). 90:1, 18–43.
- Gray, Richard and Owen Robinson, eds. A Companion to the Literature and Culture of the American South (2004)
- Harkins, Anthony. Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon Oxford University Press, 2004
- Suzanne W. Jones and Sharon Monteith, eds.South to a New Place: Region, Literature, Culture Louisiana State University Press, 2002.
- Joyner, Charles W Traditions: Southern History & Folk Culture 1999
- Lowe, John, and Fred Hobson, eds. Bridging Southern Cultures: An Interdisciplinary Approach (2005)
- McWhiney, Grady. Cracker Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South University of Alabama Press, 1989
- Naipaul, V. S. A turn in the South (1989).
- Ownby, Ted. Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation, and Manhood in the Rural South, 1865–1920 University of North Carolina Press, 1990
- Pilcher, Jeffrey M. "Tex-Mex, Cal-Mex, New Mex, or Whose Mex? Notes on the Historical Geography of Southwestern Cuisine" Journal of the Southwest, Vol. 43, 2001
- Reed, John Shelton. The Enduring South: Subcultural Persistence in Mass Society (1986) (ISBN 0-8078-4162-5)
- Reed, John Shelton. My Tears Spoiled My Aim: And Other Reflections on Southern Culture (1993) (ISBN 0-8262-0886-X)
- Reed, John Shelton and Dale Volberg Reed, 1001 Things Everyone Should Know About the South (1996)
- Smith, Jon. Finding Purple America: The South and the Future of American Cultural Studies (U of Georgia Press, 2013). 208 pp.
- Volo, James M., and Dorothy Denneen Volo, eds; The Antebellum Period Greenwood Press, 2004
- Wilson, Charles R.; William R. Ferris (1989). Encyclopedia of Southern culture. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina. ISBN 0-8078-1823-2.
- Wyatt-Brown, B. The Shaping of Southern Culture: Honor, Grace, and War, 1760s–1890s 2001
- Zelinsky, Wilbur. The cultural geography of the United States Prentice-Hall. (1973)