Southern right whale
|Southern right whale|
The southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) is a baleen whale, one of three species classified as right whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena. Approximately 10,000 southern right whales are spread throughout the southern part of the Southern Hemisphere.
- 1 Taxonomy
- 2 Description
- 3 Behavior
- 4 Population and distribution
- 5 Whaling
- 6 Conservation
- 7 Whale watching
- 8 See also
- 9 Gallery
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Right whales were first classified in the Balaena genus in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, who at the time considered all right whales (including the bowhead) to be a single species. Through the 1800s and 1900s, in fact, the family Balaenidae has been the subject of great taxonometric debate. Authorities have repeatedly recategorized the three populations of right whale plus the bowhead whale, as one, two, three or four species, either in a single genus or in two separate genera. In the early whaling days, they were all thought to be a single species, Balaena mysticetus.
The southern right whale was initially described as Balaena australis by Desmoulins in 1822. Eventually, it was recognized that bowheads and right whales were in fact different, and John Edward Gray proposed the Eubalaena genus for the right whale in 1864. Later, morphological factors such as differences in the skull shape of northern and southern right whales indicated at least two species of right whale—one in the Northern Hemisphere, the other in the Southern Ocean. As recently as 1998, Rice, in his comprehensive and otherwise authoritative classification, Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution, listed just two species: Balaena glacialis (all of the right whales) and Balaena mysticetus (the bowheads).
In 2000, Rosenbaum et al. disagreed, based on data from their genetic study of DNA samples from each of the whale populations. Genetic evidence now clearly demonstrates that the northern and southern populations of right whale have not interbred for between 3 million and 12 million years, confirming the southern right whale as a distinct species. The northern Pacific and Atlantic populations are also distinct, with the North Pacific right whale being more closely related to the southern right whale than to the North Atlantic right whale. Genetic differences between E. japonica (north pacific) and E. australis (south pacific) are much smaller than other baleen whales represent among different ocean basins.
It is believed that the right whale populations first split because of the joining of North and South America. The rising temperatures at the equator then created a second split, into the northern and southern groups, preventing them from interbreeding.
The cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa. The point where a node branches off is analogous to an evolutionary branching – the diagram can be read left-to-right, much like a timeline. The following cladogram of the family Balaenidae serves to illustrate the current scientific consensus as to the relationships between the southern right whale and the other members of its family.
Other junior synonyms for E. australis have included B. antarctica (Lesson, 1828), B. antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Hunterus temminckii (Gray, 1864), and E. glacialis australis (Tomilin, 1962) (see side panel for more synonyms).
Like other right whales, the southern right whale is readily distinguished from others by the callosities on its head, a broad back without a dorsal fin, and a long arching mouth that begins above the eye. Its skin is very dark grey or black, occasionally with some white patches on the belly. The right whale's callosities appear white due to large colonies of cyamids (whale lice). It is almost indistinguishable from the closely related North Atlantic and the North Pacific right whales, displaying only minor skull differences. It may have fewer callosities on its head than North Atlantic and more on its lower lips than the two northern species. Biological functions of callosities are unclear although the primal role has been considered to be for protection against predators, and whales' declines may affect on diversities and quantities of barnacles.
An adult female is 15 m (49 ft) and can weigh up to 47 tonnes (46 long tons; 52 short tons), with the larger records of 17.5–18 m (57–59 ft) in length and 80 tonnes (79 long tons; 88 short tons) or up to 90 tonnes (89 long tons; 99 short tons) in weight, making them slightly smaller than other right whales in the Northern Hemisphere. The testicles of right whales are likely to be the largest of any animal, each weighing around 500 kg (1,100 lb). This suggests that sperm competition is important in the mating process.
Right whales do not normally cross the warm equatorial waters to connect with the other species and (inter)breed: their thick layers of insulating blubber make it difficult for them to dissipate their internal body heat in tropical waters. However, based on historical records and unconfirmed sightings in modern periods, E. australis transits may indeed occur through equatorial waters. Moreover, a stranding of a 21.3 m (71 feet) long right whale at Gajana, northwestern India in November, 1944 was reported, however, true identity of this animal is unclear.
The proportion and numbers of molten-coloured individuals are notable in this species compared with the other species in the Northern Hemisphere. Some whales remain white even after growing up.
Life span is not clear although whales seem to reach over 100 years old.
Like other right whales, they are rather active on the water surface, and curious towards human vessels. Southern rights appear to be more active and tend to interact with humans more than the other two northern species. One behavior unique to the southern right whale, known as tail sailing, is that of using their elevated flukes to catch the wind, remaining in the same position for considerable amount of time. It appears to be a form of play and is most commonly seen off the coast of Argentina and South Africa. Some other species such as humpback whales are also known to display. Right whales are often seen interacting with other cetaceans, especially humpback whales and dolphins. There have been records of southern rights and humpbacks thought to be involved in mating activities off Mozambique, and along Bahia, Brazil.
They have very strong maternal connections with locations and gene pools they were born in, and especially males may follow patterned migration routes. Calving females are known to return to their 'birth spots' at 3-years intervals as the most commonly seen calving intervals are 3 years which may vary from 2 up to 21 years due to multiple factors. Specific congregation areas in the same region may function as for different objectives for whales.
This species has been recognized to nurse unrelated orphans on occasions.
Population and distribution
The southern right whale spends summer in the far Southern Ocean feeding, probably close to Antarctica. If the opportunity arises, feeding can occur even in temperate waters such as along Buenos Aires. It migrates north in winter for breeding and can be seen by the coasts of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Namibia, Mozambique, Peru, Tristan de Cunha, Uruguay, Madagascar, New Zealand and South Africa, however, whales have been known to winter on sub-Antarctic regions. The total population is estimated to be around 10,000. Since hunting ceased, stocks are estimated to have grown by 7% a year. It appears that the South American, South African and Australasian groups intermix very little if at all, because maternal fidelity to feeding and calving habitats is very strong. The mother also passes these choices to her calves.
Whaling records among the hemisphere including a certain whaling ground in central northern Indian Ocean and recent sightings among near-equatorial regions have occurred, and if the later mentioned sighting off Kiribati was truly of E. australis, this species could cross the Equator on irregular occasions and their original distributions might have been much broader and more northerly distributed than that of the present status. As above mentioned, there was one record of a "right whale" stranded at northwestern coast of continental India.
Other than sheltered and calm waters, calving grounds have been identified close to high wave coastal areas, vicinity to land cliffs and deep waters where sounds of waves may prevent predators' acoustics searches for infants and calving cows, and deep areas close to shallows may function as training grounds for calves to prepare for upcoming migrations to feeding grounds.
The most recent population estimates, published by National Geographic in October 2008, put the southern whale population at 10,000. An estimate of 7,000 followed a March 1998 IWC workshop. Researchers used data about adult female populations from three surveys (one in each of Argentina, South Africa and Australia, collected during the 1990s) and extrapolated to include unsurveyed areas, number of males and calves using available male:female and adult:calf ratios to give an estimated 1999 figure of 7,500 animals.
Aside from impacts on whales and environments caused by mankind, their distributions and residences could be largely effected by presences of natural predators or enemies, and similar trends are also expectable for other subspecies.
Many locations throughout the Southern Hemisphere were named after current or former presences of southern rights, including Walvis Bay, Punta Ballena, Right Whale Bay, Otago Harbour, Whangarei Harbour, Foveaux Strait, South Taranaki Bight, Moutohora Island and Wineglass Bay.
Hermanus in South Africa has become known as a mecca for whale watching, during the Southern Hemisphere winter months (June - October) the southern right whales migrate to the coastal waters of South Africa, with in excess of 100 whales known to be in the Hermanus area. Whilst in the area, the whales can be seen with their young as they come to Walker Bay to calve and mate. Many behaviours such as breaching, sailing, lobtailing, or spyhopping can be witnessed. In False Bay whales can be seen from the shore from July to October while both Plettenberg Bay and Algoa Bay are also home to the southern right whales from July to December. They can be viewed from land as well as by boat with licensed operators conducting ocean safaris throughout the year.
Recent increases in numbers of whales visiting the north-eastern part of South Africa, the so-called Dolphin Coast such as around Ballito and off Umdloti Beach, indicates the whales' normal ranges are expanding and that re-colonising historical habitats will likely continue as more whales migrate further north.
In Namibia, most of confirmed whales are restricted to the south of Luderitz, the southern edge of the country, and only a handful animals, but with good increases in numbers, venture further north to historical breeding grounds such as at Walvis Bay. Until hunting, including illegal mass operations by Soviet Union ceased, whales had been rare along Namibian shores as no sighting records north of Orange River until 1971, and the first calving activities were confirmed as late as the 1980s.
In contrast to the case in South Africa, even though right whales are becoming more common migrants, but within very small numbers off Mozambique and Madagascar. Whales were historically seen in large numbers at various locations such as off Durban, in Delagoa/Maputo Bay and Inhaca Island, Ponta do Ouro, and around the Bazaruto Archipelago. The first sighting off Mozambique since the end of whaling was in 1997. In recent years, more whales seem to migrate further north to calve, such as at Île Sainte-Marie, Antongil Bay, Fort Dauphin Toliara, Anakao, Andavadoaka, and Antsiranana Bay, which is at nearby the northern tip of Malagasy coasts. Although occurrences on the island of Mayotte have been confirmed, frequencies of recent appearance is rather small. Whales were taken off Tanzania, and may still be present occasionally such as around Zanzibar.
Due to illegal whaling by the Soviet Union, the recovery of many stocks including the population off Tristan da Cunha and adjacent areas such as Gough Island had been severely hindered, resulting in relatively few numbers of visiting animals.
In Brazil, more than 300 individuals have been cataloged through photo identification (using head callosities) by the Brazilian Right Whale Project, maintained jointly by Petrobras (the Brazilian state-owned oil company) and the International Wildlife Coalition. The State of Santa Catarina hosts a concentration of breeding and calving right whales from June to November, and females from this population also calve off Argentinian Patagonia and Uruguay. In recent years, possibly due to changing habitat environments by human activities and conflicts with local fisheries, the number of whales visiting the coasts is decreasing. Sighting in locations other than Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul shows gradual increases, such as along Rio de Janeiro coasts like Cape Frio, Macaé, Cidreira, Prado, Bahia, Castelhanos Bay in Ilha Bela, São Paulo coasts, Honey Island, and bays and estuaries of Paranaguá and Superagui National Park, Paraná, and even entering into the lagoon of Lagoa dos Patos. Annual distributions have been known to reach in far more north like Bahia and Abrolhos Archipelago where small numbers of whales migrate every year to winter or calve, and certain individuals return by 3 or 4 years of intervals.
During the 2012 annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission's Scientific Committee, data was presented regarding the continued phenomenon of southern right whale strandings and high rate of mortality at Península Valdés, Argentina. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 482 dead right whales were recorded at Península Valdés. There were at least 55 whale deaths in 2010, and 61 in 2011. As in previous years, the vast majority of strandings were calves of the season. There are increasing sightings along various other locations in recent years, such as on Golfo San Jorge, Tierra del Fuego, Puerto Deseado, Mar del Plata, Miramar, Buenos Aires, Bahía Blanca, and so on.
In Uruguay, coastal areas such as Punta del Este host congregating sites for whales in breeding seasons, but not likely as calving grounds. Their recovery helped create a whale-sanctuary off Latin America; the creation of this protected area had been prevented for nearly a decade by pro-whaling nations such as Japan.
Chile and Peru
For the critically endangered Chile/Peru population, the Cetacean Conservation Center (CCC) has been working on a separate program for right whales. This population, containing no more than 50 or less individuals, is under threats of increasing ship lanes and fishing industries. 124 sightings in total had been recorded during 1964–2008 period. Aside from vagrants' records, Peru's coastlines possibly host one of the northernmost confirmed range of the species along with Gabon, Senegal, Tanzania, Brazilian coasts, Madagascar, Indian Ocean, western Australia, Kermadec Islands, and tropical waters including South Pacific Islands. The Alfaguara project targeting cetaceans in Chiloe may possibly target this species as well in the future since calving activities have been confirmed in Chiloé Archipelago. Foraging grounds of this population is currently undetected, but possibly Chiloé and down south of Caleta Zorra to southern fiords such as from Penas Gulf to Beagle Channel although numbers of confirmations are small in the Beagle Channel. . Some hopes arising for establishment of new tourism industry in eastern side of the Strait of Magellan most notably in the vicinity of Cape Virgenes and Punta Dungeness as the number of sightings increases. It is unknown whether these increases are due to re-colonisation by whales from the Patagonian population.
Historically, populations in Oceanian regions had been very robust. There were stories of early settlers complaining that sounds of cavorting whales kept them awake at night in various locations such as on Wellington Bay and River Derwent. Satellite tracking conducted suggests that there are at least some interactions between populations in these two nations, but the extent thereof is unknown. Furthermore, historical distributions of New Zealand and southeast or east Australian groups have been speculated to share at least calving grounds, and significant losses of local calving grounds may provide habitats to different groups.
Southern right whales in Australian waters show higher rate of recoveries, as have increased from 2,100 whales in 2008 to 3,500 individuals in 2010. Two genetically distinct groups inhabit Australian waters; the southwestern population of 2,900 whales in 2012 currently holding majority of whole Australian population and critically endangered southeastern group counting only dozens to 300 individuals.
Right whales can be found in many parts of southern Australia, where the largest population is found at the Head of the Bight in South Australia, a sparsely populated area south of the middle of the Nullarbor Plain. Over 100 individuals are seen there annually from June to October. Visitors can view the whales from cliff-top boardwalks and lookouts, with whales swimming almost directly below. A more accessible South Australian location for viewing whales is Encounter Bay where the whales can be seen just off the beaches of the Fleurieu Peninsula, centred around the surfing town of Middleton. A newer nursery ground has been established on Eyre Peninsula, especially at Fowlers Bay. Numbers are much smaller at these locations compared to the Bight, with an average of a couple of whales per day, but in recent years there have been regular sightings of more than ten whales at a time off Basham Beach, near Middleton. The South Australian Whale Centre at Victor Harbor has information on the history of whaling and whale watching in the area, and maintains an on-line database of whale sightings. Whale numbers are scarcer in Victoria where the only established breeding ground which whales use each year, in very small numbers, is at Warrnambool. However, as the whales do seem to be increasing in number generally, but not showing any dramatic increases at Warrnambool, they may be extending their wintering habitats into other areas of Victoria, where the numbers of sightings are slowly increasing. These areas include around Melbourne, such as in Port Phillip Bay, along Waratah Bay, at Ocean Grove, Warrnambool, on Mornington Peninsula, in Apollo Bay, and on Gippsland coasts and at Wilsons Promontory. Tasmania is another, newer, wintering ground showing dramatic increases in recent years. The waters off the Western Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland coasts had previously been inhabited by whales. Their historical range was much wider and was spread around the southern coast of the continent, extending up to Australian Abrolhos Island, Exmouth and Shark Bay on the west coast, and to Hervey Bay and Moreton Bay to Great Barrier Reef or further north on the east coast. The east coast population is still endangered and very small (in low-tens), contributing in small numbers and limited re-colonization, but increases have been confirmed in many areas such as the vicinity of Port Jackson, Port Stephens, Twofold Bay, Jervis Bay, Broulee, Moruya River, Narooma, Byron Bay, and so on, and there have been 12 foraging areas officially announced.
Whale numbers visiting historical habitats of sub-Antarctic regions show drastic differences in quantity for respective locations: well-recovering at New Zealand Subantarctic Islands while less successful at Macquarie Island.
It is not known whether historical oceanic habitats such as Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island with Lord Howe Seamount Chain, historically known as the "Middle Ground" for whalers will be re-colonised by Australian populations in the future.
Many features are still unknown about current right whale population(s) in New Zealand waters. However, studies by the Department of Conservation and sightings reported by locals helped to deepen understanding. Pre-exploitation size of New Zealand group could have been up from 28,800 to 47,100 in total where 35,000 to 41,000 catches were made between 1827 and 1980. The number of whales survived commercial and illegal whaling operations might be decreased to as few as 30 whales. Not a single sighting or stranding was recorded between 1928 and 1963 on main islands, and full recovery is estimated to take about 60 years. As below mentioned, if illegal mass operations by Soviet with supports from Japan taken 372 whales in 1960s had not been taken place, New Zealand population could have been three or four times larger than the current size.
The population at the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands is showing a remarkable recovery but with the lowest genetic diversities in the world, while the recovery state in Campbell Islands is slower, and possible number of whales after the World War 2 could have been fewer than 20 individuals in total. Right whales had not been confirmed on main islands for 36 years until 1963 when 4 separate sightings including a cow-calf pair were made among wide range, and remnants of sub-Antarctic populations were re-discovered in 1990s as opportunistic sightings had been reported in 1980s.
Today, the majority of right whales congregate at Auckland and Campbell Islands and forming exceptionally dense and limited congregations including all the sex groups such as mating adults and calving females within and adjacent to Port Ross, where up to 200 whales may winter at the same time. It is notable that whales, including all the age groups are present in this small area annually, not only as feeding and summering grounds but also mainly for wintering, breeding, and calving during harsh, cold periods. Low genetic diversities due to whaling pressures caused changes in skin colorations on this group as well. Scientists used to believe there was a very small remnant population of southern right whales inhabiting New Zealand's main islands (North and South Island), containing probably 11 reproductive females. In winter, whales migrate north to New Zealand waters and large concentrations occasionally visit the southern coasts of South Island. Bay areas along Foveaux Strait from Fiordland region to northern Otago are important breeding habitats for right whales, especially Preservation and Chalky Inlets, Te Waewae Bay, and Otago Peninsula. Calving activities are observed all around the nation, but with more regularity around North Island shores from the Taranaki coast in the west to Hawke's Bay, Bay of Plenty in the east, and areas in Hauraki Gulf such as Firth of Thames or Bay of Islands in the north.
There are various parts of the nation where large numbers of whales were seen historically, but sightings are less common nowadays. These areas include the Marlborough Region, especially from Clifford Bay and Cloudy Bay to Port Underwood, Golden Bay, Awaroa Bay, and coastlines on West Coast and Hokianga Harbour in Northland. Other than a handful of confirmed observations, very little information is available for modern migrations to historical oceanic habitats of Kermadec Islands and Chatham Islands. Northernmost of historic records was at 27°S.
Recent study revealed that the right whale populations from New Zealand's main islands and the sub-Antarctic islands interbreed, though it is still unknown whether the two stock originally came from a single population. Feeding areas in pelagic waters are rather unclear while congregations have been confirmed along southern edge of the Chatham Rise.
It is unclear whether (part of) whales found either historically or currently on areas within Australian ranges that are located close to the ranges of New Zealand whales such as Norfolk Island and Macquarie Island, do or do not originate in New Zealand group(s).
In oceanic islands and offshore waters other than the above-mentioned areas, very little about the presence and recovery status of southern right whales is known. Right whales' historical ranges were much greater than today as whales were known to occur in lower latitude areas such as around Pacific Islands during the whaling era such as catches off Kiribati, and also frequented lower latitudes of the central Indian Ocean.
It is unclear whether right whales have historically or currently distributed among parts of hemisphere lacking great land masses and reached far more pelagic islands such as Alejandro Selkirk and Robinson Crusoe Islands, Hanga Roa, Pitcairn, Galapagos Islands, and the Easter Island.
Populations among sub-Antarctic islands in the Scotia Sea such as South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and Falkland Islands were severely damaged and showing slower recoveries. Antarctic distributions are also rather unclear due to low levels of sightings around oceanic islands in these areas, such as at Elephant Island.
Historical populations which summered in Crozet Islands and Kerguelen Islands, and migrated to La Roche Godon and Île Saint-Paul, Île Amsterdam, and Central Indian Ocean once existed, and which might be distinct from whales seen on Mozambique coasts. Repopulating among these areas in Indian Ocean is likely to be even at slower recovery-rates than other areas as occurrences of sightings have been fewer in modern periods among Crozet, Réunion, Mauritius, Marion Islands, Île Amsterdam, and Kerguelen.
Catches had occurred on central Indian Ocean near the Equator, especially around the area between Diego Garcia, Egmont Islands, and Great Chagos Bank in west, and Cocos (Keeling) Islands in east, being comparable to the range of some other stocks among Latin America, Africa, and south Pacific islands including Kiribati, the northernmost occurrences of all the populations known today.
By 1750 the North Atlantic right whale was as good as extinct for commercial purposes and the Yankee whalers moved into the South Atlantic before the end of the 18th century. The southernmost Brazilian whaling station was established in 1796, in Imbituba. Over the next one hundred years, Yankee whaling spread into the Southern and Pacific Oceans, where the American fleet was joined by fleets from several European nations.
The southern right whale had been coming to New Zealand waters in large numbers before the 19th century, but was extensively hunted from 1830-1850. Hunting gradually declined with the whale population and then all but ended in coastal New Zealand waters. The beginning of the 20th century brought industrial whaling, and the catch grew rapidly. By 1937, according to whalers' records, 38,000 were captured in the South Atlantic, 39,000 in the South Pacific, and 1,300 in the Indian Ocean. Given the incompleteness of these records, the total take was somewhat higher.
As it became clear that stocks were nearly depleted, right whaling was banned in 1937. The ban was largely successful, although some illegal whaling continued for several decades. Madeira took its last two right whales in 1968. Illegal whaling continued off the coast of Brazil for many years and the Imbituba station processed right whales until 1973. The Soviet Union admitted illegally taking over 3,300 during the 1950s and 1960s, although it only reported taking 4. Illegal operations continued even in 70s, such as the case in Brazil until 1973. It was also revealed that Japan was supporting these destructive hunts by neglecting and disregarding monitoring obligations. Furthermore, there were agreements between Japan and the Soviet Union to keep their illegal mass whaling activities in foreign/international protected waters in confidence.
Whales began to be seen again in Australian and New Zealand waters from the early 1960s. It is claimed that if the illegal hunts by the Soviet Union had never happened, the New Zealand population would be three or four times larger than its current size.
The southern right whale, listed as "endangered" by CITES, is protected by all countries with known breeding populations (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and Uruguay). In Brazil, a federal Environmental Protection Area encompassing some 1,560 km2 (600 sq mi) and 130 km (81 mi) of coastline in Santa Catarina State was established in 2000 to protect the species' main breeding grounds in Brazil and promote regulated whale watching. The southern right whale is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) as this species has been categorized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of their range. This species is also covered by the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MoU).
A two-year, £740,000 project, led by the British Antarctic Survey began in 2016, to discover why almost 500 young have been washed up on the Valdes Peninsula over the last ten years. The project is funded by the UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the EU. Possible reasons are a lack of krill in the whale feeding grounds at South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, exposure to toxic algae and attacks by kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus).
One possibly significant contributor to the calf mortality rate has alarmed scientists – since at least 1996, kelp gulls off the coast of Patagonia have been observed attacking and feeding on live right whales. The kelp gull uses its powerful beak to peck down several centimetres into the skin and blubber, often leaving the whales with large open sores – some of which have been observed to be half a meter in diameter. This predatory behavior, primarily targeted towards mother/calf pairs, has been continually documented in Argentinian waters, and continues today. Observers note that the whales are spending up to a third of their time and energy performing evasive maneuvers – therefore, mothers spend less time nursing, and the calves are thinner and weaker as a result. Researchers speculate that many years ago, waste from fish processing plants allowed the gull populations to soar. Their resulting overpopulation, combined with reduced waste output, caused the gulls to seek out this alternative food source. Scientists fear that the gulls' learned behaviour could proliferate, and the IWC Scientific Committee has urged Brazil to consider taking immediate action if and when similar gull behaviour is observed in their waters. Such action may include the removal of attacking gulls, following Argentina's lead in attempting to reverse the trend.
The southern right whale has made Hermanus, South Africa one of the world centers for whale watching. During the winter months (June to October), southern right whales come so close to the shoreline that visitors can watch them from the shore as well as from strategically placed hotels. Hermanus also has two boat–based whale watching operators. The town employs a "whale crier" (cf. town crier) to walk through the town announcing where whales have been seen. Southern right whales can also be watched at other winter breeding grounds. In False Bay whale-watching can be done from the shore or from the boats of licensed operators in Simon's Town. Plettenberg Bay along the Garden Route of South Africa is another mecca for whale watching not only for southern rights (July to December)but throughout the year. There are both land based and ocean safaris boat based whale encounters on offer in this beautiful town. Southern right whales can also be seen off the coast of Port Elizabeth with marine eco tours running from the Port Elizabeth harbour, as some southern right whales make Algoa Bay their home for the winter months.
Whales are occasionally observed during tours in Namibia, Mozambique and Madagascar, where sighting rates along Namibian coasts shows dramatic increases in the recent years.
In Brazil, Imbituba in Santa Catarina has been recognized as the National Right Whale Capital and holds annual Right Whale Week celebrations in September, when mothers and calves are more often seen. The old whaling station there is now a museum that documents the history of right whales in Brazil. In Argentina, Península Valdés in Patagonia hosts (in winter) the largest breeding population, with more than 2,000 catalogued by the Whale Conservation Institute and Ocean Alliance. As in the south of Argentina, the whales come within 200 m (660 ft) of the main beach in the city of Puerto Madryn and form a part of the large ecotourism industry. Uruguay's Parliament on 4 September 2013, has become the first country in the world to make all of its territorial waters a safehaven for whales and dolphins. Every year, dozens of whales are sighted, especially in the departments of Maldonado and Rocha during the months of winter. Swimming activities for commercial objectives had been banned in the area in 1985, but is legalized in Gulf of San Matías where this is the only location in the world for tourists to be permissioned to swim with the species. Land-based watching and occasional kayaking with whales activities are Various other locations where is not renown for whale-watching industries as much as Puerto Madryn and with less restrictions on approaching whales, such as at Puerto Deseado, Mar del Plata, and Miramar in Buenos Aires.
Though their numbers are dangerously small, land-based sightings of whales are on the increase in recent years off Chile and Peru, with some hope of creating new tourism industries, especially in the Strait of Magellan, most notably around Cape Virgenes.
In Australia's winter and spring, southern right whales can be seen from the Bunda Cliffs and Twin Rocks, both along the remote Great Australian Bight in South Australia. In Warrnambool, Victoria, a right whale nursery is popular with tourists in the winter and spring. Their normal range is extending with the species recovering and re-colonizing other areas of the continent, especially around coastal waters of New South Wales and Tasmania. In Tasmania, the first birth since the 19th century was recorded in 2010 in the River Derwent.
Similarly, southern right whales may provide chances for the public to observe whales from shore on New Zealand's coasts with greater regularity than in the past, especially in southern Fiordland, Southland through to the Otago coast, and on the North Island coast, especially in Northland and other locations such as the Bay of Plenty and the South Taranaki Bight. Births of calves could have always been occurring on the main islands' coasts, but were confirmed with two cow-calf pairs in 2012.
In the Subantarctic Islands and in the vicinity of Antarctica, where few regulations exist or are enforced, whales can be observed on expedition tours with increasing probability. The Auckland Islands are a specially designated sanctuary for right whales, where whale-watching tourism is prohibited without authorization.
Eubalaena australis on Wikimedia Commons.
- Mead, J.G.; Brownell, R. L. Jr. (2005). "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 723–743. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Reilly, S.B.; Bannister, J.L.; Best, P.B.; Brown, M.; Brownell Jr., R.L.; Butterworth, D.S.; Clapham, P.J.; Cooke, J.; Donovan, G.P.; Urbán, J.; et al. (2008). "Eubalaena australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
- Perrin, W.F. (2012). "Eubalaena australis Desmoulins, 1822". World Cetacea Database. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Müller, J. (1954). "Observations of the orbital region of the skull of the Mystacoceti" (PDF). Zoologische Mededelingen. 32: 239–90.
- Rice, Dale W. (1998). Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution. Society of Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 4. ISBN 1891276034.
- Rosenbaum, H. C.; R. L. Brownell Jr.; M. W. Brown; C. Schaeff; V. Portway; B. N. White; S. Malik; L. A. Pastene; N. J. Patenaude; C. S. Baker; M. Goto; P. Best; P. J. Clapham; P. Hamilton; M. Moore; R. Payne; V. Rowntree; C. T. Tynan; J. L. Bannister & R. Desalle (2000). "World-wide genetic differentiation of Eubalaena: Questioning the number of right whale species" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 9 (11): 1793–802. PMID 11091315. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.01066.x.
- Palaeobiology and Biodiversity Research Group, University of Bristol
- "List of Marine Mammal Species and Subspecies". Committee on Taxonomy. Society for Marine Mammalogy. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Carwardine MH, Hoyt E (1998). Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Surry Hills, NSW: Reader's Digest. ISBN 0-86449-096-8.
- "Fig. S3. Stranded Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica at Izu...".
- Branch, G.M., Branch, M.L, Griffiths, C.L. and Beckley, L.E. 2010. Two Oceans: a guide to the marine life of southern Africa ISBN 978-1-77007-772-0
- Antonio B. Greig; Eduardo R. Secchi; Alexandre N. Zerbini & Luciano Dalla Rosa (2001). "Stranding events of southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, in southern Brazil" (PDF). J. Cetacean Res. Manage. Department of Zoology, UBC. Special Issue (2): 157–160.
- Department of Sustainability and Environment. 1998. Southern Right Whale - Eubalaena australis. Action Statement-Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. No.94. Retrieved on 31 October. 2014
- "Southern Right Whale Species Guide". Whale and Dolphin Conservation.
- Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. Endangered Species - Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australis. Retrieved on 31 October. 2014
- Crane, J. & R. Scott (2002). "Eubalaena glacialis". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- Waerebeek, V. K.; Santillán, L.; Suazo, E.; The Peruvian Centre for Cetacean Research (2009). "On The Native Status of the Southern Right Whale Eubaleaena australis in Peruournal=Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile" (PDF). 58: 75–82. Retrieved 2014-12-26.
- Sathasivam K.. 2015. A Catalogue of Indian Marine Mammal Records (pdf)
- The Marine Mammal Conservation Network of India. Sightings and Strandings - Species - Black Right Whale. Retrieved on April 19, 2017
- Fairfax Regional Media (30 July 2013). "White whale in Middleton". The Times. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Southern Right Whales". New Zealand Whale and Dolphin Trust. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- 1967fishdude. 2010. whale to close for comfort on YouTube. Retrieved on 27 November 2014.
- Banks A.; Best P.; Gullan A.; Guissamulo A.; Cockcroft V.; Findlay K. "Recent Sightings of Southern Right Whales in Mozambique" (PDF). Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- Baleia-franca é reavistada em Abrolhos com filhote de pigmentação rara
- Baker S. (2012). Paternity study of right whales finds local fathers most successful. Oregon State University. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- "Southern Right Whales". The Nullarbor Net. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Return of the right whale". Stuff.co.nz. 2012. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale". Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database (SESMAD). Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.
- Leaper R.; Cooke J.; Trathan P.; Reid K.; Rowntree V.; Payne R. (2005). "Global climate drives southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) population dynamics" (pdf). The Biology Letters. 2 (2): 289. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0431. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- Boesak T. (2015). "Southern right whales distribution and reproduction". The Ocean Blue. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- Payne R. (1986). "Long term behavioral studies of the southern right whale (Eubalaena australis)" (pdf). Scientific Reports at International Whaling Commission 10: 161–167. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- Peter B. Best; Simon H. Elwen; Per J. Palsbøll; Meredith Thornton; Evan Austin; Katja Vinding (2015). "Possible non-offspring nursing in the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis". Journal of Mammalogy. 96 (2): 405–416. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv042.
- Turismo Miramar ARG.. 2011. 28 August. BALLENAS EN MIRAMAR. YouTube. Retrieved on 16 December 2014.
- M. Postma; M. Wege; M. N. Bester; D. S. van der Merwe (2011). "Inshore Occurrence of Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) at Subantarctic Marion Island". African Zoology. 46: 188. doi:10.3377/004.046.0112. Retrieved 2015-03-10.
- Stewart R., Todd B., 2001 A note on observations of southern right whales at Campbell Island, New Zealand. Journals of Cetacean Research Management Special Issue 2, pp.117–120, 2001. Retrieved on 9 July 2014.
- Kenney, Robert D. (2008). "Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis, E. japonica, and E. australis)". In Perrin, W. F.; Wursig, B.; Thewissen, J. G. M. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 962–69. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- Carroll, L. E. (2011). Return of the right whale: assessment of abundance, population structure and geneflow in the New Zealand southern right whale (PDF) (PhD). University of Auckland. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Richards, R. 2009. Past and present distributions of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis). New Zealand Journal of Zoology. Vol. 36: 447–459. 1175-8821 (Online); 0301-4223 (Print)/09/3604–0447. The Royal Society of New Zealand. Retrieved on 18 December 2014.
- "Warrnambool Whale Watching Page - Why do whales come to Warrnambool?". Travel and Accommodation Guide for South West Victoria. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
- Right Whale News, May 1998. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
- Uni, Y.; Okabe, T.; Imai, Y. (2014). "A sighting record of a North Pacific right whale in the southern Okhotsk Sea, off Shiretoko, Hokkaido" (pdf). Japan Cetology 24. The Sea of Japan Cetology Research Group: 23–25. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
- Whales and Māori society - Whale place names and imagery
- Macpherson D., 2014. "First whale of the season spotted in Ballito". East Coast Radio. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
- Umdloti Beach Accommodation. Umdloti Beach-Whale Sightings Register. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
- The Namibian Sun. 2013. Southern right whale - The right whale to protect. Retrieved on 29 October 2014.
- Travel News Namibia. 2012. The return of the whales. Retrieved on 29 October 2014.
- Duke University (2008). "Spatial Ecology of the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena Glacialis)." (book). The ProQuest. Retrieved 2015-10-16.
- Roux, J. P., Braby, R., Best B. P. 2013. Movements of southern right whales between Namibia and South Africa - recolonization or population expansion - Does disappearance mean extirpation? - The case of Namibian right whales. SC/65a/ForInfo22. Retrieved on 26 October 2014.
- "The Right Whale News" (PDF). Vol. 6 no. 4. 1999. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "Family Balaenidae – Southern right whale Eubalaena australis" (PDF). capeinfo.com.
- "Humpback Whale Migration - Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis)". The Dolphin Encountours Research Center. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
- Rudy van der Elst; Bernadine Everett, eds. (2015). "Offshore Fisheries of the Southwest Indian Ocean: their status and the impact on vulnerable species - 8. Marine Mammals" (PDF). Special Publication No. 10. South African Association for Marine Biological Research, Oceanographic Research Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-03.
- Report of the IWC Workshop on the Assessment of Southern Right Whales. SC/64/Rep5.
- "Sainte-Marie du 26.08.08 au 1.09.08". Le blog de brogio (in French). 9 September 2008.
- "Sainte Marie - Madagascar : partie 3". Nouvelles réunionnaises (in French). 2013-09-01.
- "Juste magnifique..". Passion Ocean (in French). 2012-03-04.
- "Laurence del Vechio nous propose une charte d'approche des baleines, un projet en gestation depuis le 19 mars 2009...". wanaloo (in French). 2009-05-06.
- "Southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) – 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation" (PDF). NOAA Fisheries. 21 October 2015.
- "Marine mammals – Dugong, Whales and Dolphins". Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee.
- "Des baleines franches australes dans la Baie de Diego Suarez" [Southern right whales in the Diego-Suarez Bay]. La Tribune de Diego (in French). 13 October 2011.
- "Observation d’une baleine franche australe dans la Baie de Diego Suarez" [Southern right whale sighting in the Diego-Suarez Bay]. ONG Azimut (in French). 1 October 2011.
- "Image: baleine-franche-australe". ONG Azimut. 18 November 2012.
- Espèces protégées de Mayotte
- Finke J., 2002, The rough guide to Zanzibar, ISBN 9781858288680, Penguin Group
- Tristan da Cunha Government and the Tristan da Cunha Association. "Cetacea - Whales and Dolphins around the Tristan da Cunha Islands". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- Camilah Antunes Zappes (1 March 2013). "The conflict between the southern right whale and coastal fisheries on the southern coast of Brazil". ResearchGate. 38: 428. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2012.07.003. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Claudia Rocha-Campos; Onildo João Marini-Filho & Márcia Engel. "Brazil Progress report on cetacean research, March 2006 to February 2007, with statistical data for the calendar year 2006 or season 2006/2007" (PDF). CAR-SPAW.
- Baleias aparecem na praia de Cabo Frio, no Rio de Janeiro
- "Baleia Franca e filhote são vistas na Praia do Pecado, em Macaé" [Whale and calf are seen in Sin Beach in Macaé]. Vicel (in Portuguese). 2 September 2013.
- Paula Menezes (29 August 2015). "Grupo de baleias-francas é avistado em Cidreira, no Litoral Norte do RS" [Group of right wales sighted in Cidreira, on the north coast of RS]. G1 (in Portuguese).
- "Boletim Eletrônico (Edição nº 26)" [Electronic Bulletin (Issue 26)]. Projeto Baleia Jubarte (in Portuguese).
- "Baleia franca é observada há uma semana na Bahia" [Right whale observed a week ago in Bahia]. Projeto Baleia Jubarte (in Portuguese).
- on YouTube
- Rogerio Pescador (3 September 2012). Canal de Ilhabela com baleia e filhote. YouTube.
- Baleias Franca na Praia do Lázaro - Ubatuba - São Paulo. YouTube. 19 September 2012.
- Anibal, Felippe (9 September 2011). "Turistas fotografam baleia próximo a Ilha do Mel" [Tourists photograph whale near Honey Island]. Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese).
- Franciele Keilla Marcondes (22 September 2011). Estrelando: A Baleia e seu(a) filhote na Ilha do Mel. YouTube.
- "BinhoBozza's channel". YouTube.
- "Baleia franca é vista no litoral paranaense" [Right whale spotted on the coast of Paraná]. Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese). 11 September 2007.
- Baleia Jubarte na Ilha do Mel. YouTube. 19 January 2011.
- Baleias trocam Pólo Sul pela Ilha do Mel. YouTube. 25 July 2008.
- Baleia surpreende casal em barco no litoral do Paraná. YouTube. 3 September 2013.
- "Baleias se perdem e param na Lagoa dos Patos, no Rio Grande do Sul". Zero Hora (in Portuguese). 11 September 2014.
- "Baleias aparecem no canal de acesso ao porto" [Whales appear in the access channel to the port]. Journal Agora (in Portuguese). 11 September 2014.
- "Baleia-franca é reavistada em Abrolhos com filhote de pigmentação rara". Projeto Baleia Jubarte (in Portuguese).
- Report of the Scientific Committee; Panama City, Panama, 11–23 June, 2012 (PDF). Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission. Panama City, Panama: International Whaling Commission. 2012. pp. 48–49, 132. IWC/64/Rep1Rev1. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "Southern right whale". Whale and Dolphin Conservation. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Jimena Belgrano; Miguel Iñíguez; Jorge Gibbons; Cristian García; Carlos Olavarría (2008). "South-West Atlantic Right Whales Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822) Distribution Nearby the Magellan Strait" (PDF). Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia. Anales Instituto Patagonia (Chile). 36 (2): 69–74. doi:10.4067/S0718-686X2008000200007.
- R. Natalie, P. Goodall, Benegas, G. L., Dellabianca, N., Riccialdelli, L., Pimper, E. L., 17 January 2014, The Presence of Southern Right Whales off Eastern Tierra del Fuego, 1987–2011. Retrieved 06-05-2014.
- Ballena Franca navegó por la Ría. Retrieved on 16 December 2014.
- Arias M.. 2009.Ballenas, en la ría de Puerto Deseado. The La Nación. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- The Travel to Argentina. 2014. Whales off the coast of Mar del Plata. Retrieved on 16 December 2014.
- The Visiting Argentina. 2014. Mar del Plata: Ballenas franca australes llegaron a sus costas. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Taringa!. Miramar: Avistaje frecuente de la ballena Franca Austral. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Las ballenas de Miramar". Turismo & Ocio.
- Isha S. 2008. Comentarios Llenos de Amor! .... Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "Uruguay in Photos - Whales in Punta". Uruguay in Photos. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Carol Ann Bassett (3 September 2013). "Uruguayan Parliament approves a protected whale sanctuary in coastal waters". BLOG.ILCWRITERS.ORG. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
- Gubin A. (2013). "Ecoceanos: crítica sobrevivencia de las 50 ballenas Franca Austral chilenas". La Gran Época. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Anelio Aguayo-Lobo1 A., Acevedo J., Brito L.J., Olavarría C., Moraga R., Olave C. (2008). "Southern right whales, Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822) off Chile: analyses of records from 1976 to 2008". Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 43 (3): 653–668. Online ISSN 0718-1957. Retrieved on April 10, 2016.
- ObsChiloé CECPAN (2014). "ballena franca austral en Pumillahue, Chiloé.". p. YouTube. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
- "Ballena Azul - Quienes Somos". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Vernazzani, G. (2015). "Progress on the IWC Conservation Management Plan for the Critically Endangered Eastern South Pacific Southern Right Whale Population". SC/66a/BRG/15, International Whaling Commission. 2014. Report of the Scientific Committee. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 15 (Suppl.). 1- 75 . Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- Gibbons, J., Capella J. J., Kusch, A., Cárcamo, J. (2006). "The Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822) in the Strait of Magellan, Chile". Anales Instituto Patagonia (Chile). 34: 75–80. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "Ballena franca retorna a Estrecho de Magallanes y abre nueva opción de avistamientos turísticos" [Right Whale returns to the Strait of Magellan and opens new tourist sighting option]. Portal de los Siete Mares [Portal of the Seven Seas] (in Spanish). 13 July 2009.
- "Sobrevolando el Golfo San Jorge". Fundación Cethus. 29 August 2014.
- The Patagon _Journal. 2009. Southern Right Whale Spotted in Chilean Waters. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- The Fundación Cethus. 2014. Realizamos nuestra 5° campaña en Cabo Vírgenes, Santa Cruz. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- The Fundación Cethus. 2011. Cuarta campaña para el estudio de la Ballena franca austral en Cabo Vírgenes. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Gastón, C. (2013). "Eubalaena australis". Flickr. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
- Vernazzani, G. B.; Cabrera, E.; Robert, L.; Brownell Jr., L. R. (2013). "Eastern South Pacific southern right whale photo-identification catalog reveals behavior and habitat use patterns" (PDF). Marine Mammal Science. the Society for Marine Mammalogy and Cetacean Conservation Center and National Marine Fisheries Service. 30: 389. doi:10.1111/mms.12030. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
- Webster, Trudi (December 2014). Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis): acoustic behaviour and ambient noise (PDF) (Doctor of Philosophy).
- Simon Childerhouse; Michael C. Double; Nick Gales (2010). "Satellite tracking of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) at the Auckland Islands, New Zealand". Australian Marine Mammal Centre.
- "Southern Right Whale". SWIFFT (State Wide Integrated Flora and Fauna Teams).
- "Head of the Bight". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Southern right whales - South Australia 2009. YouTube. 15 August 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- South Australian Whale Centre, Latest Sightings. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Exploring the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (PDF). Perth, Western Australia: Department of Fisheries. 2012. ISBN 978-1-921845-34-5. ISSN 0819-4327.
- Lemmin-Woolfrey, Ulrike (2015). Moon Sydney & the Great Barrier Reef. Avalon Travel. ISBN 9781612388298.
- Southern Right Whale added to Endangered Species List. YouTube. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Chased by a friendly whale -- a stand up paddle (SUP) experience on the NSW south coast, Australia. YouTube. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Whales at Moruya River II. YouTube. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Moruya. YouTube. 28 August 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Narooma 130913 WTF. YouTube. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Southern Right Whale feeds calf off Byron Bay". Craig Parry Photography. 29 August 2013. Archived from the original on 20 September 2013.
- "Conservation Management Plan for the Southern Right Whale - A Recovery Plan under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (2011–2021)" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-12-08.
- "This week at the station". Australia Government – Department of the Environment. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Nichols, Daphne (2006). Lord Howe Island Rising. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Tower Books. ISBN 0-646-45419-6. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- Reid, A., Halderen, V. L. 2013. Wildlife Management - Impact of Deep Sea Oil Development on New Zealand marine wildlife. Department of Zoology. University of Otago. Retrieved on 18 December 2014.
- Mustain, Andrea (29 June 2011). "Right Whales Stage Comeback". Live Science.
- Ballance A. (2016). "Southern right whales back from brink of extinction". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
- Department of Conservation. The conservation of whales in the 21st century - Whale diversity in New Zealand waters. Retrieved on 5 November 2014
- Frankham J.. Skerry B.. Southern Right Whales. New Zealand National Geographic
- Patenaude, Nathalie J. (2000). Southern right whales wintering in the Auckland Islands (PDF). Conservation Advisory Science Notes No. 321 (Report). Wellington: Department of Conservation. ISSN 1171-9834.
- McLeod, Rebecca (2010-09-14). "The science of counting whales". Sciblogs.
- Davis C.. Whales out of my window. New Zealand National Geographic
- "Our far South: Return to Enderby". Te Papa's Blog. 14 February 2012.
- Patenaude, Nathalie J. (2003). "Sightings of southern right whales around 'mainland' New Zealand" (PDF). Science for Conservation 225. Wellington, NZ: Department of Conservation. ISBN 0478224540. ISSN 1173-2946. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Fiordland Coastal Newsletter" (PDF). Department of Conservation, Invercargill, NZ. Archived from the original (pdf) on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
-  Archived 16 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Southern right whales - something really special". Department of Conservation. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Fox, Rebecca (7 April 2013). "Otago 'hot spot' for whale sightings". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Southern whales the right stuff for new era". The New Zealand Herald. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- M. W. Cawthorn. "Marine Mammals and Salmon Farms" (PDF) (report). Plimmerton Porirua 5026: Environmental Protection Authority. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
- "Kermadecs - Whales & Dolphins". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Baird, Karen (July 2010). "The Kermadec Whale Project" (PDF). Svfalcongt.com.
- "Chatham Islands marine mammals". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Whales and dolphins". Sir Peter Blake Trust.
- "Southern right whale expedition 2009". Department of Conservation. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- Miller, E. C. (2007). "Current State of Knowledge of Cetacean Threats, Diversity, and Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region" (pdf). Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society Australasia. p. 44. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- Brownell Jr., L. R.; Best, B. P.; Prescott, H. J. (1983). "Right Whales: Past and Present Status". Report of the International Whaling Commission (10 [Special]). Retrieved 2016-03-25.
- "Baleine franche australe à Cap Chivaux" [Southern right whale in Cape Chivaux] (in French). Blog officiel du district de Crozet. 31 January 2012.
- "Les orques de Crozet" [The orcas of Crozet] (in French). Blog officiel du district de Crozet. 26 November 2013.
- "Baleine franche australe - Eubalaena australis" [Southern right whale - Eubalaena australis]. Aller Plonger à La Réunion, Ile Intense (in French).
- "Fiches par espèce". Globice (in French).
- "Baleines franches" [Right whales] (in French). 12 September 2008.
- Gaskin, D.E. (July 1964). "Return of the Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis Desm.) to New Zealand Waters, 1963". Tuatara. 12 (2): 115–118. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- Tonnessen, J. N. and A. O. Johnsen (1982). The History of Modern Whaling. United Kingdom: C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 0-905838-23-8.
- Tormosov D.D.; Mikhaliev Y.A.; Best P.B.; Zemsky V.A.; Sekiguchi K.; Brownell R.L. (November 1998). "Soviet catches of southern right whales Eubalaena australis, 1951-1971. Biological data and conservation implications (abstract)". Biological Conservation. 86 (2): 185–197. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00008-1. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- Reeves, Randall R.; Brent S. Stewart; Phillip J. Clapham & James A. Powell (2002). National Audubon Society: Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. United States: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-375-41141-0.
- Berzin A.; Ivashchenko V.Y.; Clapham J.P.; Brownell L.R. Jr. (2008). "The Truth About Soviet Whaling: A Memoir" (PDF). DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
- Petrobras, Projeto Baleia Franca. http://www.baleiafranca.org.br/ More information on Brazilian right whales is available in Portuguese
- "Appendix I Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine." of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). As amended by the Conference of the Parties in 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. Effective: 5 March 2009.
- "CMS Pacific Cetaceans MOU for Cetaceans and their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- McKie, Robin (22 January 2017). "UK scientists bid to solve mystery deaths of hundreds of baby southern right whales". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- Rowntree, V.J.; P. MacGuiness; K. Marshall; R. Payne; J. Seger; M. Sironi (1998). "Increased harassment of Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina". Marine Mammal Science. 14 (1): 99–115. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00693.x.
- "Gulls' vicious attacks on whales". BBC News. 24 June 2009.
- "Ocean Alliance". Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Uruguay se convirtió en un santuario de ballenas y delfines". Ecología. Cromo.com.uy. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Miguel A. Iñíguez & Vanesa P. Tossenberger. "Swim or dive with cetacean in Latin America" (PDF).
- "Els Vermeulen". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- La Opinión Austral. 2012. Ballena franca en Deseado. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Lopes M.. 2013. Tres Ballenas Francas Visitaron La Reserva Provincial Ria Deseado. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- lopes M. 2012. Puerto Deseado recibió a una ballena franca austral. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Acercando Naciones. Unbelievable: whales appeared off the coast of Mar del Plata. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Pilar Rosasco Fotografia. 2012. Las ballenas francas llegaron a Mar del Plata. The Hostnews Contenidos. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Diario Cuatro Vientos. 2014. Investigarán en Miramar la presencia de ballenas. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Roberto Álvarez R.. 2012. Enjoy your visit!. Department Of Tourism and Culture MGA. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- f5Noticias.com. 2012. Volvieron las ballenas a la ciudad. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Una campaña de la Fundación Cethus estudió la presencia de ballenas frente a Miramar" [A Cethus Foundation campaign studied the presence of whales off Miramar]. Senti Argentina. 16 October 2014.
- Ballena franca retorna a Estrecho de Magallanes y abre nueva opción de avistamientos turísticos. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Southern right whale back in NZ waters". TVNZ. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "First known NZ whale birth since end of hunting". Stuff. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Rare whale sighting off Auckland coast". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Antarctica's Southern Right Whales. YouTube. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Auckland Islands Marine Mammal Sanctuary". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- An online educational documentary film about southern right whales – whale trackers
|Wikispecies has information related to: Eubalaena australis|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eubalaena australis.|