Points of the compass
The points of the compass, specifically on the compass rose, mark divisions of a compass; such divisions may be referred to as "winds" or "directions". A compass point allows reference to a specific heading (or course or azimuth) in a general or colloquial fashion, without having to compute or remember degrees.
A compass is primarily divided into the four cardinal points—north, south, east, and west. These are often further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions—northeast (NE) between north and east, southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)—to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast (NNE) between north and northeast, are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass. At the most complete division in European tradition, are the full thirty-two points of the mariner's compass, which adds points such as north by east (NbE) between north and north-northeast, and northeast by north (NEbN) between north-northeast and northeast.
Although the European nautical tradition retained the term "one point" to describe 1⁄32 of a circle (in such phrases as "two points to starboard"), by the middle of the eighteenth century, the 32-point system was further extended with half- and quarter-points to allow 128 directions to be differentiated. For most applications, the fractional points have been superseded by degrees measured clockwise from North.
In ancient China 24 points of the compass were used, measuring fifteen degrees between points.
Compass point names
The names of the compass directions in the 32-point wind compass rose follow these rules:
- The cardinal directions are north (N), east (E), south (S), west (W), at 90° angles on the compass rose.
- The ordinal (or intercardinal) directions are northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW) and northwest (NW), formed by bisecting the angle of the cardinal winds. The name is merely a combination of the cardinals it bisects.
- The eight principal winds (or main winds) are the cardinals and ordinals considered together, that is N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Each principal wind is 45° from its neighbour. The principal winds form the basic eight-wind compass rose.
16-wind compass rose
- The eight half-winds are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the principal winds. The half-winds are north-northeast (NNE), east-northeast (ENE), east-southeast (ESE), south-southeast (SSE), south-southwest (SSW), west-southwest (WSW), west-northwest (WNW) and north-northwest (NNW). Notice that the name is constructed simply by combining the names of the principal winds to either side, with the cardinal wind coming first, the ordinal wind second. The eight principal winds and the eight half-winds together yield a 16-wind compass rose, with each compass point at a 22 1⁄2° angle from the next.
32-wind compass points
All of the above named points plus the sixteen quarter winds listed in the next paragraph define the 32 points of the wind compass rose.
- The sixteen quarter winds are the direction points obtained by bisecting the angles between the points on a 16-wind compass rose. The sixteen quarter-winds are north by east (NbE), northeast by north (NEbN), northeast by east (NEbE), east by north (EbN) in the first quadrant, east by south (EbS), southeast by east (SEbE), southeast by south (SEbS), south by east (SbE) in the second quadrant, south by west (SbW), southwest by south (SWbS), southwest by west (SWbW), west by south (WbS) in the third quadrant, and finally west by north (WbN), northwest by west (NWbW), northwest by north (NWbN) and north by west (NbW) in the fourth quadrant.
The name of a quarter-wind is "X by Y", where X is a principal wind and Y is a cardinal wind. As a mnemonic device, it is useful to think of "X by Y" as a shortcut for the phrase "one quarter wind from X towards Y", where a "quarter" is 11 1⁄4°, X is the nearest principal wind, and Y the next (more distant) cardinal wind. So "northeast by east" means "one quarter from NE towards E", "southwest by south" means "one quarter from SW towards S". The eight principal winds, eight half-winds and sixteen quarter winds together yield a 32-wind compass rose, with each compass direction point at 11 1⁄4° angle from the next. In the mariner's exercise of boxing the compass, all thirty-two points of the compass are named in clockwise order.
The title of the Alfred Hitchcock 1959 movie, North by Northwest, is actually not a direction point on the 32-wind compass, but the film contains a reference to Northwest Airlines. Similarly, the names of the two film festivals South by Southwest and North by Northeast are not 32-wind compass points; a quarter wind whose name contains both a cardinal and an ordinal direction is named with the ordinal direction first.
The traditional compass rose of eight winds (and its 16-wind and 32-wind derivatives) was invented by seafarers in the Mediterranean Sea during the Middle Ages (the ancient Greco-Roman 12 classical compass winds have little to do with them). The traditional mariner's wind names were expressed in Italian – or, more precisely, the Italianate Mediterranean lingua franca common among sailors in the 13th and 14th centuries, that was principally composed of Genoese (Ligurian), mixed with Venetian, Sicilian, Provençal, Catalan, Greek and Arabic terms from around the Mediterranean basin.
This Italianate patois was used to designate the names of the principal winds on the compass rose found in mariner compasses and portolan charts of the 14th and 15th centuries. The "traditional" names of the eight principal winds are:
- (N) – Tramontana
- (NE) – Greco (or Bora in some Venetian sources)
- (E) – Levante (sometimes Oriente)
- (SE) – Scirocco (or Exaloc in Catalan)
- (S) – Ostro (or Mezzogiorno in Venetian)
- (SW) – Libeccio (or Garbino, Eissalot in Provençal)
- (W) – Ponente (or Zephyrus in Greek)
- (NW) – Maestro (or Mistral in Provençal)
Local spelling variations are far more numerous than listed, e.g. Tramutana, Gregale, Grecho, Sirocco, Xaloc, Lebeg, Libezo, Leveche, Mezzodi, Migjorn, Magistro, Mestre, etc. Traditional compass roses will typically have the initials T, G, L, S, O, L, P, and M on the main points. Portolan charts also colour-coded the compass winds: black for the eight principal winds, green for the eight half-winds and red for the sixteen quarter-winds.
The half-wind names are just a combination of the two principal winds it bisects, with the shortest name usually coming first (e.g. NNE is "Greco-Tramontana", ENE is "Greco-Levante", SSE is "Ostro-Scirocco", etc.). The quarter winds are expressed with an Italian phrase, "Quarto di X verso Y" (one quarter from X towards Y, pronounced [ˈkwarto di ˈiks ˈvɛrso ˈipsilon]) or "X al Y" (X to Y) or "X per Y" (X by Y). There are no irregularities to trip over: the nearest principal wind always comes first, the more distant one second, e.g. North-by-east is "Quarto di Tramontana verso Greco", northeast-by-north "Quarto di Greco verso Tramontana".
32 cardinal points
|#||Compass point||Abbreviation||Traditional wind point||Minimum||Middle
|2||North by east||NbE||Quarto di Tramontana verso Greco||5.63°||11.25°||16.87°|
|4||Northeast by north||NEbN||Quarto di Greco verso Tramontana||28.13°||33.75°||39.37°|
|6||Northeast by east||NEbE||Quarto di Greco verso Levante||50.63°||56.25°||61.87°|
|8||East by north||EbN||Quarto di Levante verso Greco||73.13°||78.75°||84.37°|
|10||East by south||EbS||Quarto di Levante verso Scirocco||95.63°||101.25°||106.87°|
|12||Southeast by east||SEbE||Quarto di Scirocco verso Levante||118.13°||123.75°||129.37°|
|14||Southeast by south||SEbS||Quarto di Scirocco verso Ostro||140.63°||146.25°||151.87°|
|16||South by east||SbE||Quarto di Ostro verso Scirocco||163.13°||168.75°||174.37°|
|18||South by west||SbW||Quarto di Ostro verso Libeccio||185.63°||191.25°||196.87°|
|20||Southwest by south||SWbS||Quarto di Libeccio verso Ostro||208.13°||213.75°||219.37°|
|22||Southwest by west||SWbW||Quarto di Libeccio verso Ponente||230.63°||236.25°||241.87°|
|24||West by south||WbS||Quarto di Ponente verso Libeccio||253.13°||258.75°||264.37°|
|26||West by north||WbN||Quarto di Ponente verso Maestro||275.63°||281.25°||286.87°|
|28||Northwest by west||NWbW||Quarto di Maestro verso Ponente||298.13°||303.75°||309.37°|
|30||Northwest by north||NWbN||Quarto di Maestro verso Tramontana||320.63°||326.25°||331.87°|
|32||North by west||NbW||Quarto di Tramontana verso Maestro||343.13°||348.75°||354.37°|
Half- and quarter-points
By at least the middle of the eighteenth century the 32-point system had been further extended with the use of half- and quarter-points to give a total of 128 directions. These fractional points are named by appending, for example 1/east, 1/east, or 3/east to the name of one of the 32 points. Each of the 96 fractional points can be named in two ways, depending of which of the two adjoining whole points is used, for example, N3/E is equivalent to NbE1/N. Either form is easily understood but differing conventions as to correct usage developed in different countries and organisations.
The table below shows how each of the 128 directions are named. The first two columns give the number of points and degrees clockwise from north. The third gives the equivalent bearing to the nearest degree from north or south towards east or west. The "CW" column gives the fractional-point bearings increasing in the clockwise direction and "CCW" counter clockwise. The final three columns show three common naming conventions: No "by" avoids the use of "by" with fractional points; "USN" the system used by US Navy; and "RN" the Royal Navy. The colour coding illustrates where each of the three naming systems matches the "CW" and "CCW" columns.
Compass roses very rarely named the fractional points and only showed small, unlabelled markers as a guide for helmsmen.
|0||0° 0′ 0″||N||N|
|1/||2° 48′ 45″||N 3° E||N1/E||NbE3/N||N1/E||N1/E||N1/E|
|1/||5° 37′ 30″||N 6° E||N1/E||NbE1/N||N1/E||N1/E||N1/E|
|3/||8° 26′ 15″||N 8° E||N3/E||NbE1/N||N3/E||N3/E||N3/E|
|1||11° 15′ 0″||N 11° E||NbE|
|11/||14° 3′ 45″||N 14° E||NbE1/E||NNE3/N||NNE3/N||NbE1/E||NbE1/E|
|11/||16° 52′ 30″||N 17° E||NbE1/E||NNE1/N||NNE1/N||NbE1/E||NbE1/E|
|13/||19° 41′ 15″||N 20° E||NbE3/E||NNE1/N||NNE1/N||NbE3/E||NbE3/E|
|2||22° 30′ 0″||N 23° E||NNE|
|21/||25° 18′ 45″||N 25° E||NNE1/E||NEbN3/N||NNE1/E||NNE1/E||NNE1/E|
|21/||28° 7′ 30″||N 28° E||NNE1/E||NEbN1/N||NNE1/E||NNE1/E||NNE1/E|
|23/||30° 56′ 15″||N 31° E||NNE3/E||NEbN1/N||NNE3/E||NNE3/E||NNE3/E|
|3||33° 45′ 0″||N 34° E||NEbN|
|31/||36° 33′ 45″||N 37° E||NEbN1/E||NE3/N||NE3/N||NE3/N||NE3/N|
|31/||39° 22′ 30″||N 39° E||NEbN1/E||NE1/N||NE1/N||NE1/N||NE1/N|
|33/||42° 11′ 15″||N 42° E||NEbN3/E||NE1/N||NE1/N||NE1/N||NE1/N|
|4||45° 0′ 0″||N 45° E||NE|
|41/||47° 48′ 45″||N 48° E||NE1/E||NEbE3/N||NE1/E||NE1/E||NE1/E|
|41/||50° 37′ 30″||N 51° E||NE1/E||NEbE1/N||NE1/E||NE1/E||NE1/E|
|43/||53° 26′ 15″||N 53° E||NE3/E||NEbE1/N||NE3/E||NE3/E||NE3/E|
|5||56° 15′ 0″||N 56° E||NEbE|
|51/||59° 3′ 45″||N 59° E||NEbE1/E||ENE3/N||ENE3/N||NEbE1/E||NEbE1/E|
|51/||61° 52′ 30″||N 62° E||NEbE1/E||ENE1/N||ENE1/N||NEbE1/E||NEbE1/E|
|53/||64° 41′ 15″||N 65° E||NEbE3/E||ENE1/N||ENE1/N||NEbE3/E||NEbE3/E|
|6||67° 30′ 0″||N 68° E||ENE|
|61/||70° 18′ 45″||N 70° E||ENE1/E||EbN3/N||ENE1/E||ENE1/E||EbN3/N|
|61/||73° 7′ 30″||N 73° E||ENE1/E||EbN1/N||ENE1/E||ENE1/E||EbN1/N|
|63/||75° 56′ 15″||N 76° E||ENE3/E||EbN1/N||ENE3/E||ENE3/E||EbN1/N|
|7||78° 45′ 0″||N 79° E||EbN|
|71/||81° 33′ 45″||N 82° E||EbN1/E||E3/N||E3/N||E3/N||E3/N|
|71/||84° 22′ 30″||N 84° E||EbN1/E||E1/N||E1/N||E1/N||E1/N|
|73/||87° 11′ 15″||N 87° E||EbN3/E||E1/N||E1/N||E1/N||E1/N|
|8||90° 0′ 0″||E||E|
|81/||92° 48′ 45″||S 87° E||E1/S||EbS3/E||E1/S||E1/S||E1/S|
|81/||95° 37′ 30″||S 84° E||E1/S||EbS1/E||E1/S||E1/S||E1/S|
|83/||98° 26′ 15″||S 82° E||E3/S||EbS1/E||E3/S||E3/S||E3/S|
|9||101° 15′ 0″||S 79° E||EbS|
|91/||104° 3′ 45″||S 76° E||EbS1/S||ESE3/E||ESE3/E||ESE3/E||EbS1/S|
|91/||106° 52′ 30″||S 73° E||EbS1/S||ESE1/E||ESE1/E||ESE1/E||EbS1/S|
|93/||109° 41′ 15″||S 70° E||EbS3/S||ESE1/E||ESE1/E||ESE1/E||EbS3/S|
|10||112° 30′ 0″||S 68° E||ESE|
|101/||115° 18′ 45″||S 65° E||ESE1/S||SEbE3/E||ESE1/S||SEbE3/E||SEbE3/E|
|101/||118° 7′ 30″||S 62° E||ESE1/S||SEbE1/E||ESE1/S||SEbE1/E||SEbE1/E|
|103/||120° 56′ 15″||S 59° E||ESE3/S||SEbE1/E||ESE3/S||SEbE1/E||SEbE1/E|
|11||123° 45′ 0″||S 56° E||SEbE|
|111/||126° 33′ 45″||S 53° E||SEbE1/S||SE3/E||SE3/E||SE3/E||SE3/E|
|111/||129° 22′ 30″||S 51° E||SEbE1/S||SE1/E||SE1/E||SE1/E||SE1/E|
|113/||132° 11′ 15″||S 48° E||SEbE3/S||SE1/E||SE1/E||SE1/E||SE1/E|
|12||135° 0′ 0″||S 45° E||SE|
|121/||137° 48′ 45″||S 42° E||SE1/S||SEbS3/E||SE1/S||SE1/S||SE1/S|
|121/||140° 37′ 30″||S 39° E||SE1/S||SEbS1/E||SE1/S||SE1/S||SE1/S|
|123/||143° 26′ 15″||S 37° E||SE3/S||SEbS1/E||SE3/S||SE3/S||SE3/S|
|13||146° 15′ 0″||S 34° E||SEbS|
|131/||149° 3′ 45″||S 31° E||SEbS1/S||SSE3/E||SSE3/E||SSE3/E||SSE3/E|
|131/||151° 52′ 30″||S 28° E||SEbS1/S||SSE1/E||SSE1/E||SSE1/E||SSE1/E|
|133/||154° 41′ 15″||S 25° E||SEbS3/S||SSE1/E||SSE1/E||SSE1/E||SSE1/E|
|14||157° 30′ 0″||S 23° E||SSE|
|141/||160° 18′ 45″||S 20° E||SSE1/S||SbE3/E||SSE1/S||SbE3/E||SbE3/E|
|141/||163° 7′ 30″||S 17° E||SSE1/S||SbE1/E||SSE1/S||SbE1/E||SbE1/E|
|143/||165° 56′ 15″||S 14° E||SSE3/S||SbE1/E||SSE3/S||SbE1/E||SbE1/E|
|15||168° 45′ 0″||S 11° E||SbE|
|151/||171° 33′ 45″||S 8° E||SbE1/S||S3/E||S3/E||S3/E||S3/E|
|151/||174° 22′ 30″||S 6° E||SbE1/S||S1/E||S1/E||S1/E||S1/E|
|153/||177° 11′ 15″||S 3° E||SbE3/S||S1/E||S1/E||S1/E||S1/E|
|16||180° 0′ 0″||S||S|
|161/||182° 48′ 45″||S 3° W||S1/W||SbW3/S||S1/W||S1/W||S1/W|
|161/||185° 37′ 30″||S 6° W||S1/W||SbW1/S||S1/W||S1/W||S1/W|
|163/||188° 26′ 15″||S 8° W||S3/W||SbW1/S||S3/W||S3/W||S3/W|
|17||191° 15′ 0″||S 11° W||SbW|
|171/||194° 3′ 45″||S 14° W||SbW1/W||SSW3/S||SSW3/S||SbW1/W||SbW1/W|
|171/||196° 52′ 30″||S 17° W||SbW1/W||SSW1/S||SSW1/S||SbW1/W||SbW1/W|
|173/||199° 41′ 15″||S 20° W||SbW3/W||SSW1/S||SSW1/S||SbW3/W||SbW3/W|
|18||202° 30′ 0″||S 23° W||SSW|
|181/||205° 18′ 45″||S 25° W||SSW1/W||SWbS3/S||SSW1/W||SSW1/W||SSW1/W|
|181/||208° 7′ 30″||S 28° W||SSW1/W||SWbS1/S||SSW1/W||SSW1/W||SSW1/W|
|183/||210° 56′ 15″||S 31° W||SSW3/W||SWbS1/S||SSW3/W||SSW3/W||SSW3/W|
|19||213° 45′ 0″||S 34° W||SWbS|
|191/||216° 33′ 45″||S 37° W||SWbS1/W||SW3/S||SW3/S||SW3/S||SW3/S|
|191/||219° 22′ 30″||S 39° W||SWbS1/W||SW1/S||SW1/S||SW1/S||SW1/S|
|193/||222° 11′ 15″||S 42° W||SWbS3/W||SW1/S||SW1/S||SW1/S||SW1/S|
|20||225° 0′ 0″||S 45° W||SW|
|201/||227° 48′ 45″||S 48° W||SW1/W||SWbW3/S||SW1/W||SW1/W||SW1/W|
|201/||230° 37′ 30″||S 51° W||SW1/W||SWbW1/S||SW1/W||SW1/W||SW1/W|
|203/||233° 26′ 15″||S 53° W||SW3/W||SWbW1/S||SW3/W||SW3/W||SW3/W|
|21||236° 15′ 0″||S 56° W||SWbW|
|211/||239° 3′ 45″||S 59° W||SWbW1/W||WSW3/S||WSW3/S||SWbW1/W||SWbW1/W|
|211/||241° 52′ 30″||S 62° W||SWbW1/W||WSW1/S||WSW1/S||SWbW1/W||SWbW1/W|
|213/||244° 41′ 15″||S 65° W||SWbW3/W||WSW1/S||WSW1/S||SWbW3/W||SWbW3/W|
|22||247° 30′ 0″||S 68° W||WSW|
|221/||250° 18′ 45″||S 70° W||WSW1/W||WbS3/S||WSW1/W||WSW1/W||WbS3/S|
|221/||253° 7′ 30″||S 73° W||WSW1/W||WbS1/S||WSW1/W||WSW1/W||WbS1/S|
|223/||255° 56′ 15″||S 76° W||WSW3/W||WbS1/S||WSW3/W||WSW3/W||WbS1/S|
|23||258° 45′ 0″||S 79° W||WbS|
|231/||261° 33′ 45″||S 82° W||WbS1/W||W3/S||W3/S||W3/S||W3/S|
|231/||264° 22′ 30″||S 84° W||WbS1/W||W1/S||W1/S||W1/S||W1/S|
|233/||267° 11′ 15″||S 87° W||WbS3/W||W1/S||W1/S||W1/S||W1/S|
|24||270° 0′ 0″||W||W|
|241/||272° 48′ 45″||N 87° W||W1/N||WbN3/W||W1/N||W1/N||W1/N|
|241/||275° 37′ 30″||N 84° W||W1/N||WbN1/W||W1/N||W1/N||W1/N|
|243/||278° 26′ 15″||N 82° W||W3/N||WbN1/W||W3/N||W3/N||W3/N|
|25||281° 15′ 0″||N 79° W||WbN|
|251/||284° 3′ 45″||N 76° W||WbN1/N||WNW3/W||WNW3/W||WNW3/W||WbN1/N|
|251/||286° 52′ 30″||N 73° W||WbN1/N||WNW1/W||WNW1/W||WNW1/W||WbN1/N|
|253/||289° 41′ 15″||N 70° W||WbN3/N||WNW1/W||WNW1/W||WNW1/W||WbN3/N|
|26||292° 30′ 0″||N 68° W||WNW|
|261/||295° 18′ 45″||N 65° W||WNW1/N||NWbW3/W||WNW1/N||NWbW3/W||NWbW3/W|
|261/||298° 7′ 30″||N 62° W||WNW1/N||NWbW1/W||WNW1/N||NWbW1/W||NWbW1/W|
|263/||300° 56′ 15″||N 59° W||WNW3/N||NWbW1/W||WNW3/N||NWbW1/W||NWbW1/W|
|27||303° 45′ 0″||N 56° W||NWbW|
|271/||306° 33′ 45″||N 53° W||NWbW1/N||NW3/W||NW3/W||NW3/W||NW3/W|
|271/||309° 22′ 30″||N 51° W||NWbW1/N||NW1/W||NW1/W||NW1/W||NW1/W|
|273/||312° 11′ 15″||N 48° W||NWbW3/N||NW1/W||NW1/W||NW1/W||NW1/W|
|28||315° 0′ 0″||N 45° W||NW|
|281/||317° 48′ 45″||N 42° W||NW1/N||NWbN3/W||NW1/N||NW1/N||NW1/N|
|281/||320° 37′ 30″||N 39° W||NW1/N||NWbN1/W||NW1/N||NW1/N||NW1/N|
|283/||323° 26′ 15″||N 37° W||NW3/N||NWbN1/W||NW3/N||NW3/N||NW3/N|
|29||326° 15′ 0″||N 34° W||NWbN|
|291/||329° 3′ 45″||N 31° W||NWbN1/N||NNW3/W||NNW3/W||NNW3/W||NNW3/W|
|291/||331° 52′ 30″||N 28° W||NWbN1/N||NNW1/W||NNW1/W||NNW1/W||NNW1/W|
|293/||334° 41′ 15″||N 25° W||NWbN3/N||NNW1/W||NNW1/W||NNW1/W||NNW1/W|
|30||337° 30′ 0″||N 23° W||NNW|
|301/||340° 18′ 45″||N 20° W||NNW1/N||NbW3/W||NNW1/N||NbW3/W||NbW3/W|
|301/||343° 7′ 30″||N 17° W||NNW1/N||NbW1/W||NNW1/N||NbW1/W||NbW1/W|
|303/||345° 56′ 15″||N 14° W||NNW3/N||NbW1/W||NNW3/N||NbW1/W||NbW1/W|
|31||348° 45′ 0″||N 11° W||NbW|
|311/||351° 33′ 45″||N 8° W||NbW1/N||N3/W||N3/W||N3/W||N3/W|
|311/||354° 22′ 30″||N 6° W||NbW1/N||N1/W||N1/W||N1/W||N1/W|
|313/||357° 11′ 15″||N 3° W||NbW3/N||N1/W||N1/W||N1/W||N1/W|
|32||360° 0′ 0″||N||N|
- David Boardman. Graphicacy and Geography Teaching, 1983. Page 41 "In particular they should learn that wind direction is always stated as the direction from which, and not to which, the wind is blowing. Once children have grasped these eight points they can learn the full sixteen points of the compass."
- Evans, Frederick John (1859). "Notes on the Magnetism of Ships". Pamphlets on British shipping. 1785–1861. By unknown editor. p. 8 (p. 433 of PDF). ISBN 0-217-85167-3.
A deviation table having been formed by any of the processes now.so generally understood, either on the thirty-two points of the compass, the sixteen intermediate, or the eight principal points
- E. Chambers Cyclopaedia: or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Science, 5th Ed, 1743, pp. 206–7, "Points of the Compass, or Horizon, &c, in Geography and Navigation, are the points of division when the whole circle, quite around, is divided into 32 equal parts. These points are therefore at the distance of the 32d part of the circult, or 11°15′, from each other; hence 5°37 1/′ is the distance of the half points and 2°48 3/′ is the distance of the quarter points.
- Compass rose at geography.about.com
- Washington Education
- George Payn Quackenbos A Natural Philosophy: Embracing the Most Recent Discoveries 1860 "Mentioning the mariner's compass: the points of the compass in their order is called boxing the compass. — The compass box is suspended within a larger box by means of two brass hoops, or gimbals as they are called, supported at opposite ..."
- "Wordreference.com's entry for 'quarto'".
- "Wordreference.com's entry for 'di'".
- "Wordreference.com's entry for 'verso'".
- Nathaniel Bowditch, American Practical Navigator: An Epitome of Navigation and Nautical Astronomy, 1916, p. 16, "It is the custom in the United States Navy to box from north and south toward east and west, excepting that divisions adjacent to a cardinal or inter-cardinal point are always referred to that point;"
- Henry Raper, The Practice of Navigation and Nautical Astronomy, 10th Ed., 1870, p. 65, "A half-point, which is the middle division between two points, is called after that one of its adjacent points which is either a cardinal point, or is nearest to a cardinal point [...] In naming the half and quarter points it is advisable in some cases to sacrific system to simplicity. Thus, for example, seamen commonly say NNE1/E instead of NE by N1/N; "
- Wind Rose (archived) – discusses the origins of the names for compass directions.