Southwestern Tai languages
Distribution of the Southwestern Tai languages.
The internal classification of the Southwestern Tai languages is still not well agreed on.
Chamberlain (1975) divides Southwestern Tai into 4 branches.
Chamberlain based his classification on the following phonological patterns. (Note: For an explanation of the notation system for Tai tones, see Proto-Tai language#Tones.)
- /p/ vs. /ph/
- tone *A column split/merger pattern
- tone *BCD columns split/merger patterns
- B-DL tonal coalescence
- Proto-Southwestern Tai
- Branch with distinguishing innovation: /p/
- Branch with distinguishing innovation: /ph/ (*A 1-23-4)
Edmondson & Solnit (1997)
Edmondson & Solnit (1997) divide the Southwestern Tai languages into two major subgroups. According to this classification, Dehong Tai and Khamti are the first languages to have split off from the Southwestern Tai branch.
- Northern: Tai Nua = Shan-Tayok (Chinese Shan), Khamti
- Southern: Burman Shan ("Shan proper"), all other Southwestern Tai
A transition zone between the Northern and Southern groups occurs among the Tai languages (including Tai Mau) around the Burma-China border region of Mangshi, Namhkam, and Mu-se near Ruili.
This bipartite division of Southwestern Tai is argued for by Edward Robinson in his paper "Features of Proto-Nüa-Khamti" (1994). The following features set off the Nüa-Khamti group from all the other Southwestern Tai languages.
- Labialized velar stops have become velar stops.
- Tripartite split of the A tone A1-23-4
- Merger of A23 and B4
- The low vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ have merged with /e/ and /o/, respectively.
- *ʔb > m
Luo Yongxian (2001) also recognizes the uniqueness of Dehong Tai (Tai Nüa), but argues for that it should be placed in a separate Northwestern Tai branch with Southwestern Tai as a sister branch. Luo claims that the Northwestern Tai branch has many Northern Tai and Central Tai features that are not found in Southwestern Tai. His proposed tree for the Tai branch is as follows.
According to Pittayaporn (2009:301), Southwestern Tai (his subgroup Q) is defined by a phonological shift of *kr- → *ʰr-.
Pittayaporn (2014) also suggests that Southwestern Tai began to disperse southward after the 7th century C.E. but before the 11th century C.E. (between 700 and 1000 C.E., during the late Tang dynasty or early Song dynasty), as evidenced by loanwords from Late Middle Chinese.
Southern Thai (Pak Thai) is often posited to be the most divergent; it seems to retain regular reflexes of early tonal developments that were obscured in the other (Central–Eastern) languages. The reconstructed language is called Proto-Thai; cf. Proto-Tai, which is the ancestor of all of the Tai languages.
The following tree follows that of Ethnologue.
- Southern Thai (Pak Thai) (Thailand)
- Chiang Saen languages (10)
- Tai Dam (Black Tai; Vietnam, Thailand, Laos)
- Northern Thai (Lanna, Tai Yuan; Thailand, Laos, Burma)
- Phuan (Thailand)
- Thai Song (Thailand)
- Siamese (Central/Standard Thai; Thailand)
- Tai Hang Tong (Vietnam)
- Tai Dón (White Tai, Tai Kao; Vietnam, China)
- Tai Daeng (Vietnam)
- Tay Tac (Vietnam)
- Thu Lao (Vietnam)
- Lao–Phutai languages (4)
- Northwestern Tai languages (9)
- Ahom (Assam – extinct. Modern Assamese is Indo-European.)
- Lü (Lue, Tai Lue; China, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Burma)
- Khamti (Assam, Burma)
- Tai Laing (Tai Lai; Burma)
- Khün (Kuen; Burma)
- Khamyang (Assam)
- Shan (Tai Shan, Dehong; Burma)
- Tai Aiton (Assam)
- Tai Nüa (China, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos)
- Tai Phake (Assam)
- Turung (Assam)
According to Ethnologue, other Southwestern languages are Tai Ya (China), Pu Ko (Laos), Pa Di (China), Tai Thanh (Vietnam), Tai Long (Laos), Tai Hongjin (China), Yong (Thailand). It is not clear where they belong in the classification above. Ethnologue also lists under Tai, without further classification, Kuan (Laos), Rien (Laos, evidently spurious), Tai Do (Viet Nam), Tai Pao (Laos), and Tay Khang (Laos). Geographically these would all appear to be Southwestern.
Ethnologue also includes Tày Sa Pa (Sapa) of Vietnam, which Pittayaporn excludes from Southwestern Tai but classifies as the most closely related language outside of that group. Pittayaporn also includes Yoy, which Ethnologue classifies as a Northern Tai language.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Wenma–Southwestern Tai". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Southwestern Tai". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Chamberlain, James R. 1975. "A new look at the history and classification of the Tai dialects." In J. G. Harris and J. R. Chamberlain, eds, Studies in Tai Linguistics in Honor of William J. Gedney, pp. 49-60. Bangkok: Central Institute of English Language, Office of State Universities.
- However, this may be an error, since Nuea has /p/, not /ph/.
- Chamberlain, James R. 1984. "The Tai dialects of Khammouan province: their diversity and origins". Science of language, 4:62-95.
- Theraphan L-Thongkum. 2003. "The Tai Muong Vat do not Speak the Black Tai Language". In Manusya: Journal of Humanities, Special Issue 6, 74-86. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press.
- Edmondson, Jerold A., Solnit, David B., authors. 1997. "Comparative Shan." In Comparative Kadai: The Tai branch, Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.). pages 337-359. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 124. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.
- Luo Yongxian. 2001. The Hypothesis of a New Branch for the Tai Languages. University of Melbourne.
- Pittayaporn, Pittayawat. 2009. The Phonology of Proto-Tai. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Linguistics, Cornell University.
- Pittayaporn, Pittayawat. 2014. "Layers of Chinese Loanwords in Proto-Southwestern Tai as Evidence for the Dating of the Spread of Southwestern Tai". In Research Findings in Southeast Asain Linguistics, a Festschrift in Honor of Professor Pranee Kullavanijaya. Manusya, Special Issue 20. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press.
- Lewis, M. Paul (2009), Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16 ed.), SIL International