Monarchy of Monaco
|Sovereign Prince of Monaco|
since 6 April 2005
|Style||His Serene Highness|
|First monarch||Honoré II (as prince; previous rulers were called lords until 1612)|
|Formation||29 November 1604|
|Website||Monarchy of Monaco|
The sovereign prince (French: prince de Monaco) or princess of Monaco (French: princesse de Monaco) is the monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco. All reigning princes and princesses have taken the name of the House of Grimaldi, although some have belonged to other families (Goyon de Matignon or Polignac) in the male line. When Prince Rainier III died in 2005, he was Europe's longest reigning monarch. The Grimaldi family, which has ruled Monaco for eight centuries, is Europe's longest-ruling royal family.
Powers of the prince
The prince or princess of Monaco exercises their authority in accordance with the Constitution and laws. They represent the principality in foreign relations and any revision, either total or partial, of the Constitution must be jointly agreed to by the monarch and the National Council.
Legislative power is divided between the prince or princess who initiates the laws, and the National Council which votes on them. Executive power is retained by the monarch, who has veto power over all legislation proposed by the National Council.
The minister of state and the Government Council are directly responsible to the prince or princess for the administration of the principality.
Judiciary powers also belong to the monarch. The present Constitution states that the prince or princess has full authority in the courts and tribunals which render justice in his or her name.
Pursuant to Article 16 of the 1962 Constitution, the prince or princess confers orders, titles and other distinctions (see Awards and decorations of Monaco) as the fons honorum of the Principality of Monaco.
The princely family receives annual allocation from the budget of Monaco, €43.5 million in 2015.
Titles and styles
The prince or princess is styled His Serene Highness. Although used only formally, the prince also bears several other hereditary titles, some of which are occasionally bestowed on his relatives or their spouses. Some of these titles have merged with the Crown of Monaco as a result of the Grimaldi family's acquisition of various fiefs; they no longer imply ownership or territorial authority, although the princes of Monaco have long been substantial owners of land and chateaux in France. Most were granted or recognised by the Kingdom of France or the Papal States and could only pass through the male line; they therefore became extinct as French dignities on the death of Albert's great-grandfather Prince Louis II in 1949. Thereafter, some of these titles were implicitly re-created as distinctly Monegasque titles.
The current prince's complete titles and styles are, in precedent order of rank:
- Sovereign Prince of Monaco
- Duke of Valentinois
- Duke of Estouteville
- Duke of Mazarin
- Duke of Mayenne
- Prince of Château-Porcien
- Marquis of Baux (Title now used by Hereditary Prince Jacques)
- Marquis of Chilly-Mazarin
- Marquis of Guiscard
- Marquis of Bailli
- Count of Polignac (French title)
- Count of Carladès
- Count of Ferrette, Belfort, Thann and Rosemont
- Count of Torigni
- Count of Longjumeau
- Count of Clèdes
- Baron of Calvinet
- Baron of Buis
- Baron of La Luthumière
- Baron of Hambye
- Baron of Altkirch
- Baron of Saint-Lô
- Baron of Massy
- Seigneur (Lord) of Issenheim
- Seigneur of Saint-Rémy
- Sire of Matignon
All palace correspondence features capitalized pronouns when referring to the prince.
The tradition of the monarchy of Monaco was that the flag flying from the staff on the tower above his office be hoisted when the prince was present in Monaco. The current prince flies the flag whether he is present or not, preferring to keep his location private.
Monaco is officially protected by France, according to terms set forth in the Treaty of Versailles in 1918.
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- Conaway, James (17 February 1984). "The Monarch Alone". The Washington Post.
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- "Principauté de Monaco: Portail officiel du gouvernment princier". Les Pouvoirs Souverains. Etat de Monaco: La Direction de l’Administration Électronique et de l’Information aux Usagers. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Hodgson, Camilla (1 August 2017). "Richest royals: what Europe's royal families get from their taxpayers". Business Insider. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- Badts de Cugnac; Guy Coutant de Saisseval, Chantal (2002). Le Petit Gotha. Laballery. pp. 691–694, 699–703. ISBN 978-2950797438.
- Smith, Craig S. (2005-09-10). "The New Prince of Monaco Confronts His Past". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-04-07.