Premier of the Soviet Union

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Premier of the Soviet Union
Глава Правительства СССР
State Emblem of the Soviet Union.svg
ResidenceKremlin Senate, Moscow
Formation6 July 1923
First holderVladimir Lenin
Final holderIvan Silayev
Abolished26 December 1991
SuccessionPrime Minister of the Russian Federation

The Premier of the Soviet Union (Russian: Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The office had three different names throughout its existence: Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1923–1946), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1991) and Prime Minister of the Soviet Union (1991). The term premier was used by outside commentators to describe the office of head of government.

The first Soviet government was established on 6 July 1923. The government was empowered to initiate decrees and legislation that were binding throughout the USSR.[1] After the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, Kosygin was appointed head of government. However, Kosygin's prestige was weakened when he proposed the economic reform of 1965.[2] Upon Valentin Pavlov's ascension to the premiership, the Council of Ministers was abolished and replaced with the Cabinet of Ministers. After the failed August coup of 1991 and the revelation that the majority of the cabinet members endorsed the coup, the Cabinet of Ministers was dissolved and replaced by the Committee on the Operational Management of the Soviet economy in 1991. The government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic began seizing Soviet ministries in the aftermath of the coup, and by December 1991 the Soviet government had lost control.[3]

Under the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the head of government was the leader of the highest executive and administrative organ of state. It functioned as the most influential office of government until the establishment of the Office of the President of the Soviet Union in 1990. The head of government was responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet (and its Presidium).[4] The head of government was tasked with resolving all state administrative duties within the jurisdiction of the USSR to the degree which were not the responsibility of the Supreme Soviet or its Presidium. The head of government managed the national economy, formulated the five-year plans and ensured socio-cultural development.[5]

Twelve individuals became head of government. Of these, two died in office of natural causes (Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin), three resigned (Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Tikhonov and Ivan Silayev) and three held the offices of party secretary and head of government concurrently (Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev). Lenin was elected the first head of government on 6 July 1923 by a decision of the Central Executive Committee. Ivan Silayev spent the briefest time in office at 126 days. At more than 16 years, Kosygin spent the longest time in office.

Officeholders[edit]

[a] Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term Electorate Cabinets Ref.
Took office Left office Duration
1
Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
(1870–1924)
6 July 192321 January 1924 †199 daysLenin III[6]
2
Alexei Rykov
Alexei Rykov
(1881–1938)
2 February 192419 December 19306 years, 320 days1924
1925
1927
1929
Rykov IIIIIIIVV[7]
3
Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
(1890–1986)
19 December 19306 May 194110 years, 138 days1931
1935
1936
1937
Molotov IIIIIIIV[8]
4
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1878–1953)
6 May 19415 March 1953 †11 years, 303 days1946
1950
Stalin IIIIII[9]
5
Georgy Malenkov
Georgy Malenkov
(1902–1988)
6 March 19538 February 19551 year, 339 days1954Malenkov III[10]
6
Nikolai Bulganin
Nikolai Bulganin
(1895–1975)
8 February 195527 March 19583 years, 47 days1958Bulganin[11]
7
Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1894–1971)
27 March 195814 October 19646 years, 201 days1962Khrushchev III[10]
8
Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin
(1904–1980)
15 October 196423 October 198016 years, 8 days1966
1970
1974
1979
Kosygin IIIIIIIVV[12]
9
Nikolai Tikhonov
Nikolai Tikhonov
(1905–1997)
23 October 198027 September 19854 years, 339 days1984Tikhonov III[13]
10
Nikolai Ryzhkov
Nikolai Ryzhkov
(born 1929)
27 September 198514 January 19915 years, 109 days1989Ryzhkov III[13]
11
Valentin Pavlov
Valentin Pavlov
(1937–2003)
14 January 199122 August 1991220 daysPavlov[14]
12
Ivan Silayev
Ivan Silayev
(born 1930)
6 September 199126 December 1991111 daysSilayev[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ These numbers are not official.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Центральный Исполнительный Комитет съезда Советов. Статья №38 от Декабрь 1977 «Суверенные права союзных республик». (Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets. Article #38 of December 1924 Sovereign Rights of the Member Republics. ).
  2. ^ Brown 2009, p. 403.
  3. ^ Ferdinand 1993, p. 133.
  4. ^ Верховный Совет СССР. Федеральный конституционный закон №130 от 7 октября 1977 «Совета Министров СССР». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #130 of 7 October 1977 The Council of Ministers of the USSR. ).
  5. ^ Верховный Совет СССР. Федеральный конституционный закон №131 от 7 октября 1977 «Совета Министров СССР». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #131 of 7 October 1977 The Council of Ministers of the USSR. ).
  6. ^ Cull, Culbert & Welch 2003, p. 182.
  7. ^ Phillips 2000, p. 82.
  8. ^ Phillips 2000, p. 89.
  9. ^ Totten & Bartrop 2008, p. 76.
  10. ^ a b Duiker & Spielvogel 2006, p. 572.
  11. ^ Trahair & Miller 2004, p. 69.
  12. ^ Trahair & Miller 2004, p. 37.
  13. ^ a b Ploss 2010, p. 219.
  14. ^ Валентин Сергеевич Павлов [Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov] (in Russian). RU: Hrono. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  15. ^ Иван Степанович Силаев [Ivan Stepanovich Silayev] (in Russian). RU: Hrono. Retrieved 6 December 2010.

Sources[edit]