Soviet integrated circuit designation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

KL USSR KP580BM80A i8080 clone.jpg

This article describes the nomenclature for integrated circuits manufactured in the Soviet Union. 25 years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a number of manufacturers in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, and Uzbekistan still use this designation. The designation uses the Cyrillic alphabet which sometimes leads to confusion where a Cyrillic letter has the same appearance as a Latin letter but is romanized as a different letter. Furthermore, for some Cyrillic letters the Romanization is ambiguous.


The nomenclature for integrated circuits has changed somewhat over the years as new standards were published:

  • 1968 – NP0.034.000 (Russian: НП0.034.000) [1][2][3]: 19–23 [4]
  • 1973 – GOST 18682—73 (Russian: ГОСТ 18682—73) [2][3]: 19–23 [5]: 12–17 
  • 1980 – OST 11.073.915—80 (Russian: ОСТ 11.073.915—80) [6]: 10–16 [7]: 6–11 [8]: 8–10 [9][10]
  • 2000 – OST 11.073.915—2000 (Russian: ОСТ 11.073.915—2000) [11]
  • 2010 – GOST RV 5901-005—2010 (Russian: ГОСТ РВ 5901-005—2010) [12][13]

Throughout this article the standards are referred to by the year they came into force. Before 1968 each manufacturer used its own integrated circuit designation.[1][14] Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the standards were not as strictly enforced, and a number of manufacturers introduced manufacturer-specific designations again. These were typically used in parallel with the standards. However, integrated circuits for military, aerospace, and nuclear applications in Russia still have to follow the standard designation. Underlining this, the 2010 standard is explicitly labelled a Russian military standard. Beside Russia the 2010 standard is applied in Belarus as well. Companies in Ukraine mostly stayed with the 1980 standard and prefixed the designation with the letter У (U), e.g. УМ5701ВЕ51.[15] The 1980 standard was published in Ukraine as DSTU 3212—95 (Ukrainian: ДСТУ 3212-95). Bulgarian designations for bipolar integrated circuits, e.g. 1УО709С,[16] look confusingly similar to the 1968 Soviet designations but the standards differ. The functional group is also indicated by two letters in the Cyrillic alphabet and many groups were obviously copied from the Soviet standard (АГ, ИД, ИЕ, ЛБ, ЛН, ЛП, МП, ПК, СА, УС). Some subgroups differ (ТД, УМ, УО) and some groups are completely different (НС, ОИ, РН). For the number after the functional group there is no concept of a series. Instead, that number usually matches the Western counterpart (e.g. the 1УО709С is equivalent to a μA709).

Also as a consequence of dissolution of the Soviet Union, COCOM restrictions were lifted and Russian integrated circuit design firms gained access to foundries abroad. In that sense it could be argued that the importance of the Soviet designation has spread across the globe. When foundries are not able to label the circuit in the Cyrillic alphabet then the Latin alphabet is used (e.g. KF1174PP1[17]).

In general, devices already in production when a new standard came out kept their old designation. However, in some case devices were renamed:

  • When the 1980 standard was published, devices named after the 1968 standard and still in production were renamed, e.g. К1ЛБ553 to К155ЛА3.[1][18] As in this example, the renaming was often fairly straightforward: The two parts of the serial number were combined (1 and 55 to 155), the functional group remained unchanged or was converted as in the table below (ЛБ to ЛА), and the variant number remained unchanged (3). In some series the renaming was more complicated.[19] This change affected many series (e.g. 101, 116, 118, 122, 133, 140, 153, 155, 174, 237, 501).
  • Before the introduction of a package designation in 1980 the suffix П (P) was used in some series to indicate a plastic package (as opposed to the then more-common ceramic package). In 1983 the package designation was changed for the 531 series (e.g. К531ЛА19П to КР531ЛА19).[6]: 59–60  Other series were similarly renamed at some point (e.g. К501ХЛ1П to КР501ХЛ1).
  • Before the definition of group В (V) in 1980 computing devices were all assigned subgroup ИК (IK), e.g. microprocessors (КР580ИК80А), peripheral devices (КР580ИК51А). With the introduction of group В the devices in the 580 series were renamed (to КР580ВМ80А and КР580ВВ51А, respectively) in 1986.
  • Starting in 2016, certain newer devices were renamed according to the 2010 standard, e.g. 1967ВЦ2Ф to 1967ВН028[20] and 1586ПВ1АУ to 1583НВ025 (note the change of the series).[21]

Structure of the designation[edit]

Structure (1968)[edit]


Structure (1973 / 1980)[edit]

Structure of a Soviet integrated circuit designation with 4-digit series, following the 1980 standard (OST 11.073.915—80 ).png

Structure (2000)[edit]

OST 11.073.915—2000.png

Structure (2010)[edit]

GOST RV 5901-005—2010.png


  • 1 – Prefix (zero to three letters)
    • 1a – Export designation: The letter Э (E) here indicates an integrated circuit intended for export with a pin spacing of 2.54mm (1/10") or 1.27mm (1/20"). If this element is empty then the device has the Soviet (metric) spacing of 2.5mm or 1.25mm between pins.
    • 1b – Application area: The letter К (K) here indicates an integrated circuit for commercial and consumer applications (with requirements according to GOST 18725—83). If this element is empty then the device is intended for harsher environments (e.g. extended temperature range) which is also referred to as military acceptance (ВП).
    • 1cPackage designation (1980) (Note that the letters Э and К are not valid package designations. If this element is empty then the package is simply not specified in the designation, i.e. it could be any of the packages.)
  • 2 – Series (three or four digits)
  • 3Functional Group (two letters)
    • 3a – Group
    • 3b – Subgroup within the group: All groups have the subgroup П (P) for "others", that is for devices that fall into the group but not into any of the other defined subgroups.
    • 3cFunctional Group (2010): The functional groups for the 2010 standard are in a separate table since the change from 2000 to 2010 is far more drastic than any of the previous changes.
  • 4 – Variant within the functional subgroup (one to four digits): Usually the variant numbers are assigned sequentially for devices within the subgroup (e.g. ЛА1, ЛА2, ЛА3, etc.). In some series the variant number matches the last two or three digits of the designation of its Western counterpart (e.g. К500ЛК117 and MC10117).
    • 4a – For the 2010 standard, the variant is always 2 digits in length, with a leading zero if necessary. When there is no version letter then the variant appears to be 3 digits in length (e.g. 1906ВМ016) but the third digit is actually the package designation (element 5e).
  • 5 – Suffix
    • 5a – Version (one letter, А to Я except З and Й): This optional element indicates versions of an integrated circuit with different electrical or thermal characteristics (e.g. switching speed, voltage range, etc.). It can also indicate an improved version of a device (e.g. К580ИК80 vs. К580ИК80А). Before 1980 the suffix П (P) was sometimes used to indicate a version in a plastic package instead of a ceramic package (e.g. К145ИК2П, К531ЛА19П) or a round metal can (e.g. К144ИР1П).
    • 5b – Version (one letter, А to М except З and Й): This element is omitted if there is only one version of a device.
    • 5cPackage designation (2000) (one letter, Н to Я): If this element is empty then the package is simply not specified in the designation, i.e. it could be any of the packages. Note that the letter ranges for version and package designation do not overlap.
    • 5dManufacturer designation (two letters)
    • 5ePackage designation (2010) (one digit or letter Н)
    • 5f - Package variant (one letter; А, В, С, Е, Н, К, М, Р, Т, or Х): If variants of an integrated circuit have the same parameters and package designation but differ in pinout or number of pins, then this package variant letter is added (e.g. 5400ТР045 and 5400ТР045А).
    • 5g – Version (one letter; А, В, С, Е, К, М, Р, Т, or Х): This element is omitted if there is only one version of a device. Note that for the 2010 standard a different package is indicated by element 5f instead. Some vendors still assign version letters outside the allowed range (e.g. 1494УА02Б3).

Functional groups[edit]

Group Description Example[6][22][23]
Russian English 1968 1973 1980 2000 Original Equivalent
А A Pulse shapers and drivers
АА AA Address line drivers (esp. for magnetic-core memory) К170АА7 SN75327
АГ AG Square wave pulse shapers (including monostable multivibrators) К555АГ4 74LS221
АИ AI Time interval shaper (timer) 1512АИ1У
АН AN Voltage pulse shaper
АП AP Other pulse shapers (e.g. digital buffers including tri-state buffers, bubble memory drivers, CCD drivers) 533АП5 54LS244
АР AR Bit-line drivers (esp. for magnetic-core memory) 146АР1
АТ AT Current pulse shaper
АФ AF Pulse shapers for special waveforms К174АФ5
Б B Delay devices [a] Array of cells
БА BA Array of analogue cells [b] Н1451БА1У-А502
БК BK Array of mixed-signal cells [c] 1451БК2У
БМ BM Passive delay device
БП BP Other delay device Other array of cells (e.g. gate array plus processor) К5512БП1Ф
БР BR Active delay device (e.g. bucket-brigade device) КА528БР2
БЦ BTs, BC Array of digital cells (gate array) [d] 5585БЦ1У
В V Computing devices [e]
ВА VA Bus interface КР580ВА86 Intel 8286
ВБ VB Synchronization device (e.g. arbiter) КР1810ВБ89 Intel 8289
ВВ VV Input / output interface (e.g. serial or parallel interface) КР580ВВ55А Intel 8255
ВГ VG Controller (e.g. memory controller, video display controller) КР1810ВГ88 Intel 8288
ВД VD Microprocessor for embedded applications 1875ВД1Т Intel 80C186
ВЕ VE Single-chip microcontroller КМ1816ВЕ48 Intel 8748
ВЖ VZh Specialized device (e.g. error correction circuit) К1800ВЖ5 Motorola MC10905
ВИ VI Timer device, real-time clock КР580ВИ53 Intel 8253
ВК VK Combined device (e.g. bus controller, GPIB controller) КР580ВК28 Intel 8228
ВМ VM Microprocessor [f] КР580ВМ80A Intel 8080
ВН VN Programmable interrupt controller КР580ВН59 Intel 8259
ВП VP Other computing devices (e.g. gate array) К1801ВП1
ВР VR Extender for e.g. word size, number of ports, number of interrupt lines, available arithmetic operations (esp. a multiplier) КМ1804ВР1 AMD Am2902
ВС VS Microprocessor section, esp. bit-slice КР1804ВС1 AMD Am2901
ВТ VT Memory controller КР1804ВТ1 AMD Am2964
ВУ VU Microcode control device М1804ВУ4 AMD Am2909
ВФ VF Data transformation functions (calculation of e.g. CRC, Fourier transform) 1815ВФ3
ВХ VKh, VX, VH Devices for calculators К145ВХ1
ВЦ VTs, VC Digital signal processor [f] 1967ВЦ3Т ADSP-TS201
ВЮ VYu Controller with analogue inputs and outputs
ВЯ VYa Digital signal processor with analogue inputs and outputs 1879ВЯ1Я
Г G Signal generators and oscillators
ГГ GG Square wave generators (including astable multivibrators and blocking oscillators) КР531ГГ1 74S124
ГЛ GL Sawtooth wave generators (e.g. for CRT deflection circuits) К174ГЛ1 TDA1170
ГМ GM Noise generators К1316ГМ1У
ГН GN Programmable signal generators 1316ГН2Н4
ГП GP Other signal generators КМ1012ГП1 MM5555
ГС GS Sine wave generators (including harmonic oscillators) К277ГС1
ГФ GF Signal generators for special waveforms (including generators for multiple waveforms) К174ГФ2 XR2206
Д D Detectors and demodulators
ДА DA Amplitude modulation detectors К157ДА1
ДИ DI Pulse modulation detectors
ДН DN Voltage detector (monitor) К1230ДН1БР MC34161
ДП DP Other detectors К1230ДП46П MC34064
ДС DS Frequency modulation detectors К2ДС241
ДФ DF Phase modulation detectors К1102ДФ1 MC4044
Е E Power supply devices
ЕА EA Positive fixed-voltage linear regulator
ЕВ EV Rectifiers
ЕГ EG Negative adjustable-voltage linear regulator 1349ЕГ1У LM137
ЕД ED Dual-polarity symmetric fixed-voltage linear regulator
ЕЕ EE Voltage supervisor, reset circuit 1363ЕЕ1Т MAX709L
ЕИ EI Negative fixed-voltage linear regulator 1343ЕИ5У 7905
ЕК EK Switched-mode power supply devices К1156ЕК1АП LM2596
ЕЛ EL Dual-polarity asymmetric fixed-voltage linear regulator
ЕМ EM Electric power conversion devices (e.g. thyristor controller) КР1182ЕМ2
ЕН EN Linear voltage regulators К142ЕН8А 7808
ЕП EP Other power supply devices (e.g. charge pump devices) КР1168ЕП1 ICL7660
ЕР ER Positive adjustable-voltage linear regulator 1325ЕР1У AMS1117
ЕС ES Power supply systems
ЕТ ET Constant-current sources УР1101ЕТ51 TSM1051
ЕУ EU Controller for switched-mode power supplies КР1033ЕУ2 TDA4605
ЕФ EF Adjustable-voltage switched-mode power supply devices К1290ЕФ1АП LM2576-ADJ
Ж Zh Multi-functional devices [g]
ЖА ZhA Analog multi-functional devices [h] К2ЖА375
ЖВ ZhV Analog and logical multi-functional devices [i]
ЖЕ ZhE Analog and pulse multi-functional devices [i]
ЖГ ZhG Logical and pulse multi-functional devices [j] К1ЖГ453
ЖИ ZhI Pulse multi-functional devices [j]
ЖК ZhK Analog, logical, and pulse multi-functional devices [i]
ЖЛ ZhL Logical multi-functional devices [j] K5ЖЛ012
И I Digital circuits
ИА IA Arithmetic logic unit [k] 1815ИА1
ИВ IV Encoder [l] 1564ИВ3 54HC147
ИД ID Decoder КР1564ИД4 74HC155
ИЕ IE Counter 1594ИЕ19 54ACT393
ИК IK Combination of digital circuits [e][k] К145ИК1901
ИЛ IL Half adder K5ИЛ011
ИМ IM Full adder [m] КР1594ИМ6 74ACT283
ИН IN Interface receiver, transmitter, or transceiver 5559ИН1Т MAX232
ИП IP Other digital circuits (e.g. parity bit checker, multiplier) [k] К155ИП3 74181
ИР IR Register, shift register К561ИР2 4015
ИС IS Full adder [m]
ИФ IF Function expander (e.g. multiplier) 1825ИФ1У
ИШ ISh Encoder [l] К5ИШ011
К K Switches and Multiplexers
КД KD Diode-based switch
КЗ KZ Opto-electronic switch
КН KN Analogue switches and Multiplexers for voltages [n] КР590КН1
КП KP Other switches and multiplexers (especially digital; also optocouplers) К561КП1 4052
КТ KT Transistor-based switch Analogue switches and Multiplexers for currents [n] К561КТ3 4066
Л L Logic gates
ЛА LA NAND gates [o] К155ЛА3 7400
ЛБ LB NAND gates and NOR gates [o] 134ЛБ1
ЛД LD Expander [p] 133ЛД1 5460
ЛЕ LE NOR gates [o] 530ЛЕ1 54S02
ЛИ LI AND gates КР531ЛИ3 74S11
ЛК LK AND-OR-NOT/AND-OR gates [q] 199ЛК3
ЛЛ LL OR gates 533ЛЛ1 54LS32
ЛМ LM OR-NOT/OR gates К500ЛМ101 Motorola MC10101
ЛН LN NOT gates К555ЛН1 74LS04
ЛП LP Expander [p] Other gates (e.g. XOR gates, majority function gates) [r] 1531ЛП5 54F86
ЛР LR AND-OR-NOT gates КР1531ЛР11 74F51
ЛС LS AND-OR gates [q] К561ЛС2 4019
ЛЭ LE Other gates [r] К1ЛЭ941
М M Modulators
МА MA Amplitude modulators (e.g. ring modulator) КР140МА1
МИ MI Pulse modulators К854МИ1
МП MP Other modulators (e.g. quadrature amplitude modulator) 1324МП1У AD8346
МС MS Frequency modulators
МФ MF Phase modulators К1327МФ1У
Н N Arrays of electronic components
НД ND Diode array К142НД3
НЕ NE Capacitor array 2НЕ601
НК NK Array with a combination of components К217НК1
НП NP Array of other components
НР NR Resistor array [s] К318НР1
НС NS Resistor array [s] 3НС011А
НТ NT Transistor array КР198НТ9
НФ NF Array with a specific function (e.g. resistor ladder) 317НФ1
П P Signal converters
ПА PA Digital-to-analogue converter [t] КР572ПА7 AD7541
ПВ PV Analogue-to-digital converter [u] 1108ПВ1 TDC1013J
ПД PD Decoding converter (incl. Digital-to-analogue converter [t]) Pulse duration converter К1102ПД1
ПЕ PE Analogue frequency multiplier
ПК PK Coding converter (incl. Analogue-to-digital converter [u]) Analogue frequency divider [v] К1055ПК1Т1
ПЛ PL Frequency synthesizer КР1508ПЛ1 NJ88C30
ПМ PM Signal shape converter Power converter (including attenuators) КР1446ПМ1
ПН PN Voltage converter Voltage or current converter К252ПН1
ПП PP Other converter (including photovoltaic optocouplers) КР572ПП2 ICL7104
ПР PR Code converter К155ПР7 74185
ПС PS Frequency converter (including frequency mixers, analog multipliers) К174ПС4
ПТ PT Digital potentiometer 1315ПТ11Т AD8400
ПУ PU Signal level converter (including impedance matching, logic voltage level shifters) К561ПУ4 4050
ПФ PF Phase converter[w] Functional signal converter (e.g. digital autocorrelator) 5862ПФ1Н4
ПЦ PTs, PC Digital frequency divider К555ПЦ1 74LS292
Р R Memory devices [x]
РА RA Analogue memory Associative memory К589РА04 Intel 3104
РВ RV Matrix of ROM elements (e.g. diode matrix) К539РВ1А
РГ RG FIFO [y] 1642РГ1РБМ IDT7205L
РД RD DRAM [z] 1654РД2 MT48LC4M16A2P
РЕ RE ROM (including PROM) [aa] Mask ROM [aa] К155РЕ21 74187
РК RK Multi-ported RAM (e.g. dual-ported RAM) [y] 1642РК1УБМ IDT7005
РМ RM Matrix of RAM elements К188РМ1
РП RP Other memory devices (e.g. dual-ported RAM) [y] Other memory devices К1800РП6 Motorola MC10806
РР RR EEPROM [aa] EEPROM or flash memory with a parallel interface [ab] КМ1609РР1 2816
РС RS EEPROM or flash memory with a serial interface [ab] 1644PC1ATБM 24FC65
РТ RT PROM [aa] 530РТ1 54S287
РУ RU RAM (DRAM or SRAM) SRAM [z] КР537РУ16А 6264
РФ RF EPROM [aa] К573РФ8А 27256
РЦ RTs, RC Bubble memory К1602РЦ2Б
С S Comparators
СА SA Amplitude (signal level) comparator [ac] Voltage comparator К1401СА1 LM339
СВ SV Timing comparator К2СВ381
СК SK Amplitude (signal level) comparator (including sample-and-hold circuits)[ac] КР1100СК3 LF398
СП SP Other comparator (especially digital comparator) Other comparator К555СП1 74LS85
СС SS Frequency comparator К284СС2А
СФ SF Phase comparator[ad]
СЦ STs Digital comparator
Т T Triggers / Flip-Flops
ТВ TV JK flip-flops 1533ТВ6 54ALS107
ТД TD Dynamic flip-flops
ТК TK Combination of triggers / flip-flops K5TK011
ТЛ TL Schmitt triggers [ae] КР1533ТЛ2 74ALS14
ТМ TM D flip-flops 1554ТМ2 54AC74
ТП TP Other triggers / flip-flops
ТР TR RS flip-flops КР1554ТР2 74AC279
ТС TS T flip-flops [af] К2ТС241
ТТ TT T flip-flops [af]
ТШ TSh Schmitt triggers [ae] К1ТШ221В
У U Amplifiers
УБ UB Video amplifier К1УБ181Б
Instrumentation amplifier К1463УБ1Р
УВ UV Radio frequency (high frequency) amplifier 171УВ2 μA733
УГ UG Low-noise amplifier
УД UD Operational amplifier or Differential amplifier [ag] Operational amplifier КР140УД7 μA741
УЕ UE Unity gain buffer (e.g. emitter follower) [ah] КР1436УЕ1
УИ UI Pulse amplifier КР1054УИ1 TBA2800
УК UK Wideband amplifier (e.g. video amplifier) К174УК1 TCA660
УЛ UL Read amplifier (e.g. for magnetic core memory, magnetic tape, magnetic disks) КР1075УЛ1 TA7784P
УМ UM Indicator amplifier 564УМ1 4054
УН UN Audio frequency (low frequency) amplifier КР1438УН2 LM386
УП UP Other amplifier (e.g. log amplifier, limiter, gyrator) 174УП2 TL441CN
УР UR Intermediate-frequency amplifier К174УР12 TDA4420
УС US Sine wave amplifier Differential amplifier [ag] К157УС1
УТ UT DC amplifier [ag] КР119УТ1
УУ UU Programmable-gain amplifier К1463УУ1 AD620
УФ UF Functional amplifier (e.g. Log amplifier) 1313УФ1АУ
УЭ UE Unity gain buffer (e.g. emitter follower) [ah] К2УЭ182
Ф F Filters
ФА FA Adaptive filter
ФБ FB Band-pass filter [ai]
ФВ FV High-pass filter 528ФВ1
ФГ FG Band-stop filter [aj]
ФЕ FE Band-pass filter [ai] 811ФЕ1
ФМ FM Programmable filter
ФН FN Low-pass filter И1146ФН1
ФП FP Band-pass filter [ai] Other filter КР1146ФП1 MK5912
ФР FR Band-stop filter [aj]
ФС FS Smoothing filter
ФУ FU Universal filter 1478ФУ1Т MAX274
Х Kh, X, H Multi-functional devices [g]
ХА KhA, XA, HA Analog multi-functional devices [h] КР1568ХА3 TDA4555
ХБ KhB, XB, HB Multifunctional device for radio, television, tape recorders, displays К1879ХБ1Я
ХВ KhV, XV, HV Multi-functional device for automotive electronics К1323ХВ1Р L497B
ХД KhD, XD, HD Multi-functional device for telecommunications 1892ХД1Я
ХИ KhI, XI, HI Array of analogue cells [ak]
ХК KhK, XK, HK Combination of multifunctional devices (including mixed-signal multi-functional devices) [i] КР1051ХК1 TDA8432
ХЛ KhL, XL, HL Digital multi-functional devices [j] КР1568ХЛ2 TDA3048
ХМ KhM, XM, HM Array of digital cells (gate array) [d] 1515ХМ1
ХН KhN, XN, HN Array of analogue cells [b] Н1451ХН3-А502
ХП KhP, XP, HP Other multi-functional devices (e.g. programmable logic devices) Other multi-functional devices [al] КР1556ХП4 PAL16R4
ХР KhR, XR, HR Multi-functional circuit for household devices К1331ХР1П
ХС KhS, XS, HS Programmable logic devices [am] 5577ХС2Т Actel RH1020
ХТ KhT, XT, HT Array of mixed-signal cells [c] 5515ХТ1У
ХХ KhKh, XX, HH Multi-functional devices for power electronics 1474ХХ3Т HCPL316J
Ц Ts, C Charge-coupled device image sensors
ЦЛ TsL, CL One-dimensional (linear) image sensor 1200ЦЛ3 CCD131
ЦМ TsM, CM Two-dimensional image sensor К1200ЦМ1 CCD211
ЦП TsP, CP Other image sensor
Ч Ch Transducers / Sensors
ЧВ ChV Humidity sensor
ЧГ ChG Gas sensor
ЧД ChD Pressure sensor К1245ЧД1Н3
ЧИ ChI Ionizing radiation sensor
ЧМ ChM Mechanical displacement sensor 1243ЧМ3Н4
ЧП ChP Other sensor
ЧТ ChT Temperature sensor 1019ЧТ4У LM135
ЧЭ ChE Electromagnetic field sensor
Ш Sh Delay devices [a]
ШП ShP Other delay device
ШС ShS Active or passive delay device
Э E Delay devices [a]
ЭМ EM Passive delay device
ЭП EP Other delay device
ЭР ER Active delay device (e.g. bucket-brigade device)
Я Ya Memory devices [x]
ЯЛ YaL Magnetic memory device
ЯП YaP Other memory device (e.g. RAM or ROM memory element) K5ЯП011
ЯМ YaM Matrix of memory elements (RAM or ROM) К1ЯМ411

Functional groups (2010)[edit]

Group Description Example
Russian English 2010 Original Equivalent
А A Signal generators and oscillators
АН AN Programmable signal generators 5025АН015
АС AS Sine wave generators (including harmonic oscillators) 1508АС01А5
В V Computing devices
ВВ VV Input / output interface (e.g. serial or parallel interface) 2011ВВ034
ВМ VM Microprocessor 1907ВМ014
ВН VN Digital signal processor [f] 1967ВН034 ADSP-TS201
Е E Power supply devices
ЕВ EV Switched-mode power supply devices 5319ЕВ025
ЕН EN Linear voltage regulator 1380ЕН013
ЕР ER Positive adjustable-voltage linear regulator 1378ЕР014
ЕС ES Voltage reference devices 1369ЕС01В4
ЕТ ET Constant current sources 3005ЕТ015
ЕУ EU Controller for switched-mode power supplies 1363ЕУ045
ЕХ EKh, EX Other power supply devices K5300ЕХ025
К K Switches and Multiplexers
КИ KI Intelligent switch (power switch with protection circuits) К1376КИ021 BTS141
КН KN Analogue switches and Multiplexers 5023КН015 ADG731
КХ KKh, KX Other switches and multiplexers 1923КХ028
Н N Signal converters
НА NA Digital-to-analogue converter [t] 430НА014
НВ NV Analogue-to-digital converter [u] 5023НВ04В5
НХ NKh, NX Other converters К5331НХ011
Р R Memory devices
РА RA SRAM 1669РА03Н4 ACT-S512K8
РР RR EEPROM or Flash memory with a parallel interface 9023РР018
РС RS EEPROM or Flash memory with a serial interface 5578РС015
РТ RT PROM 5578РТ015
С S Comparators
СА SA Voltage comparator 1495СА065
СХ SKh, SX Other comparator 5322СХ085
Т T Multi-functional devices
ТА TA Analog multi-functional devices [h]
ТВ TV Digital multi-functional devices [j] 5861ТВ01Н4
ТК TK Combination of multifunctional devices (including mixed-signal multi-functional devices) [i] 5201ТК015
ТМ TM Array of analogue cells [b]
ТН TN Array of digital cells (gate array) [d] 5529ТН114
ТР TR Array of mixed-signal cells [c] 5400ТР045А
ТС TS Programmable logic devices [am] 5578ТС024
ТХ TKh, TX Other multi-functional devices [al] 1888ТХ018
У U Amplifiers
УА UA Operational amplifier 1494УА02Б3
УМ UM Functional amplifier (e.g. Log amplifier) 1259УМ015 AD640
УР UR Intermediate-frequency amplifier 5421УР015
УС US Differential amplifier 544УС015
УХ UKh, UX Other amplifier 1288УХ025
  1. ^ a b c In 1973 group Ш was moved to Б and then in 2000 to Э. Unfortunately, this makes some transcriptions ambiguous since both Е and Э are transcribed as E.
  2. ^ a b c Subgroup ХН was moved to БА in 2000 and then to ТМ in 2010.[13]
  3. ^ a b c Subgroup ХТ was moved to БК in 2000 and then to ТР in 2010.[13]
  4. ^ a b c Subgroup ХМ was moved to БЦ in 2000 and then to ТН in 2010.[13]
  5. ^ a b Before the definition of group В (V) in 1980 computing devices were all assigned subgroup ИК (IK), e.g. microprocessors (КР580ИК80А), peripheral devices (КР580ИК51А). With the introduction of group В the devices in the 580 series were renamed (to КР580ВМ80А and КР580ВВ51А, respectively) in 1986.
  6. ^ a b c Initially digital signal processors (DSP) were assigned subgroup ВМ (VM, e.g. 1867ВМ2). In 2000 the new subgroup ВЦ (VTs) was added (e.g. 1867ВЦ2АТ). In 2010 DSP were moved to subgroup ВН (VN).[20]
  7. ^ a b In 1973 group Ж was replaced with group Х.
  8. ^ a b c Analog multi-functional devices were moved in 1973 from subgroup ЖА to ХА and then in 2010 to ТА.[13]
  9. ^ a b c d e In 1973 the subgroups ЖВ, ЖЕ, and ЖК were combined into subgroup ХК. In 2010 digital multi-functional devices were moved to subgroup ТК.[13]
  10. ^ a b c d e In 1973 the subgroups ЖГ, ЖИ, and ЖЛ were combined into subgroup ХЛ. In 2010 digital multi-functional devices were moved to subgroup ТВ.[13]
  11. ^ a b c Before the introduction of subgroup ИА in 1980, many ALU devices had already been assigned subgroups ИК (e.g. КР531ИК2) or ИП (e.g. К155ИП3, 564ИП3, КР1530ИП14).
  12. ^ a b In 1973 encoders were moved from subgroup ИШ to subgroup ИВ.
  13. ^ a b In 1973 full adders were moved from subgroup ИС to subgroup ИМ.
  14. ^ a b The distinction between voltage switches (КН) and current switches (КТ) is somewhat unclear. There are analogue switches and multiplexers in both subgroups.
  15. ^ a b c With the introduction of subgroups ЛА and ЛЕ in 1973 most devices from subgroup ЛБ were re-labelled (e.g. К1ЛБ553 to К155ЛА3). It appears that subgroup ЛБ was kept in the standard for devices from subgroup ЛБ that fit neither in ЛА nor in ЛЕ (e.g. 134ЛБ2 with 2 NAND gates and 1 NOT gate).
  16. ^ a b In 1973 expander circuits were moved from subgroup ЛП to subgroup ЛД.
  17. ^ a b All known ECL devices in subgroup ЛК are listed as OR-AND-NOT instead of AND-OR-NOT.[6]: 90 [22] The equivalent Motorola devices (e.g. Motorola MC10117 for К500ЛК117) are also listed as OR-AND-NOT. Similarly, ECL devices in subgroup ЛС are listed as OR-AND instead of AND-OR (e.g. К500ЛС118, equivalent to Motorola MC10118).
  18. ^ a b In 1973 the catch-all subgroup ЛЭ was moved to ЛП.
  19. ^ a b In 1973 resistor arrays were moved from subgroup НС to subgroup НР.
  20. ^ a b c In 1973 D/A converters were moved from subgroup ПД to subgroup ПА and then in 2010 to НА.[21]
  21. ^ a b c In 1973 A/D converters were moved from subgroup ПК to subgroup ПВ and then in 2010 to НВ.[21]
  22. ^ For the 1980 standard subgroup ПК is listed in [6][8][9] but not in.[7][10]
  23. ^ For the 1980 standard subgroup ПФ is listed in [7][10] but not in.[6][8][9]
  24. ^ a b In 1973 group Я was replaced with group Р.
  25. ^ a b c Initially FIFO and multi-port devices were included in subgroup РП. In 2000 they were assigned the separate subgroups РГ and РК, respectively.
  26. ^ a b In 2000 subgroup РУ was split into РУ and РД, with РУ from then on limited to SRAM.
  27. ^ a b c d e In 1980 subgroup РЕ was split into РЕ, РР, РТ, and РФ, with РЕ from then on limited to mask ROM. In [5]: 19  РР and РТ are listed for the 1973 standard. This is somewhat implausible, as early PROMs were placed in subgroup РЕ (e.g. К555РЕ4[6]: 59  or К500РЕ149[6]: 91 ).
  28. ^ a b Initially subgroup РР was used for all EEPROM and Flash devices, regardless of the interface. In 2000 subgroup РС was introduced for devices with a serial interface and subgroup РР was limited to devices with a parallel interface.
  29. ^ a b In 1980 amplitude comparators were moved from subgroup СА to subgroup СК.
  30. ^ For the 1980 standard subgroup СФ is listed in [10] but not in.[6][7][8][9]
  31. ^ a b In 1973 Schmitt triggers were moved from subgroup ТШ to subgroup ТЛ.
  32. ^ a b In 1973 T flip-flops were moved from subgroup ТС to subgroup ТТ.
  33. ^ a b c Until 1973 both differential and operational amplifiers were included in subgroup УТ. In 1980 differential amplifiers were moved out of subgroup УД into their own subgroup УС.
  34. ^ a b In 1973 unity gain buffers were moved from subgroup УЭ to subgroup УЕ.
  35. ^ a b c In 1973 band-pass filters were moved from subgroup ФП to subgroup ФЕ, and then in 2000 to subgroup ФБ.
  36. ^ a b For 1968 [2] lists ФГ for band-stop filters while [3] lists ФС. In 1973 band-stop filters were moved to subgroup ФР.
  37. ^ Group ХИ is somewhat dubious. For the 1980 standard it is listed in [10][7] while [6][8] give ХН instead for arrays of analogue cells.
  38. ^ a b Subgroup ХП was moved to ТХ in 2010.[13]
  39. ^ a b Subgroup ХС was moved to ТС in 2010.[13]


Package designation (1973)[edit]

The package of an integrated circuit was generally not indicated in the 1973 designation, except:

  • Bare chips without a package received a series number in the 7xx range, e.g. K712RV2-1 (К712РВ2-1).
  • The suffix П (P) was sometimes used to indicate a version in a plastic package instead of a ceramic package (e.g. К145ИК2П, К531ЛА19П) or a round metal can (e.g. К144ИР1П).
  • Less common than П, the suffix М (M) was sometimes used to indicate a ceramic package and Т (T) for a metal-ceramic package (e.g. К500ТМ133М and К500ТМ133Т, respectively, instead of К500ТМ133 in a plastic package).[9]

Package designation (1980)[edit]

Package Description
Russian English
А A Plastic flatpack
Б B Bare chip without package
Е E Metal-polymer dual in-line package (DIP)
И I Glass-ceramic flatpack
Л L Pin grid array (PGA) or ball grid array (BGA)
М M Metal-ceramic dual in-line package (DIP)
Н N Ceramic leadless chip carrier
Р R Plastic dual in-line package (DIP)
С S Glass-ceramic dual in-line package (DIP)
Ф F Small outline package

Package designation (2000)[edit]

Package Description
Russian English
Н N Bare chip without package
П P Single in-line package (SIP), zig-zag in-line package (ZIP)
Р R Dual in-line package (DIP)
С S Round metal can package
Т T Flatpack, small outline package (SOP), quad flat package (QFP)
У U Chip carrier
Ф F Pin grid array (PGA)
Я Ya Ball grid array (BGA)

Package designation (2010)[edit]

Package Description
Russian English
1 Single in-line package (SIP), zig-zag in-line package (ZIP)
2 Dual in-line package (DIP)
3 Round metal can package
4 Flatpack, small outline package (SOP), quad flat package (QFP)
5 Chip carrier
6 Pin grid array (PGA)
8 Ball grid array (BGA)
Н N Bare chip without package

Bare chips[edit]

For bare chips without a package an additional digit indicates the constructive variant.[6]: 16 [9][10][11] For the 1973 and 1980 standards the variant digit is appended with a dash after the designation (e.g. К712РВ2-1 and Б533ТМ2-2, respectively). For the 2000 and 2010 standards the variant digit follows immediately after the package designation N (e.g. 5862ПФ1Н4 and 1374МХ01Н1, respectively).

Constructive variant Description
1 with flexible wires (flying wire)
2 on polyamide carrier tape (film bonding technology)
3 with rigid wires (beam lead technology)
4 on a wafer (uncut)
5 on a wafer, cut without loss of orientation (e.g. pasted on a carrier)
6 with bonding pads without wires

Manufacturer designation[edit]

A manufacturer designation was introduced only with the 2000 standard. The table below is incomplete, many manufacturers still do not use their assigned designation. Manufacturer logos[24] [25] are more common.

Designation Manufacturer
Russian English
АМ AM Angstrem, Zelenograd, Russia[26]
АР AR AS Alfa, Riga, Latvia[27]
ББ BB OAO "BZPP", Bolkhov, Russia[28]
БМ BM OAO "Integral", Minsk, Belarus[29]
БС BS SIT, Bryansk, Russia[30]
ВК VK AO "Voshod", Kaluga, Russia[31]
ИМ IM "Transistor" branch of OAO "Integral", Minsk, Belarus[32]
КБ KB ZAO "Kremny-Marketing", Bryansk, Russia[33]
МК MK ZAO "OKB MEL", Kaluga, Russia[34]
ММ MM OAO "NIIME and Mikron", Moscow, Russia[35]
НИ NI MVC[36] / NIIIS,[37] Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
НН NN AO "NZPP", Novosibirsk, Russia[38]
НТ NT AO "NIIPP", Tomsk, Russia[39]
ПМ PM OAO "Pulsar", Moscow, Russia[40]
РА RA RD Alfa, Riga, Latvia[41]
СО SO Orbita, Saransk, Russia[42]
СП SP ZAO Svetlana Semiconductors, Saint Petersburg, Russia[43]
ЭВ EV OAO "VZPP-S", Voronezh, Russia[44]
ЭП EP OAO "Exiton", Moscow, Russia[45]

Other manufacturers which as of 2016 used a version of the Soviet integrated circuit designation include NTC Module,[46] MCST,[47] ELVEES Multicore,[48] Fizika,[49] Optron,[50] Sapfir,[51] NPK TTs,[52] and Progress,[53] all of them in Moscow, as well as PKK Milandr,[54] Soyuz,[55] and NIITAP in Zelenograd,[56] NIIET Voronezh,[57] SKTB ES Voronezh,[58] Proton[59] and Proton-Impuls[60] Oryol, Vostok Novosibirsk,[61] NZPP-KBR Nalchik,[62] Planeta Novgorod,[63] Iskra Ulyanovsk,[64] NIIEMP Penza,[65] Almaz Kotovsk,[66] Eltom Tomilino,[67] Krip Tekhno Alexandrov,[68] DELS Minsk,[69] Kvazar Kiev,[70] Kristall Kiev,[15] Elektronni Komponenti Ivano-Frankivsk,[71] Dnepr Kherson,[72] and Foton Tashkent.[73]

Other markings[edit]

Although not strictly part of the designation, a number of markings are often found on integrated circuit packages:[74][13]

Marking Description
Russian English
ОП OP Engineering or pre-production sample
ОС OS Military acceptance, higher quality and reliability
ОСД OSD Military acceptance, higher quality and reliability, extended lifetime
ОСМ OSM Military acceptance, highest quality and reliability, available in only in small quantities
С S Military acceptance, used in the 1970s instead of ОС

Military acceptance here means that the integrated circuit can be used in applications where its failure would be catastrophic and where repair or exchange is difficult or impossible (e.g. aerospace applications).

For mask-programmed devices (e.g. gate arrays, mask-programmed single-chip microcontrollers, mask ROMs) a three- or four-digit mask number follows the type designation (e.g. К1801ВП1-014).

For bare chips a one-digit constructive variant identifier follows the type designation.

A date code is usually printed on the package. In the early 1970s the date code consisted of a Roman numeral for the month and a two-digit year (e.g. IX 72). Later the month was given as one or two digits (e.g. 5-73 or 0386). In the late 1980s most plants switched to a 4-digit code with a 2-digit year followed by a 2-digit month (e.g. 8909) or a 2-digit week (e.g. 9051). Overall, the date code format was not strictly enforced. Several series of integrated circuits (e.g. 1408, 1821) bore an IEC 60062 letter and digit code (e.g. A1 for January 1990).


The Romanization of Russian is standardized, but there are at least 12 standards to choose from. Fortunately, the Soviet integrated circuit designation uses a subset of the Cyrillic alphabet where only a few letters are ambiguous:

  • Ж: Ž, Zh
  • Х: X, H, Ch, Kh
  • Ц: C, Cz, Ts, Tc
  • Ч: Č, Ch

The more-common romanizations in bold are given as alternatives in the above tables.

Е and Э are both romanized as E.

The French romanization of Russian and the German romanization of Russian differ in some letters from the one used in English. For instance, the Russian КР580ВМ80A becomes KR580VM80A in English and French but KR580WM80A in German literature.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "102ая и 116ая серии" [Series 102 and 116] (in Russian). Музей электронных раритетов. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  2. ^ a b c "Условные обозначения микросхем" [Integrated circuit designations]. «Радио» (in Russian). March 1977. pp. 57–58. Retrieved 19 November 2017. Translated in "Bezeichnungskode für sowjetische IS" [Designation code for Soviet ICs] (PDF). Radio Fernsehen Elektronik (in German). 29 (7): 446. 1980. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  3. ^ a b c Москатов, Евгений Анатольевич. "Справочник по полупроводниковым приборам" [Handbook of semiconductor devices] (PDF) (in Russian). Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  4. ^ Schubert, Karl-Heinz (1 February 1974). Elektronisches Jahrbuch für den Funkamateur 1975 [Electronics Yearbook for the Radio Amateur 1975] (in German). Berlin: Militärverlag der DDR. pp. 117–126. ISSN 0424-8678. OCLC 74220762.
  5. ^ a b Якубовский, Сергей Викторович (1979). Аналоговые И Цифровые Интегральные Схемы [Analogue and digital integrated circuits] (in Russian). Советское Радио. Translated in "USSR Report - Cybernetics, Computers and Automation Technology (FOUO 19/81)" (PDF). CIA. 19 August 1981. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ниссельсон, Л.И. (1989). Цифровые и аналоговые интегральные микросхемы [Digital and analog integrated circuits] (in Russian). Радио и связь. ISBN 5256002597.
  7. ^ a b c d e Нефедов, А.В. (1997). Интегральные микросхемы и их зарубежные аналоги. Том 05. Серии К544-К564 [Integrated circuits and their foreign equivalents. Volume 05. Series K544-K564.] (in Russian). Moscow: ИП РадиоСофт. ISBN 5-85554-158-4. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e Шахнова, В. А. (1988). Микропроцессоры и микропроцессорные комплекты интегральных микросхем: Справочник. В 2-х т. Том 1 [Microprocessors and microprocessor chip sets: A reference. In 2 volumes. Vol. 1] (in Russian). Moscow: Радио и связь. ISBN 5-256-00371-2. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Datenblattsammlung "Aktive elektronische Bauelemente" 3/84 [Data sheet collection "Active electronic components" 3/84] (PDF) (in German). Berlin: VEB Applikationszentrum Elektronik. December 1984. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Система условных обозначений отечественных интегральных микросхем" [Nomenclature of domestic integrated circuits] (in Russian). СМИ Сайт-ПАЯЛЬНИК ''. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  11. ^ a b "Система условных обозначений отечественных интегральных микросхем" [Nomenclature of domestic integrated circuits] (in Russian). Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  12. ^ "ГОСТ РВ 5901-005—2010" [GOST RV 5901-005—2010] (in Russian). Moscow: Russian State Library. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j А. Денисов; В. Коняхин (2019). Полузаказные БИС на БМК серий 5503 и 5507. В 4 книгах. Практическое пособие. Книга 1. Методология проектирования и освоение производства [Semi-custom LSI using gate arrays of the 5503 and 5507 series. In 4 volumes. Practical guide. Volume 1: Design methodology and production development] (in Russian). Moscow: Tekhnosfera. pp. 2-5–2-8. ISBN 978-5-94836-442-1.
  14. ^ "Обозначения первых микросхем" [Designations of the first integrated circuits] (in Russian). Музей электронных раритетов. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  15. ^ a b "Продукция" [Products] (in Russian). Kiev: OOO "NPO Kristall". Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  16. ^ Техническа информация 1985 [Technical information 1985] (in Bulgarian). NPSK Botevgrad. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  17. ^ "КФ1174ПП1" [KF1174PP1] (in Russian). Moscow: AO "NIIMA Progress". Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  18. ^ "О новых обозначениях". «Радио» (in Russian). March 1981. p. 61. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  19. ^ "156ая серия" [156 series] (in Russian). Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  20. ^ a b "Новое обозначение микросхем серии 1967" [New designation for integrated circuits of the 1967 series] (in Russian). PKK Milandr. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  21. ^ a b c "Внимание! Изменение условных обозначений" [Attention! Change of designation] (in Russian). OAO Fizika. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  22. ^ a b Козак, Виктор Романович (24 May 2014). "Номенклатура и аналоги отечественных микросхем" [Nomenclature and equivalents of domestic integrated circuits] (in Russian). Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  23. ^ "Активные элементы" [Active components] (in Russian). Музей электронных раритетов. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  24. ^ Vishnevsky, Igor (20 March 2008). "Logos of soviet manufacturers". Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  25. ^ Е.Ю. Овчинников. "Логотипы производителей электронных компонентов" [Electronic component manufacturer logos] (in Russian). Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  26. ^ "Микросхемы высокой стойкости" [High resilience integrated circuits] (in Russian). Zelenograd: Angstrem. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  27. ^ "Аннотация продукции АО "Альфа"" [Abstract of products from AS Alfa] (in Russian). Riga: AS Alfa RPAR. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  28. ^ "КАТАЛОГ ИЗДЕЛИЙ" [Product catalog] (PDF) (in Russian). Bolkhov: OAO "BZPP". 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  29. ^ "Интегральные микросхемы" [Integrated circuits] (in Russian). Minsk: OAO "Integral". Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  30. ^ "Каталог" [Catalog] (in Russian). Bryansk: ZAO "NTTs SIT". Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  31. ^ "Микросхемы" [Integrated circuits] (in Russian). Kaluga: AO "Voshod". Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  32. ^ "Интегральные микросхемы" [Integrated circuits] (in Russian). Minsk: "Transistor" branch of OAO "Integral". Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  33. ^ "КАТАЛОГ ИЗДЕЛИЙ" [Product catalog] (in Russian). Bryansk: ZAO Kremny Marketing. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  34. ^ "Продукция" [Products] (in Russian). Kaluga: ZAO "OKB MEL". Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  35. ^ "Микросхемы ПАО Микрон 2020" [Integrated Circuits PAO Mikron 2020] (PDF) (in Russian). Mikron. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  36. ^ "РАЗРАБАТЫВАЕМЫЕ МИКРОСХЕМЫ - КАТАЛОГ 2017" [Developed integrated circuits - catalog 2017] (PDF) (in Russian). Nishny Novgorod: MVC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  37. ^ "Радиационно стойкие микросхемы НИИИС" [Radiation-resistant integrated circuits from NIIIS] (in Russian). Nizhny Novgorod: NIIIS. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  38. ^ "ПРОДУКЦИЯ" [Products] (in Russian). Novosibirsk: AO NZPP. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  39. ^ "Каталог продукции" [Product catalog] (in Russian). Tomsk: AO "NIIPP". Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  40. ^ "ПОЛУПРОВОДНИКОВЫЕ ПРИБОРЫ И ИМС" [Semiconductor Devices and IC] (in Russian). Moscow: OAO NPP "Pulsar". Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  41. ^ "Каталог товаров" [Product catalog] (in Russian). Riga: RD Alfa. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  42. ^ "Интегральные микросхемы для техники специального назначения" [Integrated circuits for special-purpose machinery] (in Russian). Saransk: AO "Orbita". Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  43. ^ "Каталог продукции" [Product catalog] (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: ZAO Svetlana Semiconductors. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  44. ^ "Каталог изделий 2020" [Product catalog 2020] (PDF). (in Russian). Voronezh: OAO "VZPP-S". Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  45. ^ "Интегральные микросхемы" [Integrated circuits] (in Russian). Moscow: OAO "Exiton". Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  46. ^ "Микроэлектроника" [Microelectronics] (in Russian). NTC Module. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  47. ^ "Микропроцессоры и СБИС" [Microprocessors and VLSI] (in Russian). Moscow: MCST. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  48. ^ "Микросхемы" [Integrated circuits] (in Russian). Zelenograd: Elvees Multicore. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  49. ^ "Продукция" [Products] (in Russian). Moscow: OAO NPO "Fizika". Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  50. ^ "Каталог" [Catalog] (in Russian). Moscow: AO "Optron". Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  51. ^ "Продукция" [Products] (in Russian). Moscow: PAO NPP "Sapfir". Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  52. ^ "Микросхемы" [Integrated circuits] (in Russian). Moscow: NPK "TTs". Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  53. ^ "БИС и СБИС" [LSI and VLSI] (in Russian). Moscow: AO NIIMA "Progress". Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  54. ^ "Каталог продукции группы компаний «Миландр» 2020" [Product catalog of the Milandr Group 2020] (PDF) (in Russian). Moscow: PKK Milandr. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  55. ^ "Продукция" [Products] (in Russian). Zelenograd: AO Design Centre Soyuz. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  56. ^ "АО "НИИТАП"" [AO "NIITAP"] (in Russian). Zelenograd: AO "NIITAP". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  57. ^ "Интегральные микросхемы" [Integrated circuits]. (in Russian). Voronezh: OAO "NIIET". Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  58. ^ "ОСВОЕННЫЕ МИКРОСХЕМЫ" [Integrated circuits in production] (in Russian). Voronezh: OAO "SKTB ES". Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  59. ^ "Оптроны и твердотельные реле" [Optocouplers and solid state relays] (in Russian). Oryol: OAO "Proton". Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  60. ^ "Микросборки (твердотельные реле с приемкой "5")" [Hybrid integrated circuits (solid state relays with acceptance "5")] (in Russian). Oryol: ZAO "Proton-Impuls". 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  61. ^ "ПРОДУКЦИЯ" [Products] (in Russian). Novosibirsk: AO "NPP Vostok". Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  62. ^ "Продукция" [Products] (in Russian). Nalchik: OAO "NZPP-KBR" (former "Elkor"). Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  63. ^ "Продукция" [Products] (in Russian). Novgorod: OAO "OKB-Planeta". Archived from the original on 2 November 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  64. ^ "Производство полупроводниковых приборов и СВЧ модулей - каталог 2016" [Production of semiconductor devices and microwave modules - catalog 2016] (PDF) (in Russian). Ulyanovsk: AO "NPP Iskra". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  65. ^ "Тонкопленочные наборы резисторов, ГИС ЦАП и АЦП ВТ на их основе" [Thin film resistors sets, hybrid integrated DAC and ADC based on them] (in Russian). Penza: OAO "NIIEMP". Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  66. ^ "Микросхемы серии 301" [Integrated circuit series 301] (in Russian). Kotovsk: OAO "Almaz". Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  67. ^ "Микросхемы" [Integrated circuits] (in Russian). Tomilino: OAO NPP "Eltom". Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  68. ^ "ПРАЙС-ЛИСТ" [Price list] (PDF) (in Russian). Alexandrov: OOO Krip Tekhno. 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  69. ^ "Продукция" [Products] (in Russian). Minsk: OOO "NTTs DELS". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  70. ^ "ПРОДУКЦИЯ И ЦЕНЫ" [Products and prices] (in Russian). Kiev: DP "Kvazar-IS". Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  71. ^ "Каталог товаров" [Product catalog] (in Russian). Ivano-Frankivsk: TOV TD "Elektronni komponenti" (former "Rodon" and "Logika"). Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  72. ^ "Продукция предприятия" [The company's products] (in Russian). Kherson: DP "Dnepr Semiconductors". Archived from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  73. ^ "Каталог продукции" [Product catalog] (in Russian). Tashkent: OAO "Foton". Archived from the original on 13 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  74. ^ Vishnevsky, Igor (22 March 2008). "Soviet chips identification". Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2018.