Soyuz-2 (rocket)

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This article is about the carrier rocket. For the mission, see Soyuz 2.
Soyuz 2 (Soyuz 2.1a/2.1b/ST-A/ST-B/Soyuz-2.1v)
Soyuz 2 metop.jpg
A MetOp spacecraft ready for the launch atop a Soyuz-2.1a rocket.
Function Orbital carrier rocket
Manufacturer TsSKB-Progress
Country of origin Russia
Size
Height 46.1 m (151 ft)
Diameter 2.95 m (9 ft 8 in)
Mass 305,000 kg (672,000 lb)
Stages 2 or 3
Capacity
Payload to
200 km (110 nmi) circular 51.8° LEO from Baikonur[1]
Soyuz-2.1a: 7,020 kg (15,480 lb)
Soyuz-2.1b: 8,200 kg (18,100 lb)
Payload to
820 km (440 nmi) SSO (with Fregat)[2]
Soyuz-2.1a: 4,230 kg (9,330 lb)
Soyuz-2.1b: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb)
Payload to
1,500 m/s (4,900 ft/s) deficit GTO (with Fregat from ELS)[2]
Soyuz-2.1a: 2,810 kg (6,190 lb)
Soyuz-2.1b: 3,250 kg (7,170 lb)
Associated rockets
Family R-7 (Soyuz)
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites LC-31/6, Baikonur
LC-43, Plesetsk
ELS, Centre Spatial Guyanais
LC-1S, Vostochny Cosmodrome (future)
Total launches 49 (2.1a: 23, 2.1b: 25, 2.1v: 1)
Successes 45 (2.1a: 21, 2.1b: 23, 2.1v: 1)
Failures 4 (2.1a: 2, 2.1b: 2, 2.1v: 0)
First flight 2.1a: 8 November 2004
2.1b: 27 December 2006
2.1b: 28 December 2013
Notable payloads COROT, Galileo
Boosters - Blok-B,V,G,D[3]
No boosters 4
Length 19.6 m (64 ft)
Diameter 2.68 m (8.8 ft)
Empty mass 3,784 kg (8,342 lb)
Gross mass 39,160 kg (86,330 lb)
Propellant mass 44,413 kg (97,914 lb)
Engines RD-107A
Thrust Sea Level: 839.48 kN (188,720 lbf)
Vacuum: 1,019.93 kN (229,290 lbf)
Specific impulse Sea Level: 263.3 s (2.582 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.2 s (3.140 km/s)
Burn time 118 seconds
Fuel LOX/RG-1
First Stage - Blok-A[3]
Length 27.10 m (88.9 ft)
Diameter 2.95 m (9.7 ft)
Empty mass 6,545 kg (14,429 lb)
Gross mass 99,765 kg (219,944 lb)
Propellant mass 90,100 kg (198,600 lb)
Engines RD-108A
Thrust Sea Level: 792.41 kN (178,140 lbf)
Vacuum: 921.86 kN (207,240 lbf)
Specific impulse Sea Level: 257.7 s (2.527 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.6 s (3.144 km/s)
Burn time 286 seconds
Fuel LOX/RG-1
Second Stage - Blok-I[3]
Length 6.70 m (22.0 ft)
Diameter 2.66 m (8.7 ft)
Empty mass 2,355 kg (5,192 lb)
Gross mass 27,755 kg (61,189 lb)
Propellant mass 25,400 kg (56,000 lb)
Engines Soyuz-2.1a/Soyuz-STA: RD-0110
Soyuz-2.1b/Soyuz-STB: RD-0124
Thrust RD-0110: 298 kilonewtons (67,000 lbf)
RD-0124: 294.3 kilonewtons (66,200 lbf)
Specific impulse RD-0110: 326 seconds
RD-0124: 359 seconds
Burn time 270 seconds
Fuel LOX/RG-1
Upper Stage (optional) - Fregat-MT[3]
Length 1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Diameter 3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Empty mass 902 kg (1,989 lb)
Propellant mass 6,638 kg (14,634 lb)
Engines S5.92
Thrust 19.85 kilonewtons (4,460 lbf)
Specific impulse 332 seconds
Burn time 1100 seconds
Fuel N2O4/UDMH

Soyuz-2, GRAU index 14A14, is the collective designation for the new version of the Russian Soyuz rocket. In its basic form, it is a three-stage carrier rocket for placing payloads into low Earth orbit. The first-stage boosters and two core stages feature uprated engines with improved injection systems, compared to the previous versions of the Soyuz. Digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to be launched from a fixed launch platform, whereas the launch platforms for earlier Soyuz rockets had to be rotated as the rocket could not perform a roll to change its heading in flight.

Soyuz-2 is often flown with an upper stage, which allows it to lift payloads into higher orbits, such as Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. The upper stage is equipped with independent flight control and telemetry systems from those used in the rest of the rocket. The NPO Lavochkin manufactured Fregat is the most commonly used upper stage.

Soyuz-2 rockets are currently launched from LC-31 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and LC-43 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, launch facilities shared with earlier R-7 derived rockets including the Soyuz-U and Molniya. Commercial Soyuz-2 flights are contracted by Starsem, and have launched from LC-31 at Baikonur and ELS (l'Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz), which has been built at the Guiana Space Centre on the northern coast of South America. The Soyuz-2 is expected to be able to deliver 2.8-3.5 tonnes to GTO from this site.

The Soyuz-2 has replaced the Molniya-M[4] and is starting to replace the Soyuz-U and Soyuz-FG rockets which are currently in service alongside it, as they are expected to be phased out from 2014 onwards.[5][6]

Variants[edit]

Soyuz-2 family includes 2.1a, 2.1b and 2.1v. The first two variants are modifications to the Soyuz-U launcher. The latter is a "light" version without side boosters.

When launched from ELS site, the Soyuz-2 will always be mated with ST-type fairing. This version will be called Soyuz-ST or Soyuz-STK, where additional "K" indicates special measures taken for preparing and launching the rocket in hot and humid conditions.

Soyuz 2.1a[edit]

The 2.1a version includes conversion from analog to digital flight control system and uprated engines on the booster and the first stage with improved injection systems. The new digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to launch from a fixed rather than angled launch platform and adjust its heading in flight. A digital control system also enables the launch of larger commercial satellites with wider and longer payload fairings such as the ST-type fairing. These fairings introduce too much aerodynamic instability for the old analog system to handle. This stage continues to use the RD-0110 engine.

The 2.1a/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-A. The first launch, from Guiana, (17 December 2011 for Pléiades-HR 1A, SSOT, ELISA (4 satellites)) was a success.

Soyuz 2.1b[edit]

The 2.1b version adds an upgraded engine (RD-0124) with improved performance to the second stage. First launch took place from Plesetsk Cosmodrome Site 43 on 26 July 2008 with classified military payload.[7]

The 2.1b/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-B. The first launch, from Guiana, was a success (21 October 2011), for the first two Galileo IOV satellites.

Soyuz 2.1v[edit]

Main article: Soyuz-2-1v

First draft of the 2.1v version was finished in 2009. It will be a "light" version of the Soyuz-2 without the side boosters (blocks B, V, G and D). Block A engine will be replaced by a more powerful one NK-33-1 and eventually the RD-193. The new launcher is able to deliver up to 2.8 tonnes in low Earth orbit.[8]

Modifications for various launch sites[edit]

The Soyuz-2.1a, 1b and 1v versions launched from the Vostochny Cosmodrome and the Guiana Space Centre have a series of modifications over the stock units. Some of these might later be implemented on all the Soyuz-2, while some are particular requirements to the space port design.

Modifications for the Guiana Space Centre (GSC) version includes:

  • First use of a mobile service tower at the ELS that enabled vertical payload integration.[3]
  • European supplied payload adapters.[3]
  • European supplied KSE (French: Kit de Sauvegarde Européenne, lit. European Safeguard Kit), a system to locate and transmit a flight termination signal.[3] It would activate the engine shutdown comand and leave the vehicle in a ballistic trajectory.[9]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry system on all stages from the 5 TM bands available at Baikonur, and Plesetsk to the 3 allowed at the GSC range.[3]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry coding and frequency to the IRIG standard used at GSC.[3]
  • Adaptation of the oxygen purge system for directing to the outside of the mobile gantry.[3]
  • Adaptation to the tropical GSC climate including the adaptation of the air conditioning system to local specifications and protective measures to avoid icing.[3] All holes and cavities were studied and certified to be adequately protected against intrusion of insects and rodent.[9]
  • The four boosters and the core stage were upgraded with pyrotechnic devices to breach the fuel tanks to assure that they would sink in the ocean. The other stages were shown to lose structural integrity on impact and thus proven to sink.[9]
  • At least initially, the boosters and core stage would use the pyrotechnically ignited 14D22 (RD-107A) and 14D23 (RD-108A) rather than the chemically ignited 14D22KhZ and 14D23KhZ used on the rest of the Soyuz-2.[9]

Modifications for the Vostochny Cosmodrome version includes:[10]

  • New and upgraded computer, N.A.Semikhatov NPO Automatika's Malachite-7, with six times more performance, better obsolescence protection, reduced weight.[11][12][13]
  • The new computer enabled a significant reduction on the cable network complexity thanks to multiplexing lines and using common buses.[10][13][14]
  • New nickel-cadmium batteries that eliminate the need for a dedicated battery charging station.[11]
  • The inclusion of on-board video system, that will enable real-time views of the launch.[11]
  • Since the launch pad at Vostochny also has a mobile gantry for vertical payload integration, similar to the ELS at Guiana, it has the necessary piping to direct the oxygen purges outside of the gantry.[10]

Suborbital test flight[edit]

On 8 November 2004, at 18:30 GMT (21:30 Moscow Time), the first Soyuz-2 carrier rocket, in the Soyuz-2.1a configuration, was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. The rocket followed a sub-orbital trajectory, with the third stage and boilerplate payload re-entering over the Pacific Ocean.

Commercial launches[edit]

MetOp-A[edit]

The first attempt at launching a Soyuz-2 to orbit, with the MetOp-A satellite, occurred on 17 July 2006. It was scrubbed two hours before the launch by an automatic sequence, after the onboard computer failed to check the launch azimuth. Fuelling of the rocket was underway at the time, and all launch complex equipment and on-board preliminary checks had proceeded without incident. The rocket was left fuelled on the launch pad, for the next attempt on 18 July. Launch was eventually conducted on 19 October.

Launch history[edit]

Main article: List of R-7 launches
Date Time (GMT) Configuration Launch site Result Payload Remarks
8 November 2004 18:30 Soyuz 2.1a LC-43 Plesetsk Success Zenit-8 (boilerplate) Suborbital test
19 October 2006 16:28 Soyuz 2.1a/ST Fregat LC-31/6 Baikonur Success MetOp A Weather satellite
24 December 2006 08:34 Soyuz 2.1a/S Fregat LC-43 Plesetsk Success Meridian 1 Communications satellite
27 December 2006 14:28 Soyuz 2.1b/SL Fregat LC-31 Baikonur Success COROT Astronomy satellite
26 July 2008 18:31 Soyuz 2.1b LC-43 Plesetsk Success[15] Kosmos 2441
(Persona)
Imaging reconnaissance satellite, failed to operate due to electrical fault
21 May 2009 21:53 Soyuz 2.1a/ Fregat LC-43 Plesetsk Failure[16] Meridian 2 Bulging of third-stage combustion chamber led to fuel leak and automatic deactivation, Communications satellite in unusable orbit after failed correction attempt
17 September 2009 15:55 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-31/6 Baikonur Success Meteor M-1
Universitetsky-2
Sterkh-2
IRIS
UGATUSAT
SumbandilaSat
BLITS
Weather satellite
and small piggyback science satellites
19 October 2010 17:11 Soyuz 2.1a/ Fregat LC-31/6 Baikonur Success Globalstar-2 F1
(6 satellites)
Communications satellites
2 November 2010 00:59 Soyuz 2.1a/ Fregat LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Meridian 3 Communications satellite
26 February 2011 03:07 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success GLONASS-K Navigation satellite
4 May 2011 17:41 Soyuz 2.1a/ Fregat LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Meridian 4 Communications satellite
13 July 2011 02:27 Soyuz 2.1a/ Fregat LC-31/6 Baikonur Success Globalstar-2 F2
(6 satellites)
Communications satellites
2 October 2011 20:15 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success GLONASS-M Navigation satellite
21 October 2011 10:30 Soyuz STB/Fregat-MT ELS Kourou Success[17] Galileo IOV-1 & IOV-2 Navigation satellites
28 November 2011 08:25 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-43 Plesetsk Success[18] GLONASS-M Navigation satellite
17 December 2011 02:03 Soyuz STA/Fregat-M ELS Kourou Success[19] Pleiades 1A
SSOT
ELISA (4 satellites)
Imaging Satellite
Earth observation satellite for Chile
Electronic Intelligence Satellites
23 December 2011 12:08 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-43 Plesetsk Failure[20] Meridian 5 Anomaly led to premature third-stage engine deactivation followed by an explosion which caused it to veer off course Communications satellite not deployed
28 December 2011 17:09 Soyuz 2.1a/ Fregat LC-31/6 Baikonur Success[21] Globalstar 2 (x6) Communications satellite
17 September 2012 16:28 Soyuz 2.1a/ST Fregat LC-31/6 Baikonur Success MetOp B Weather satellite
12 October 2012 18:15 Soyuz STB/Fregat-MT ELS Kourou Success[22] Galileo IOV-3 & IOV-4 Navigation satellites
14 November 2012 11:42 Soyuz 2.1a/ Fregat LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Meridian 6 Communications satellite
2 December 2012 02:02 Soyuz STA/Fregat-M ELS Kourou Success[23] Pleiades 1B Imaging Satellite
6 February 2013 16:04:24 Soyuz 2.1a/ST Fregat LC-31/6 Baikonur Success Globalstar 2 (x6) Communications satellite
19 April 2013 10:00:00 Soyuz 2.1a LC-31/6 Baikonur Success Bion-M No.1
AIST2
Dove 2
Beesat(2 and 3)
SOMP
OSSI 1
Biological Science
and small piggyback science satellites
26 April 2013 05:23:46 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-43 Plesetsk Success[24] GLONASS-M Navigation satellite
7 June 2013 18:37:59 Soyuz 2.1b LC-43 Plesetsk Success[25] Kosmos 2486
(Persona)
Imaging reconnaissance satellite
25 June 2013 17:28:48 Soyuz 2.1b LC-31/6 Baikonur Success[26] Resurs-P No.1 Earth observation satellite
25 June 2013 19:27:03 Soyuz STB/Fregat-MT ELS Kourou Success[27] O3b-1
O3b-2
O3b-3
O3b-4
Communications satellites
19 December 2013 09:12:19 Soyuz STB/Fregat-MT ELS Kourou Success[28] Gaia Space observatory
23 March 2014 22:54:03 Soyuz 2.1b/Fregat LC-43 Plesetsk Success[29] Kosmos 2494 (GLONASS-M) Navigation satellite
28 December 2013 12:30 Soyuz 2.1v/Volga LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success[30] Aist 1, SKRL-756 #1/2 Maiden flight of 2.1v
3 April 2014 21:02:26 Soyuz STA/Fregat-M ELS Kourou Success[31] Sentinel-1A Earth observation
6 May 2014 13:49:35 Soyuz 2.1a LC-43 Plesetsk Success[32] Kosmos 2495
(Kobalt-M)
Film-return reconnaissance satellite
14 June 2014 17:16:48 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success[33] Kosmos 2500 (GLONASS-M) Navigation satellite
8 July 2014 15:58:28 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-31/6 Baikonur Success[34] Meteor-M No.2
Relek (MKA-FKI (PN2))
DX-1
SkySat 2
TechDemoSat-1
UKube-1
AISSat-2
Weather satellite
and six secondary satellites
10 July 2014 18:55:56 Soyuz STB/Fregat-MT ELS Kourou Success[35] O3b-5
O3b-6
O3b-7
O3b-8
Communications satellites
18 July 2014 20:50:00 Soyuz 2.1a LC-31/6 Baikonur Success Foton-M No.4 Material Science satellite
22 August 2014 12:27:11 Soyuz STB/Fregat-MT ELS Kourou Partial failure[36] Galileo FOC-1 & FOC-2 Fregat upper stage guidance problem left the navigation satellites in an incorrect elliptical orbit. Traced to a flaw in the Fregat thermal design with a heat bridge from the coolant line to fuel line causing freezing of fuel line.
29 October 2014 07:09:43 Soyuz 2.1a LC-31/6 Baikonur Success Progress M-25M ISS Logistics
30 October 2014 01:42:52 Soyuz 2.1a/ Fregat LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Meridian 7 Communications satellite
30 November 2014 21:52:26 Soyuz 2.1b/ Fregat LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Kosmos 2502 (GLONASS-K) Navigation satellite
18 December 2014 18:37:00 Soyuz STB/Fregat-MT ELS Kourou Success O3b-9
O3b-10
O3b-11
O3b-12
Communications satellites
25 December 2014 03:01:13 Soyuz 2.1b LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Kosmos 2503
(Lotos)
Reconnaissance satellite
26 December 2014 18:55:50 Soyuz 2.1b LC-31/6 Baikonur Success Resurs-P No.2 Earth observation satellite
27 February 2015 11:01:35 Soyuz-2.1a LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Kosmos 2503 (Bars-M) Military reconnaissance satellite
27 March 2015 21:46:18 Soyuz-STB/Fregat ELS Kourou Success Galileo FOC-3
Galileo FOC-4
Navigation satellites
28 April 2015 07:09:50 Soyuz-2.1a LC-31/6 Baikonur Partial failure Progress M-27M ISS logistics. Spacecraft lost communications and attitude control soon after separation after damaged by vibration issues during launch.[37] International Space Station docking attempt cancelled.[38] Mission declared a total loss.[39]
5 June 2015 15:23:54 Soyuz-2.1a LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Kosmos 2505 (Kobal't-M) Reconnaissance film-return satellite
23 June 2015 16:44:00 Soyuz-2.1b LC-43/4 Plesetsk Success Kosmos 2506 (Persona) Reconnaissance satellite

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Power Characteristics". JSC SRC Progress. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  2. ^ a b "Power Characteristics". JSC SRC Progress. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Annex 5 - Launch Vehicle Description". Soyuz User's Manual (PDF) (Issue 2 Revision 0 ed.). Arianespace. March 2012. Retrieved 2015-08-24. 
  4. ^ "Last launch of the Molniya-M on Sept 30th 2010.". Anatoly Zak. 2010-09-30. 
  5. ^ "Soyuz-2 to replace its predecessors.". Anatoly Zak. 2011-06-01. 
  6. ^ "Alexander Kirilin: "We are working on three rocket".". Volzkhskaya Kommuna. 2011-06-01. 
  7. ^ Stephen Clark (26 July 2008). "Soyuz 2-1b rocket launches classified military payload". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  8. ^ "Rus/Souyz-2 launch vehicle (in Russian)". 
  9. ^ a b c d Anatoly, Zak (2015-08-23). "Soyuz-2 launch vehicle (14A14)". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 2015-08-24. 
  10. ^ a b c В РКЦ «Прогресс» завершены испытания ракеты-носителя для первого запуска с «Восточного» [JSC SRC Progress completes testing on the launch vehicle for the first Vostochny launch] (in Russian). JSC SRC Progress. 2015-08-20. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  11. ^ a b c Обновлённые «Союзы» для Восточного [Updated Soyuz for Vostochny] (in Russian). 2014-11-04. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  12. ^ «Союз-2» приспособят к запуску с «Восточного» [Soyuz-2 to be adapted to Vostochny] (in Russian). lenta.ru. 2014-01-07. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
  13. ^ a b Системы управления ракет-носителей Союз-2, Союз-СТ, Союз-2-1В [Control systems of launch vehicles Soyuz-2, Soyuz-ST, Soyuz 2-1V] (in Russian). N.A.Semikhatov NPO Automatika. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
  14. ^ V. M. Antimirov; A. B. Umansky; L. N. Shalimov (2013). Бортовые цифровые вычислительные системы семейства «Малахит» для работы в экстремальных условиях [Onboard digital computer systems of the «Malachite» family for extreme conditions.]. Vestnik Samara State Aerospace University (in Russian) (Vestnik Samara State Aerospace University) (Number 4 (42) UDC 629.7.05:004.3): 1. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
  15. ^ "Soyuz 2-1b rocket launches classified military payload". Spaceflight Now. 2008-07-26. 
  16. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "The Meridian satellite (14F112)". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 3 May 2011. 
  17. ^ Soyuz flight VS01 Lifts Off From French Guiana.
  18. ^ Glonass-M satellite launched into orbit.(Russian)
  19. ^ Six defense satellites launched by Soyuz rocket
  20. ^ Russian satellite crashes into Siberia after launch
  21. ^ "Globalstar satellites 'flawlessly' orbited by Soyuz". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  22. ^ Soyuz ST-B launches Galileo twins successfully to orbit.
  23. ^ http://www.spaceflight101.com/soyuz-vs-04-pleiades-1b-launch-updates.html
  24. ^ Third Soyuz launch in a week bolsters Glonass system
  25. ^ Graham, William. "Russian spy satellite launched via Soyuz 2-1B". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  26. ^ Graham, William. "Soyuz 2-1B successfully launches with Resurs-P". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  27. ^ ""The journey begins" with a lift from Arianespace: O3b Networks’ first four satellites are in orbit". Arianespace. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  28. ^ Soyuz ST-B successfully launches Gaia space observatory
  29. ^ Fresh Glonass navigation satellite launched by Russia
  30. ^ http://sputniknews.com/russia/20131228/186021089.html
  31. ^ Graham, William; Bergin, Chris (2014-04-03). "Arianespace Soyuz ST-A launches Sentinel-1A mission". Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  32. ^ Soyuz-2-1A launches Kobal’t-M reconnaissance satellite
  33. ^ Fresh Glonass navigation satellite launched by Russia
  34. ^ Lift-off for British demo satellites
  35. ^ "Arianespace advances O3b Networks’ revolutionary vision with another Soyuz launch success". Arianespace. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  36. ^ "Inquiry into Galileo launch anomaly to focus on Fregat". 
  37. ^ "РОСКОСМОС: "ПРОГРЕСС М-27М" - ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА ПРИЧИНА АВАРИИ (ROSCOSMOS: "Progress M-27M" - cause of accident determined)" (in Russian). Roscosmos. 1 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  38. ^ "Progress Cargo Vessel Docking With Space Station Canceled". Sputnik International. Sputnik. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  39. ^ "Russian spacecraft Progress M-27M 'out of control'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Company. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 

External links[edit]