Soyuz-2

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This article is about the carrier rocket. For the 1968 test flight, see Soyuz 2 (1968 mission).
Soyuz-2 (2.1a / 2.1b / ST-A / ST-B)
Soyuz 2 metop.jpg
A MetOp spacecraft ready for the launch atop a Soyuz-2.1a rocket.
Function Orbital carrier rocket
Manufacturer TsSKB-Progress
Country of origin Russia
Size
Height 46.3 m (152 ft)[1]
Diameter 2.95 m (9 ft 8 in)
Mass 312,000 kg (688,000 lb)[1]
Stages 2 or 3
Capacity
Payload to LEO[a] 2.1a: 7,020 kg (15,480 lb)
2.1b: 8,200 kg (18,100 lb)[1]
Payload to SSO[b] ST-A: 4,230 kg (9,330 lb)
ST-B: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb)[2]
Payload to GTO[c] ST-A: 2,810 kg (6,190 lb)
ST-B: 3,250 kg (7,170 lb)[2]
Associated rockets
Family R-7 (Soyuz)
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites
Total launches 62 (2.1a: 28, 2.1b: 32, 2.1v: 2)
Successes 57 (2.1a: 26, 2.1b: 30, 2.1v: 1)
Failures 2 (2.1a: 1, 2.1b: 1, 2.1v: 0)
Partial failures 3 (2.1a: 1, 2.1b: 1, 2.1v: 1)
First flight 2.1a: 8 November 2004
2.1b: 27 December 2006
2.1v: 28 December 2013
Notable payloads
Boosters - Blok-B,V,G,D[3]
No. boosters 4
Length 19.6 m (64 ft)
Diameter 2.68 m (8.8 ft)
Empty mass 3,784 kg (8,342 lb)
Gross mass 44,413 kg (97,914 lb)
Propellant mass 39,160 kg (86,330 lb)
Engines RD-107A
Thrust Sea level: 839.48 kN (188,720 lbf)
Vacuum: 1,019.93 kN (229,290 lbf)
Specific impulse Sea level: 263.3 s (2.582 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.2 s (3.140 km/s)
Burn time 118 seconds
Fuel LOX / RG-1
First stage - Blok-A[3]
Length 27.10 m (88.9 ft)
Diameter 2.95 m (9.7 ft)
Empty mass 6,545 kg (14,429 lb)
Gross mass 99,765 kg (219,944 lb)
Propellant mass 90,100 kg (198,600 lb)
Engines RD-108A
Thrust Sea level: 792.41 kN (178,140 lbf)
Vacuum: 921.86 kN (207,240 lbf)
Specific impulse Sea level: 257.7 s (2.527 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.6 s (3.144 km/s)
Burn time 286 seconds
Fuel LOX / RG-1
Second stage - Blok-I[3]
Length 6.70 m (22.0 ft)
Diameter 2.66 m (8 ft 9 in)
Empty mass 2,355 kg (5,192 lb)
Gross mass 27,755 kg (61,189 lb)
Propellant mass 25,400 kg (56,000 lb)
Engines 2.1a / STA: RD-0110
2.1b / STB: RD-0124
Thrust RD-0110: 298 kN (67,000 lbf)
RD-0124: 294.3 kN (66,200 lbf)
Specific impulse RD-0110: 326 seconds
RD-0124: 359 seconds
Burn time 270 seconds
Fuel LOX / RG-1
Upper stage (optional) - Fregat / Fregat-M / Fregat-MT[4]
Length 1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Diameter Fregat / Fregat-M: 3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Fregat-MT: 3.80 m (12.5 ft)
Empty mass Fregat: 930 kg (2,050 lb)
Fregat-M: 980 kg (2,160 lb)
Fregat-MT: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb)
Propellant mass Fregat: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb)
Fregat-M: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb)
Fregat-MT: 7,100 kg (15,700 lb)
Engines S5.92
Thrust 19.85 kN (4,460 lbf)
Specific impulse 333.2 seconds
Burn time 1100 seconds
Fuel N2O4 / UDMH
Upper stage (optional) - Volga[5]
Length 1.025 m (3.36 ft)
Diameter 3.2 m (10 ft)
Empty mass 840 kg (1,850 lb)
Propellant mass 300–900 kg (660–1,980 lb)
Engines 17D64[6]
Thrust 2.94 kN (660 lbf)
Specific impulse 307 seconds
Fuel N2O4 / UDMH

Soyuz-2, GRAU index 14A14, is the collective designation for the new version of the Russian Soyuz rocket. In its basic form, it is a three-stage carrier rocket for placing payloads into low Earth orbit. The first-stage boosters and two core stages feature uprated engines with improved injection systems, compared to the previous versions of the Soyuz. Digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to be launched from a fixed launch platform, whereas the launch platforms for earlier Soyuz rockets had to be rotated as the rocket could not perform a roll to change its heading in flight.

Soyuz-2 is often flown with an upper stage, which allows it to lift payloads into higher orbits, such as Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. The upper stage is equipped with independent flight control and telemetry systems from those used in the rest of the rocket. The NPO Lavochkin manufactured Fregat is the most commonly used upper stage.

Soyuz-2 rockets were first launched from Site 31 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and Site 43 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, launch facilities shared with earlier R-7 derived rockets including the Soyuz-U and Molniya. Commercial Soyuz-2 flights are contracted by Starsem, and have launched from Site 31 at Baikonur and ELS (l'Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz), which has been built at the Guiana Space Centre on the northern coast of South America. The Soyuz-2 version ST-B can deliver 3,250 kg (7,170 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit from this equatorial site.[2] In 2016 the new Vostochny Cosmodrome started operating Soyuz-2 flights as well, from its first launch pad called Site 1S.

The Soyuz-2 has replaced the Molniya-M since 2010[7] and is taking over the missions of Soyuz-U and Soyuz-FG rockets which are gradually being phased out from 2013 to 2016 as production of Soyuz-2 ramps up.[8][9] TsSKB-Progress has halted production of Soyuz-U in April 2015; a few units remain to be launched until the end of 2016.[10]

Variants[edit]

Soyuz-2 family includes 2.1a, 2.1b and 2.1v. The first two variants are modifications to the Soyuz-U launcher. The latter is a "light" version without side boosters.

When launched from the Kourou site, Soyuz-2 is always mated with the ST-type fairing; this version is called Soyuz-ST or Soyuz-STK, where additional "K" indicates special measures taken for preparing and launching the rocket in hot and humid conditions.[citation needed]

Soyuz-2.1a[edit]

The 2.1a version includes conversion from analog to digital flight control system and uprated engines on the booster and the first stage with improved injection systems. The new digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to launch from a fixed rather than angled launch platform and adjust its heading in flight. A digital control system also enables the launch of larger commercial satellites with wider and longer payload fairings such as the ST-type fairing. These fairings introduce too much aerodynamic instability for the old analog system to handle. This stage continues to use the RD-0110 engine.

The 2.1a/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-A. The first launch, from Guiana, (17 December 2011 for Pléiades-HR 1A, SSOT, ELISA (4 satellites)) was a success.

Soyuz-2.1b[edit]

The 2.1b version adds an upgraded engine (RD-0124) with improved performance to the second stage. First launch took place from Plesetsk Cosmodrome Site 43 on 26 July 2008 with classified military payload.[11]

The 2.1b/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-B. The first launch, from Guiana, was a success (21 October 2011), for the first two Galileo IOV satellites.

Soyuz-2-1v[edit]

Main article: Soyuz-2-1v

The first draft of the 2.1v version was finished in 2009. It is a "light" version of the Soyuz-2 without the side boosters (blocks B, V, G and D). The Block A engine was replaced by the more powerful NK-33-1, which will eventually be replaced with the RD-193. The new launcher is able to deliver up to 2.8 tonnes in low Earth orbit.[12]

Modifications for various launch sites[edit]

The Soyuz-2.1a/1b versions launched from the Vostochny Cosmodrome and the Guiana Space Centre have a series of modifications over the stock units. Some of these might later be implemented on all the Soyuz-2, while some are particular requirements to the space port design.

Modifications for the Guiana Space Centre (GSC) version includes:

  • First use of a mobile service tower at the ELS that enabled vertical payload integration.[3]
  • European supplied payload adapters.[3]
  • European supplied KSE (French: Kit de Sauvegarde Européenne, lit. 'European Safeguard Kit'), a system to locate and transmit a flight termination signal.[3] It would activate the engine shutdown command and leave the vehicle in a ballistic trajectory.[13]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry system on all stages from the 5 TM bands available at Baikonur, and Plesetsk to the 3 allowed at the GSC range.[3]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry coding and frequency to the IRIG standard used at GSC.[3]
  • Adaptation of the oxygen purge system for directing to the outside of the mobile gantry.[3]
  • Adaptation to the tropical GSC climate including the adaptation of the air conditioning system to local specifications and protective measures to avoid icing.[3] All holes and cavities were studied and certified to be adequately protected against intrusion of insects and rodent.[13]
  • The four boosters and the core stage were upgraded with pyrotechnic devices to breach the fuel tanks to assure that they would sink in the ocean. The other stages were shown to lose structural integrity on impact and thus proven to sink.[13]
  • At least initially, the boosters and core stage would use the pyrotechnically ignited 14D22 (RD-107A) and 14D23 (RD-108A) rather than the chemically ignited 14D22 kHz and 14D23 kHz used on the rest of the Soyuz-2.[13]

Modifications for the Vostochny Cosmodrome version includes:[14]

  • New and upgraded computer, N.A.Semikhatov NPO Automatika's Malachite-7, with six times more performance, better obsolescence protection, reduced weight.[15][16][17]
  • The new computer enabled a significant reduction on the cable network complexity thanks to multiplexing lines and using common buses.[14][17][18]
  • New nickel-cadmium batteries that eliminate the need for a dedicated battery charging station.[15]
  • The inclusion of on-board video system, that will enable real-time views of the launch.[15]
  • Since the launch pad at Vostochny also has a mobile gantry for vertical payload integration, similar to the ELS at Guiana, it has the necessary piping to direct the oxygen purges outside of the gantry.[14]

On 1 October 2015 it was announced that parts of the assembly complex for the Soyuz-2 at Vostochny Cosmodrome were designed for a different modification of the rocket and are too small, so that the planned first launch in December 2015 was under question.[19] The first launch occurred on 28 April 2016 at 02:01:21 UTC.[20]

Notable missions[edit]

Suborbital test flight[edit]

On 8 November 2004, at 18:30 GMT (21:30 Moscow Time), the first Soyuz-2 carrier rocket, in the Soyuz-2.1a configuration, was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. The rocket followed a sub-orbital trajectory, with the third stage and boilerplate payload re-entering over the Pacific Ocean.

Maiden launch[edit]

The first attempt at launching a Soyuz-2 to orbit, with the MetOp-A satellite, occurred on 17 July 2006. It was scrubbed two hours before the launch by an automatic sequence, after the onboard computer failed to check the launch azimuth. Fuelling of the rocket was underway at the time, and all launch complex equipment and on-board preliminary checks had proceeded without incident. The rocket was left fuelled on the launch pad, for the next attempt on 18 July. Launch was eventually conducted on 19 October.

Launch history[edit]

Main article: List of R-7 launches
# Launch date
Time (UTC)
Configuration Spaceport Result Payload Remarks
1 8 November 2004
18:30
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43
Success Zenit-8 (boilerplate) Suborbital test flight
2 19 October 2006
16:28
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success MetOp A Weather satellite
3 24 December 2006
08:34
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat
Plesetsk
Site 43
Success Meridian 1 Military communications satellite
4 27 December 2006
14:28
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success CoRoT Astronomy satellite
5 26 July 2008
18:31
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[21] Kosmos 2441 (Persona No.1) Imaging reconnaissance satellite
Launch was successful but satellite failed after a few months of operations due to an electrical fault.
6 21 May 2009
21:53
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat
Plesetsk
Site 43
Failure[22] Meridian 2 Military communications satellite
Bulging of third-stage combustion chamber led to fuel leak and automatic deactivation; satellite in unusable orbit after failed correction attempt.
7 17 September 2009
15:55
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Meteor-M No.1
Weather satellite
+ 6 piggyback satellites
8 19 October 2010
17:11
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Globalstar-2 F1 (6 satellites) Communications satellites
9 2 November 2010
00:59
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Meridian 3 Military communications satellite
10 26 February 2011
03:07
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2471 (GLONASS-K 701K) Navigation satellite
11 4 May 2011
17:41
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Meridian 4 Military communications satellite
12 13 July 2011
02:27
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Globalstar-2 F2 (6 satellites) Communications satellites
13 2 October 2011
20:15
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2474 (GLONASS-M 742) Navigation satellite
14 21 October 2011
10:30
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[23] Galileo IOV-1/2 Navigation satellites
First launch from Kourou
15 28 November 2011
08:25
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[24] Kosmos 2478 (GLONASS-M 746) Navigation satellite
16 17 December 2011
02:03
Soyuz STA
Fregat-M
Kourou
ELS
Success[25] Pleiades 1A
SSOT
ELISA 1/2/3/4
Imaging satellite
Earth observation satellite for Chile
Electronic Intelligence satellites
17 23 December 2011
12:08
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43
Failure[26] Meridian 5 Military communications satellite
Anomaly led to premature third-stage engine deactivation followed by an explosion which caused it to veer off course; satellite not deployed.
18 28 December 2011
17:09
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success[27] Globalstar-2 F3 (6 satellites) Communications satellite
19 17 September 2012
16:28
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success MetOp B Weather satellite
20 12 October 2012
18:15
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[28] Galileo IOV-3/4 Navigation satellites
21 14 November 2012
11:42
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Meridian 6 Military communications satellite
22 2 December 2012
02:02
Soyuz STA
Fregat
Kourou
ELS
Success[29] Pleiades 1B Imaging Satellite
23 6 February 2013
16:04:24
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Globalstar-2 F4 (6 satellites) Communications satellite
24 19 April 2013
10:00:00
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Bion-M No.1
Biological science
+ 5 piggyback satellites
25 26 April 2013
05:23:46
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[30] Kosmos 2485 (GLONASS-M 747) Navigation satellite
26 7 June 2013
18:37:59
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[31] Kosmos 2486 (Persona No.2) Imaging reconnaissance satellite
27 25 June 2013
17:28:48
Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success[32] Resurs-P No.1 Earth observation satellite
28 25 June 2013
19:27:03
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[33] O3b-1/2/3/4 Communications satellites
29 19 December 2013
09:12:19
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[34] Gaia Space observatory
30 28 December 2013
12:30
Soyuz-2.1v
Volga
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[35] Aist 1, SKRL-756 #1/2 Maiden flight of Soyuz-2-1v
31 23 March 2014
22:54:03
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[36] Kosmos 2494 (GLONASS-M 754) Navigation satellite
32 3 April 2014
21:02:26
Soyuz STA
Fregat-M
Kourou
ELS
Success[37] Sentinel-1A Earth observation
33 6 May 2014
13:49:35
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[38] Kosmos 2495 (Kobalt-M) Film-return reconnaissance satellite
34 14 June 2014
17:16:48
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[39] Kosmos 2500 (GLONASS-M 755) Navigation satellite
35 8 July 2014
15:58:28
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success[40] Meteor-M No.2
  • AISSat-2
  • DX-1
  • Relek (MKA-FKI (PN2))
  • SkySat 2
  • TechDemoSat-1
  • UKube-1
Weather satellite
+ 6 piggyback satellites
36 10 July 2014
18:55:56
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[41] O3b-5/6/7/8 Communications satellites
37 18 July 2014
20:50:00
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Foton-M No.4 Microgravity and biology research
38 22 August 2014
12:27:11
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Partial failure[42] Galileo FOC-1/2 Navigation satellites
Fregat upper stage guidance problem left the satellites in an incorrect elliptical orbit. Traced to a flaw in the Fregat thermal design with a heat bridge from the coolant line to fuel line causing freezing of fuel line.
39 29 October 2014
07:09:43
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Progress M-25M ISS logistics
40 30 October 2014
01:42:52
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Meridian 7 Military communications satellite
41 30 November 2014
21:52:26
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2501 (GLONASS-K 702K) Navigation satellite
42 18 December 2014
18:37:00
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success O3b-9/10/11/12 Communications satellites
43 25 December 2014
03:01:13
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2502 (Lotos No.1) Reconnaissance satellite
44 26 December 2014
18:55:50
Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Resurs-P No.2 Earth observation satellite
45 27 February 2015
11:01:35
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2503 (Bars-M No.1) Military reconnaissance satellite
46 27 March 2015
21:46:18
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success Galileo FOC-3/4 Navigation satellites
47 28 April 2015
07:09:50
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Partial failure Progress M-27M ISS logistics
Spacecraft lost communications and attitude control soon after separation after damaged by vibration issues during launch.[43] International Space Station docking attempt cancelled.[44] Mission declared a total loss.[45]
48 5 June 2015
15:23:54
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2505 (Kobalt-M) Film-return reconnaissance satellite
49 23 June 2015
16:44:00
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2506 (Persona No.3) Imaging reconnaissance satellite
50 11 September 2015
02:08:10
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[46] Galileo FOC-5/6 Navigation satellites
51 17 November 2015
06:33:41
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2510
(EKS)
Early warning satellite
52 5 December 2015
14:09:00
Soyuz-2.1v
Volga
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Partial failure[47] Kanopus-ST 1 (Kosmos 2511)
KYuA 1 (Kosmos 2512)
Earth observation satellite
Radar calibration
Soyuz-2.1v booster performed properly, however Kanopus-ST 1 satellite failed to detach from the satellite carrier atop the Volga upper stage. The KYuA-1 radar calibration sphere was mounted in the side of the satellite carrier and was able to successfully deploy.
53 17 December 2015
11:51:56
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[48] Galileo FOC-8/9 Navigation satellites
54 21 December 2015
08:44:39
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Progress MS-1 ISS logistics
55 7 February 2016
00:21:07
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2514 (GLONASS-M 751) Navigation satellite
56 13 March 2016
18:56:00
Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Resurs-P No.3 Earth observation satellite
57 24 March 2016
09:42
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2515 (Bars-M No.2) Military reconnaissance satellite
58 31 March 2016
16:23:57
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Progress MS-2 ISS logistics
59 25 April 2016
21:02:13
Soyuz STA
Fregat-M
Kourou
ELS
Success[49] Sentinel-1B[50]
MICROSCOPE[51]
Earth observation
Astrophysics research
Technology
60 28 April 2016
02:01:21
Soyuz-2.1a
Volga
Vostochny
Site 1S
Success[20] Mikhailo Lomonosov[52]
  • Aist-2D[53]
  • SamSat 218
Gamma-ray astronomy
Technology demonstrations
61 24 May 2016
08:48:43
Soyuz STB
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[54] Galileo FOC-10/11 Navigation satellites
62 29 May 2016
08:44:37
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[55] Kosmos 2516 (GLONASS-M 760) Navigation satellite
Third stage shut down prematurely during the launch. Fregat upper stage detected the problem and compensated with an extended firing, delivering the satellite to the correct orbit.[56]
2016 (second half)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned (GLONASS-M 761) Navigation satellite

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 200 km (110 nmi) circular LEO 51.8° inclination from Baikonur
  2. ^ 820 km (440 nmi) SSO (with Fregat from Kourou)
  3. ^ 1,500 m/s (4,900 ft/s) ΔV deficit GTO (with Fregat from Kourou)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "SOYUZ-2 Launch Vehicle / Power Characteristics". JSC SRC Progress. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  2. ^ a b c "SOYUZ-ST Launch Vehicle / Power Characteristics". JSC SRC Progress. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Soyuz from the Guiana Space Centre - User's manual" (PDF). Arianespace. March 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  4. ^ "Конструкция разгонного блока "Фрегат"". NPO Lavochkin (in Russian). Retrieved 10 March 2016. 
  5. ^ "Volga upper stage". Russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 10 March 2016. 
  6. ^ "Soyuz 2-1 launches maiden mission from Vostochny | NASASpaceFlight.com". www.nasaspaceflight.com. Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  7. ^ Zak, Anatoly (2010-09-30). "Last launch of the Molniya-M on Sept 30th 2010.". RussianSpaceWeb. 
  8. ^ Zak, Anatoly (2011-06-01). "Soyuz-2 to replace its predecessors.". RussianSpaceWeb. 
  9. ^ "Alexander Kirilin: "We are working on three rocket".". Volzkhskaya Kommuna. 2011-06-01. 
  10. ^ Nowakowski, Tomasz (30 June 2015). "All eyes on Progress: Russian spacecraft to deliver supplies to ISS". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
  11. ^ Stephen Clark (26 July 2008). "Soyuz 2-1b rocket launches classified military payload". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  12. ^ "Rus/Souyz-2 launch vehicle (in Russian)". 
  13. ^ a b c d Zak, Anatoly (2015-08-23). "Soyuz-2 launch vehicle (14A14)". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 2015-08-24. 
  14. ^ a b c В РКЦ «Прогресс» завершены испытания ракеты-носителя для первого запуска с «Восточного» [JSC SRC Progress completes testing on the launch vehicle for the first Vostochny launch] (in Russian). JSC SRC Progress. 2015-08-20. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  15. ^ a b c Обновлённые «Союзы» для Восточного [Updated Soyuz for Vostochny] (in Russian). 2014-11-04. Retrieved 2015-08-20. 
  16. ^ «Союз-2» приспособят к запуску с «Восточного» [Soyuz-2 to be adapted to Vostochny] (in Russian). lenta.ru. 2014-01-07. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
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