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Soyuz acoplada MIR.jpg
Soyuz-TM spacecraft.
Manufacturer Korolev
Country of origin USSR
Operator Soviet space program/Russian Federal Space Agency
Applications Carry three cosmonauts to Mir and ISS and back
Design life Up to six months docked to station
Regime Low Earth orbit
Status Out of service
Launched 34
First launch Soyuz TM-1, 1986
Last launch Soyuz TM-34, 2002
Related spacecraft
Derived from Soyuz-T
Derivatives Soyuz-TMA

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system and the new KTDU-80 propulsion module permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

The final Soyuz-TM flight was Soyuz TM-34, which launched April 25, 2002 and landed November 10, 2002.[1]


External links[edit]


  1. ^ "Soyuz ISS Missions" (PDF). NASA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-02.