Falcon 9

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Falcon 9
KSC-20160408-PH KLS0001 0005 (25704320894).jpg
Falcon 9 Full Thrust standing on the LC40 launch pad, carrying a Dragon cargo spacecraft for the CRS-8 mission (April 8, 2016)
Function Orbital launch vehicle
Manufacturer SpaceX
Country of origin United States
Cost per launch FT: $62M[1]
  • FT: 70 m (230 ft)[2]
  • v1.1: 68.4 m (224 ft)[3]
  • v1.0: 54.9 m (180 ft)[4]
Diameter 3.7 m (12 ft)[2]
  • FT: 549,054 kg (1,210,457 lb)[2]
  • v1.1: 505,846 kg (1,115,200 lb)[3]
  • v1.0: 333,400 kg (735,000 lb)[4]
Stages 2
Payload to LEO
  • FT: 22,800 kg (50,300 lb)[1]
  • v1.1: 13,150 kg (28,990 lb)[3]
  • v1.0: 10,450 kg (23,040 lb)[4]
Payload to
  • FT: 8,300 kg (18,300 lb) expendable
    5,500 kg (12,100 lb) reusable[1]
  • v1.1: 4,850 kg (10,690 lb)[3]
  • v1.0: 4,540 kg (10,010 lb)[4]
Associated rockets
Derivatives Falcon Heavy
Launch history
  • FT: Active
  • Block 5: In development[5]
  • v1.1: Retired
  • v1.0: Retired
Launch sites
Total launches
  • 36
    • FT: 16
    • v1.1: 15
    • v1.0: 5
  • 34
    • FT: 16
    • v1.1: 14
    • v1.0: 4
Failures 1 (v1.1, CRS-7)
Partial failures 1 (v1.0, CRS-1)[6]
Other 1 (FT, Amos-6)[a]
Landings 12 / 17 attempts
First flight
Last flight
First stage
  • FT (late 2016): 7,607 kN (1,710,000 lbf)[10]
  • FT: 6,806 kN (1,530,000 lbf)[2]
  • v1.1: 5,885 kN (1,323,000 lbf)[3]
  • v1.0: 4,940 kN (1,110,000 lbf)[4]
Specific impulse
  • v1.1
    • Sea level: 282 seconds[11]
    • Vacuum: 311 seconds[11]
  • v1.0
    • Sea level: 275 seconds[4]
    • Vacuum: 304 seconds[4]
Burn time
  • FT: 162 seconds[2]
  • v1.1: 180 seconds[3]
  • v1.0: 170 seconds
Fuel LOX / RP-1
Second stage
  • FT: 934 kN (210,000 lbf)[2]
  • v1.1: 801 kN (180,000 lbf)[3]
  • v1.0: 617 kN (139,000 lbf)[4]
Specific impulse
  • FT: 348 seconds[2]
  • v1.1: 340 seconds[3]
  • v1.0: 342 seconds[12]
Burn time
  • FT: 397 seconds[2]
  • v1.1: 375 seconds[3]
  • v1.0: 345 seconds[4]
Fuel LOX / RP-1

Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles, named for its use of nine first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX. The Falcon 9 versions are Falcon 9 v1.0 (retired), Falcon 9 v1.1 (retired), and the current Falcon 9 Full Thrust, a partially-reusable launch system. Both stages are powered by rocket engines that burn liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket-grade kerosene (RP-1) propellants. The first stage is designed to be reusable, while the second stage is not.[13]

Falcon 9 versions perform in the upper range of the medium-lift class of launch systems. The current "Full Thrust" version can lift payloads of up to 22,800 kilograms (50,300 lb) to low Earth orbit, and up to 8,300 kg (18,300 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), when configured in expendable mode.[1] The first stage can be recovered and reused for GTO payloads up to 5,500 kg (12,100 lb).[1][14][15]

The Falcon 9 and Dragon capsule combination won a Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract from NASA in 2008 to deliver cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) under the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. The first commercial resupply mission to the ISS launched in October 2012.

The initial version 1.0 flew five times from June 2010 to March 2013, version 1.1 fifteen times from September 2013 to January 2016 and the current Full Thrust version has been in service since December 2015. The Falcon Heavy derivative, slated for debut in 2017, groups three Falcon 9 first stages together. SpaceX intends to certify the Falcon 9 to be human-rated for transporting NASA astronauts to the ISS as part of the Commercial Crew Development program. In October 2016 SpaceX CEO Elon Musk announced an upcoming "final upgrade" called Falcon 9 Block 5, which will further increase engine thrust and will feature improved landing legs along with minor improvements to help recovery and reuse.[5]

Development history[edit]

From left to right, Falcon 1, Falcon 9 v1.0, three versions of Falcon 9 v1.1, three versions of Falcon 9 v1.2 (Full Thrust), and Falcon Heavy (the latter has not yet flown)

Conception and funding[edit]

While SpaceX spent its own money to develop the previous launcher, Falcon 1, development of the Falcon 9 was accelerated by NASA funding parts of development costs and committing to purchase several commercial flights if specific capabilities were demonstrated. This started with seed money from the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program in 2006.[16][17] The contract was structured as a Space Act Agreement (SAA) "to develop and demonstrate commercial orbital transportation service"[17] including the purchase of three demonstration flights.[18] The overall contract award was US$278 million to provide development funding for Dragon, Falcon 9, and demonstration launches of Falcon 9 with Dragon. In 2011 additional milestones were added, bringing the total contract value to US$396 million.[19]

NASA became an anchor tenant for the vehicle in 2008,[20][21] when they contracted to purchase 12 Commercial Resupply Services launches to the International Space Station, whereby funds would be disbursed only after the initial COTS demonstration missions were completed and deemed successful. The space logistics delivery contract was worth US$1.6 billion for a minimum of 12 missions to carry supplies to and from the station.[22]

Musk has repeatedly said that, without the NASA money, development would have taken longer. SpaceX's statement about the NASA contract was:

SpaceX has only come this far by building upon the incredible achievements of NASA, having NASA as an anchor tenant for launch, and receiving expert advice and mentorship throughout the development process. SpaceX would like to extend a special thanks to the NASA COTS office for their continued support and guidance throughout this process. The COTS program has demonstrated the power of a true private/public partnership and we look forward to the exciting endeavors our team will accomplish in the future.[20]

In 2011, SpaceX estimated that Falcon 9 v1.0 development costs were on the order of $300 million.[23] NASA evaluated that development costs would have been $3.6 billion if a traditional cost-plus contract approach had been used.[24] In 2014, SpaceX released total combined development costs for both the Falcon 9 and the Dragon capsule. NASA provided US$396 million while SpaceX provided over US$450 million to fund rocket and capsule development efforts.[25]


Falcon 9 rocket cores under construction at the SpaceX Hawthorne facility

SpaceX originally intended to follow its light Falcon 1 launch vehicle with an intermediate capacity vehicle, the Falcon 5.[26] In 2005, SpaceX announced it was instead proceeding with development of the Falcon 9, a "fully reusable heavy lift launch vehicle", and had already secured a government customer. The Falcon 9 was described as being capable of launching approximately 9,500 kg (21,000 lb) to low Earth orbit, and was projected to be priced at $27 million per flight with a 3.7 m (12 ft) fairing and $35 million with a 5.2 m (17 ft) fairing. SpaceX also announced development of a heavy version of the Falcon 9 with a payload capacity of approximately 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).[27] The Falcon 9 was intended to enable launches to LEO, GTO, as well as both crew and cargo vehicles to the ISS.[26]


The original NASA COTS contract called for the first demonstration flight of Falcon in September 2008, and completion of all three demonstration missions by September 2009.[28] In February 2008, the plan for the first Falcon 9/Dragon COTS Demo flight was delayed by six months to late in the first quarter of 2009. According to Elon Musk, the complexity of the development work and the regulatory requirements for launching from Cape Canaveral contributed to the delay.[29]

The first multi-engine test (with two engines connected to the first stage, firing simultaneously) was successfully completed in January 2008,[30] with successive tests leading to the full Falcon 9 complement of nine engines test fired for a full mission length (178 seconds) of the first stage on November 22, 2008.[31] In October 2009, the first flight-ready first stage had a successful all-engine test fire at the company's test stand in McGregor, Texas. In November 2009 SpaceX conducted the initial second stage test firing lasting forty seconds. This test succeeded without aborts or recycles. On January 2, 2010, a full-duration (329 seconds) orbit-insertion firing of the Falcon 9 second stage was conducted at the McGregor test site.[32] The full stack arrived at the launch site for integration at the beginning of February 2010, and SpaceX initially scheduled a launch date of March 22, 2010, though they estimated anywhere between one and three months for integration and testing.[33]

On February 25, 2010, SpaceX's first flight stack was set vertical at Space Launch Complex 40, Cape Canaveral,[34] and on March 9, SpaceX performed a static fire test, where the first stage was to be fired without taking off. The test aborted at T-2 seconds due to a failure in the system designed to pump high-pressure helium from the launch pad into the first stage turbopumps, which would get them spinning in preparation for launch. Subsequent review showed that the failure occurred when a valve did not receive a command to open. As the problem was with the pad and not with the rocket itself, it didn't occur at the McGregor test site, which did not have the same valve setup. Some fire and smoke were seen at the base of the rocket, leading to speculation of an engine fire. However, the fire and smoke were the result of normal burnoff from the liquid oxygen and fuel mix present in the system prior to launch, and no damage was sustained by the vehicle or the test pad. All vehicle systems leading up to the abort performed as expected, and no additional issues were noted that needed addressing. A subsequent test on March 13 was successful in firing the nine first-stage engines for 3.5 seconds.[35]


In December 2010, the SpaceX production line was manufacturing one Falcon 9 (and Dragon spacecraft) every three months, with a plan to double the rate to one every six weeks.[36] By September 2013, SpaceX total manufacturing space had increased to nearly 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) and the factory had been configured to achieve a maximum production rate of 40 rocket cores per year.[37] The factory was producing one Falcon 9 vehicle per month as of November 2013. The company planned to increase to 18 vehicles per year in mid-2014, 24 per year by the end of 2014,[38][39] and 40 rocket cores per year by the end of 2015.[40]

These production rates were not achieved by February 2016 as previously planned; the company indicated that production rate for Falcon 9 cores had only recently increased to 18 per year, and the number of first stage cores that can be assembled at one time had doubled from three to six. The production rate was expected to grow to 30 cores per year by the end of 2016.[41] but as of August 2016 SpaceX was working towards a production capacity of 40 cores per year,[42] the full factory capacity envisioned in 2013.[37]

Launch history[edit]

Rockets from the Falcon 9 family have been launched 36 times over 7 years, resulting in 34 full mission successes, one partial success (with primary orbital payload delivery completed, but a secondary payload left in a lower-than-planned orbit), and one failure (with total loss of spacecraft). Additionally, one rocket and payload were destroyed before launch in preparation for an on-pad static fire test. This yields a reliability record of 95% of contracted primary missions. 12 of 17 landing attempts (71%) have succeeded in recovering the rocket's first stage.

The first rocket version Falcon 9 v1.0 was launched 5 times from June 2010 to March 2013, its successor Falcon 9 v1.1 15 times from September 2013 to January 2016 and the latest upgrade Falcon 9 Full Thrust 16 times from December 2015 to present.

Flights by rocket configuration[edit]

Flights by launch site[edit]


Flights by mission outcome[edit]

  •   Loss during flight
  •   Loss before launch
  •   Partial failure
  •   Success

Flights by landing outcome[edit]

  •   Ocean failure
  •   Drone ship failure
  •   Ground pad failure
  •   Parachutes failure
  •   Ocean success
  •   Drone ship success
  •   Ground pad success
  •   No attempt

Notable flights[edit]

SpaceX Falcon 9 launch with COTS Demo Flight 1


The Falcon 9 is a two-stage, LOX/RP-1-powered heavy-lift launch vehicle. Both stages are equipped with Merlin 1D rocket engines; nine sea-level adapted versions on the first stage and one vacuum adapted version on the second stage. Every engine utilises a pyrophoric mixture of triethylaluminum-triethylborane (TEA-TEB) as an engine igniter.[47] The first stage engines are arranged in a structural form SpaceX calls "Octaweb".[48] Many cores include four extensible landing legs attached around the base of the Octaweb.[49] To control the descent of the boosters and center core through the atmosphere, SpaceX often uses grid fins which deploy from the vehicle after separation.[50] The legs will then deploy as the boosters return back to Earth, landing each softly on the ground.[51]

The propellant tank walls and domes are made from aluminium-lithium alloy. SpaceX uses an all friction-stir welded tank, the highest strength and most reliable welding technique available.[4] The second stage tank of a Falcon 9 is simply a shorter version of the first stage tank and uses most of the same tooling, material and manufacturing techniques, reducing production costs.[4] The Falcon 9 interstage, which connects the upper and lower stage for Falcon 9, is a carbon-fiber aluminum-core composite structure. Reusable separation collets and a pneumatic pusher system separate the stages. The original design stage separation system had twelve attachment points, which was reduced to just three in the v1.1 launcher.[52]

The Falcon 9 uses a payload fairing to protect (non-Dragon) satellites during launch. The fairing is 13 m (43 ft)-long, snd 5.2 m (17 ft) in diameter, and is constructed of carbon fibre skin overlaid on an aluminium honeycomb core. SpaceX designed and fabricate fairings at their headquarters in Hawthorne, California. Testing of the design was completed at NASA's Plum Brook Station facility in spring 2013 where the acoustic shock and mechanical vibration of launch, plus electromagnetic static discharge conditions, were simulated on a full-size test article in a very large vacuum chamber.[53]

SpaceX uses multiple redundant flight computers in a fault-tolerant design. Each Merlin rocket engine is controlled by three voting computers, each of which has two physical processors that constantly check each other. The software runs on Linux and is written in C++.[54] For flexibility, commercial off-the-shelf parts and system-wide radiation-tolerant design are used instead of rad-hardened parts.[54] Each stage has stage-level flight computers, in addition to the Merlin-specific engine controllers, of the same fault-tolerant triad design to handle stage control functions.



SpaceX has predicted that its launches will have high reliability based on the philosophy that "through simplicity, reliability and low cost can go hand-in-hand",[55] but this remains to be shown. As a comparison, the Russian Soyuz series has more than 1,700 launches to its credit, far more than any other rocket[56] with a success rate of 97%.[57] 75% of current launch vehicles have had at least one failure in the first three flights.[58] As of 23 June 2017, Falcon 9 has achieved 35 out of 37 primary missions, with one rocket destroyed in flight and one on the launch pad during fueling for an engine test, yielding a success rate of 95%.

As with the company's smaller Falcon 1 vehicle, Falcon 9's launch sequence includes a hold-down feature that allows full engine ignition and systems check before liftoff. After first-stage engine start, the launcher is held down and not released for flight until all propulsion and vehicle systems are confirmed to be operating normally. Similar hold-down systems have been used on other launch vehicles such as the Saturn V[59] and Space Shuttle. An automatic safe shut-down and unloading of propellant occurs if any abnormal conditions are detected.[4] Prior to the launch date, SpaceX always completes a test of the Falcon 9 culminating in a firing of the first stage's Merlin 1D engines for three-and-a-half seconds to verify performance.[60]

Falcon 9 has triple redundant flight computers and inertial navigation, with a GPS overlay for additional orbit insertion accuracy.[4]

Engine-out capability[edit]

Like the Saturn rocket series from the Apollo program, the presence of multiple first-stage engines allow for mission completion even if one of the first-stage engines fails during flight.[4][61] Detailed descriptions of several aspects of destructive engine failure modes and designed-in engine-out capabilities were made public by SpaceX in a 2007 "update" that was publicly released.[62]

SpaceX emphasized over several years that the Falcon 9 first stage is designed for engine out capability.[4] The SpaceX CRS-1 mission in October 2012 was a partial success after an engine failure in the first stage: engine no. 1 experienced a loss of pressure at 79 seconds, and then shut down. To compensate for the resulting loss of acceleration, the first stage had to burn 28 seconds longer than planned, and the second stage had to burn an extra 15 seconds. That extra burn time of the second stage reduced its fuel reserves, so that the likelihood that there was sufficient fuel to reach the planned orbit above the space station with the secondary payload dropped from 99% to 95%. Because NASA had purchased the launch and therefore contractually controlled a number of mission decision points, NASA declined SpaceX's request to restart the second stage and attempt to deliver the secondary payload into the correct orbit. This risk was understood by the secondary payload customer at time of the signing of the launch contract. As a result, the secondary payload satellite reentered the atmosphere a few days after launch.[6]


The first ever reflight of an orbital class rocket, by SpaceX in March 2017

SpaceX intended to recover the first stages of several early Falcon flights to assist engineers in designing for future reusability. They were equipped with parachutes but failed to survive the aerodynamic stress and heating during atmospheric re-entry following stage separation.[63] Although reusability of the second stage is more difficult, SpaceX intended from the beginning to make both stages of the Falcon 9 reusable.[64]

Both stages in the early launches were covered with a layer of ablative cork and had parachutes to land them gently in the sea. The stages were also marinized by salt-water corrosion resistant material, anodizing and paying attention to galvanic corrosion.[64] In early 2009, Musk stated:

By [Falcon 1] flight six we think it's highly likely we’ll recover the first stage, and when we get it back we’ll see what survived through re-entry, and what got fried, and carry on with the process. ... That's just to make the first stage reusable, it'll be even harder with the second stage – that has got to have a full heatshield, it'll have to have deorbit propulsion and communication.[63]

Musk said that if the vehicle does not become reusable, "I will consider us to have failed."[65] In the event, SpaceX had to complete development of a different approach that did not use parachutes before they first recovered a Falcon 9 booster on flight 20 in December 2015.

In late 2011, SpaceX announced a change in the approach, eliminating the parachutes and going with a propulsively-powered-descent approach. On September 29, 2011, Musk suggested a privately funded program to develop powered descent and recovery of both Falcon 9 stages – a fully vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) rocket.[66][67] Included was a video[68] said to be an approximation depicting the first stage returning tail-first for a powered descent and the second stage, with heat shield, reentering head first before rotating for a powered descent.[67][69]

LC-40 at Cape Canaveral AFS, Florida, after construction of Falcon 9 launch structures in 2009

Design was complete on the system for "bringing the rocket back to launchpad using only thrusters" in February 2012.[51] The reusable launch system technology was then under consideration for both the Falcon 9 and the Falcon Heavy; it was considered particularly well suited to the Falcon Heavy where the two outer cores separate from the rocket much earlier in the flight profile, and are therefore moving at lower velocity at stage separation.[51]

A reusable first stage was then flight tested by SpaceX with the suborbital Grasshopper rocket.[70] By April 2013, a low-altitude, low-speed demonstration test vehicle, Grasshopper v1.0, had made five VTVL test flights including an 80-second hover flight to an altitude of 744 m (2,441 ft).

In March 2013, SpaceX announced that, beginning with the first flight of the stretch version of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle—the sixth flight overall of Falcon 9, every first stage would be instrumented and equipped as a controlled descent test vehicle. SpaceX continued their propulsive-return over-water tests, saying they "will continue doing such tests until they can do a return to the launch site and a powered landing. ... [They] expect several failures before they 'learn how to do it right.'"[71]

For the early-fall 2013 flight, after stage separation, the first-stage booster attempted to conduct a burn to slow it down and then a second burn just before it reached the water. SpaceX stated they expected several powered-descent tests to achieve successful recovery.[72]

Photos of the first test of the restartable ignition system for the reusable Falcon 9—the Falcon 9-R—with the nine-engine v1.1 circular-engine configuration were released in April 2013.[73]

By late 2014, SpaceX determined that the mass needed for a re-entry heat shield, landing engines, and other equipment to support recovery of the second stage was prohibitive, and suspended or abandoned their second-stage reusability plans for the Falcon line.[13][74]

In March 2015, SpaceX publicly announced they were developing an upgraded version of the rocket to support first-stage reusability on flights to geosynchronous and other high energy orbits. The modifications included increasing engine thrust on both stages by 15%, increasing upper stage tank volume by 10%, and subcooling the propellants to obtain greater density.[75] The cryogenic oxygen is cooled to −207 °C, yielding an 8% density increase, while the RP-1 fuel is cooled to −7 °C giving a 2.5–4% density increase.[76] This performance increase compensates for the fuel reserved by the first stage for return and landing. This upgraded version, termed Falcon 9 Full Thrust, first flew on 21 December 2015.

Payload fairings have survived descent and splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. In June 2015, wreckage of an unidentified Falcon 9 launch vehicle was found off the coast of The Bahamas, which was confirmed by SpaceX CEO Elon Musk to be a component of the payload fairing that washed ashore. Musk also noted the concept of fairing reusability in a statement: "This is helpful for figuring out fairing reusability."[77] On March 30, 2017, SpaceX for the first time recovered a fairing from the SES-10 mission, thanks to thrusters and a steerable parachute helping it glide towards a gentle touchdown on water.[45]

Post-mission flight tests and landing attempts[edit]

Falcon 9 Flight 17's first stage attempting a controlled landing on the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship following the launch of CRS-6 to the International Space Station on April 14, 2015. The stage landed hard and tipped over, exploding after landing.

The post-mission test plan called for the first-stage booster on the sixth Falcon 9 flight, and several subsequent F9 flights, to do a burn to reduce the first stage's horizontal velocity and then effect a second burn just before it reached the water. SpaceX announced the test program in March 2013, and continued to conduct tests until they could attempt another drone ship water powered landing.[71]

Falcon 9 Flight 6's first stage performed the first propulsive-return over-water tests on 29 September 2013.[78] Although not a complete success, the stage was able to change direction and make a controlled entry into the atmosphere.[78] During the final landing burn, the ACS thrusters could not overcome an aerodynamically induced spin, and centrifugal force deprived the landing engine of fuel leading to early engine shutdown and a hard splashdown that destroyed the first stage. Pieces of wreckage were recovered for further study.[78]

The next test, using the first stage from SpaceX CRS-3, led to a successful soft ocean landing, however it presumably broke up in heavy seas before it could be recovered.[79]

After further ocean landing tests, the first stage of the CRS-5 launch vehicle attempted a landing on a floating landing platform, the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship on January 10, 2015. The rocket guided itself to the ship successfully, but ran out of hydraulic fluid and lost its steering ability, causing it to tip over and explode on impact with the landing platform.[80]

The Falcon 9's first successful first-stage landing happened on land at Landing Zone 1 on December 21, 2015[81] during the RTF mission for Orbcomm.

The first successful first-stage landing on a floating platform happened on the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship Of Course I Still Love You on April 8, 2016 during the SpaceX CRS-8 mission.

On September 1, 2016, during a routine preflight readiness test at Cape Canaveral's LC-40, an explosion occurred in the second stage during fueling, completely destroying the launch vehicle and causing extensive pad damage. The payload, Spacecom's AMOS-6 communications satellite was destroyed on impact with the ground.[82] The incident was the first on-pad explosion at Cape Canaveral since the launch of Atlas-Centaur AC-5 in 1965.[citation needed]

Relaunch of previously-flown first stages[edit]

The first operational re-use of a previously-flown Falcon 9 booster was successfully accomplished on March 30th 2017[83] with the SES-10 mission.[84] The payload fairing was also recovered during this mission, accomplished by using small attitude thrusters and a parachute recovery system on each half of the fairing.[45]

Launcher versions[edit]

The original Falcon 9 flew five successful orbital launches in 2010–2013. The much larger Falcon 9 v1.1 made its first flight on September 29, 2013. The demonstration mission carried a very small 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) primary payload, the CASSIOPE satellite, that was manifested at a "cut rate price" due to the demo mission nature of the flight.[52] Larger payloads followed for v1.1 with the launch of the large SES-8 and Thaicom communications satellites, each inserted successfully into GTO.[85] Both Falcon 9 v1.0 and Falcon 9 v1.1 are expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). The third—and current—version of the Falcon 9 is the Falcon 9 Full Thrust which made its first flight in December 2015 and has made eight additional flights during the first eight months of 2016.

The first stage of the Falcon 9 Full Thrust version is reusable. SpaceX called the first few landing attempts "experimental" until the JCSAT-16 mission.[citation needed] Initial low-velocity low-altitude atmospheric testing was conducted on the Grasshopper experimental technology-demonstrator reusable launch vehicle (RLV) which made eight test flights in 2012 and 2013,[86] and five flights of a second RLV test vehicle—F9R Dev1—were made during 2014.[87][88]

Falcon 9 v1.0[edit]

A Falcon 9 v1.0 launches with an uncrewed Dragon spacecraft in 2012.
Falcon 9 booster tank at the SpaceX factory, 2008

The first version of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle, Falcon 9 v1.0, is an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) that was developed in 2005–2010, and was launched for the first time in 2010. Falcon 9 v1.0 made five flights in 2010–2013, after which it was retired.

Falcon 9 v1.0 (left) and v1.1 (right) engine configurations

The Falcon 9 v1.0 first stage was powered by nine SpaceX Merlin 1C rocket engines arranged in a 3×3 pattern. Each of these engines had a sea-level thrust of 556 kilonewtons (125,000 lbf) for a total thrust on liftoff of about 5,000 kilonewtons (1,100,000 lbf).[4] The Falcon 9 v1.0 second stage was powered by a single Merlin 1C engine modified for vacuum operation, with an expansion ratio of 117:1 and a nominal burn time of 345 seconds.

Gaseous N2 thrusters were used on the Falcon 9 v1.0 second-stage as a reaction control system.[89] The thrusters are used to hold a stable attitude for payload separation or, as a non-standard service, could have been used to spin up the stage and payload to a maximum of 5 rotations per minute (RPM).[89][needs update]

SpaceX expressed hopes initially that both stages would eventually be reusable. But early results from adding lightweight thermal protection system (TPS) capability to the booster stage and using parachute recovery were not successful,[63] leading to abandonment of that approach and the initiation of a new design. In 2011, SpaceX began a formal and funded development program for a reusable Falcon 9 second stage, with the early program focus however on return of the first stage.[51] However, by late 2014, SpaceX had apparently abandoned plans for recovering and reusing the second stage.[13]

Falcon 9 v1.1[edit]

The launch of the first Falcon 9 v1.1 from SLC-4, Vandenberg AFB (Falcon 9 Flight 6) on September 29, 2013

The Falcon 9 v1.1 ELV is a 60 percent heavier rocket with 60 percent more thrust than the v1.0 version of the Falcon 9.[52] It includes realigned first-stage engines[90] and 60 percent longer fuel tanks, making it more susceptible to bending during flight.[52] Development testing of the v1.1 first stage was completed in July 2013.[91][92] The Falcon 9 v1.1, first launched on September 29, 2013, uses a longer first stage powered by nine Merlin 1D engines arranged in an "octagonal" pattern,[93][94] that SpaceX calls Octaweb. This is designed to simplify and streamline the manufacturing process.[95]

The v1.1 first stage has a total sea-level thrust at liftoff of 5,885 kilonewtons (1,323,000 lbf), with the nine engines burning for a nominal 180 seconds, while stage thrust rises to 6,672 kilonewtons (1,500,000 lbf) as the booster climbs out of the atmosphere.[3] The engines have been upgraded to the more powerful Merlin 1D. These improvements increased the payload capability from 9,000 kilograms (20,000 lb) to 13,150 kilograms (28,990 lb).[3] The stage separation system has been redesigned and reduces the number of attachment points from twelve to three,[52] and the vehicle has upgraded avionics and software as well.[52] The new first stage was also intended to be used as side boosters on the Falcon Heavy launch vehicle.[96]

SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell has stated the Falcon 9 v1.1 has about 30 percent more payload capacity than published on its standard price list, the extra margin reserved for returning of stages via powered re-entry.[97] Though SpaceX has signed agreements with SES for two launches of satellites up to 5,330 kilograms (11,750 lb), exceeding the price list offering of 4,850 kilograms (10,690 lb) by approximately 10 percent, these satellites will be dropped off in a sub-GTO trajectory and subsequently use on board propellant to raise their orbits.[98]

Four extensible carbon fiber with aluminum honeycomb landing legs were included on later flights where landings were attempted.[99][71][72]

Following the September 2013 launch, the second stage igniter propellant lines were insulated to better support in-space restart following long coast phases for orbital trajectory maneuvers.[38] Further improvements were planned for mid-2015 including uprated engine thrust, increased propellant capacity by deep chilling the propellant and propellant tank volume increase.[100]

Falcon 9 Full Thrust[edit]

The "Full Thrust upgrade" version[101][102]—the third major version of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle following the Falcon 9 v1.0 (launched 2010–2013) and the Falcon 9 v1.1 (launched 2013–January 2016)—has cryogenic cooling of propellant to increase density allowing more thrust, improved stage separation system, stretched upper stage that can hold additional propellant, and strengthened struts for holding helium bottles believed to have been involved with the failure of flight 19.[103]

SpaceX pricing and payload specifications published for the non-reusable Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket as of March 2014 actually included about 30 percent more performance than the published price list indicated; the additional performance was reserved for SpaceX to do reusability testing with the Falcon 9 v1.1 while still achieving the specified payloads for customers. Many engineering changes to support reusability and recovery of the first stage had been made on the v1.1 version and testing was successful, with SpaceX having room to increase the payload performance for the Full Thrust version, or decrease launch price, or both.[104]

SpaceX previously referred to a Falcon 9-R that was less a version of the rocket and more an aspiration of where development should be heading.[citation needed] As early as 2009 Elon Musk indicated a desire to make the Falcon 9 the first fully reusable launch vehicle.[105] The latest version of the rocket has a reusable first stage after successful testing in December 2015. However, plans to reuse the Falcon 9 second-stage booster have been abandoned as the weight of a heat shield and other equipment would impinge on payload too much for this to be economically feasible for this rocket.[13] The reusable booster stage was developed using systems and software tested on the Grasshopper and F9R Dev technology demonstrators, as well as a set of technologies being developed by SpaceX to facilitate rapid reusability.

In February 2017, SpaceX’s CRS-10 launch was the first operational launch utilizing the new Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) that is built into Falcon 9 Full Thrust launch vehicles. For all future SpaceX launches after 16 March 2017, the autonomous AFSS has replaced "the ground-based mission flight control personnel and equipment with on-board Positioning, Navigation and Timing sources and decision logic. The benefits of AFSS include increased public safety, reduced reliance on range infrastructure, reduced range spacelift cost, increased schedule predictability and availability, operational flexibility, and launch slot flexibility."[106]

Falcon 9 Block 5[edit]

On October 23, 2016, Musk described a Falcon 9 "Block 5"[clarification needed] version that would have "a lot of minor refinements that collectively are important, but uprated thrust and improved legs are the most significant."[107] On January 21, 2017 Musk added that the Block 5 version "[s]ignificantly improves performance & ease of reusability".[108] He described this version as the "final" version of the rocket. Block 5 is expected to start production in early 2017 with the initial flight in the second or the third quarter of 2017.[107]


Version Falcon 9 v1.0 (retired) Falcon 9 v1.1 (retired) Falcon 9 Full Thrust (active)[7] Falcon 9 Block 5 (in development)
Stage 1 9 × Merlin 1C 9 × Merlin 1D 9 × Merlin 1D (upgraded)[109] 9 × Merlin 1D (further upgraded)[5]
Stage 2 1 × Merlin 1C Vacuum 1 × Merlin 1D Vacuum 1 × Merlin 1D Vacuum[102][109] 1 × Merlin 1D Vacuum
Max. height (m) 53[96] 68.4[3] 70[2][102] Currently unknown; most likely 70
Diameter (m) 3.66[76] 3.66[110] 3.66[102] 3.66
Initial thrust (kN) 3,807 5,885[3] 6,804[2][102]

7,607[10][111] (late 2016)

Currently unknown
Takeoff mass (tonnes) 318[96] 506[3] 549[2] Currently unknown
Fairing diameter (m) N/A[b] 5.2 5.2 5.2
Payload to LEO (kg)
(from Cape Canaveral)
8,500–9,000[96] 13,150[3] 22,800 (expendable)[1]
At least 9,600 (reusable)
Currently unknown
Payload to GTO (kg) 3,400[96] 4,850[3] 8,300[1] (expendable)
At least 5,500[14][15] (reusable)
Currently unknown
Success ratio 5 / 5[c] 14 / 15 16 / 17[a] 0 / 0
  1. ^ a b One rocket and payload were destroyed before launch in preparation for static fire.[113]
  2. ^ The Falcon 9 v1.0 only launched the Dragon spacecraft; it never launched with the clam-shell payload fairing.
  3. ^ On SpaceX CRS-1, the primary payload, Dragon, was successful. A secondary payload was placed in an incorrect orbit because of a changed flight profile due to the malfunction and shut-down of a single first-stage engine. Likely enough fuel and oxidizer remained on the second stage for orbital insertion, but not enough to be within NASA safety margins for the protection of the International Space Station.[112]

Launch sites[edit]

SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket delivered the ABS 3A and EUTELSAT 115 West B satellites to a supersynchronous transfer orbit, launching from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida on Sunday, March 1, 2015.

As of June 2017, the Falcon 9 has launched from three orbital launch sites: Launch Complex 39A of the Kennedy Space Center,[114] Space Launch Complex 4E of the Vandenberg Air Force Base,[65][78] and Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (the latter was damaged in the Amos-6 accident in September 2016, but is expected to be operational again in August 2017).[115][116] SpaceX is also building a commercial-only launch facility at the Boca Chica site near Brownsville, Texas, from which the Falcon 9 is expected to launch no earlier than late 2018.[117][41]

Launch prices[edit]

At the time of the rocket's maiden flight in 2010, the price of a Falcon 9 v1.0 launch was listed from $49.9 to $56 million.[4] By 2012, the listed price range had increased to $54–$59.5 million.[118] In August 2013, the initial list price for a Falcon 9 v1.1 was $56.5 million;[119] it was raised to $61.2 million by June 2014.[120] Since May 2016, the standard price for a Falcon 9 Full Thrust mission (allowing booster recovery) is published as $62 million.[1] Dragon cargo missions to the ISS have an average cost of $133 million under a fixed price contract with NASA, including the cost of the capsule.[121] The DSCOVR mission, also launched with Falcon 9 for NOAA, cost $97 million[122]

In 2004, Elon Musk stated, "long term plans call for development of a heavy lift product and even a super-heavy, if there is customer demand. [...] Ultimately, I believe $500 per pound ($1100/kg) [of payload delivered to orbit] or less is very achievable."[123] At its 2016 launch price and at full LEO payload capacity, the Falcon 9 FT cost $1,233 per pound ($2,719/kg) for the expendable version. In comparison, at full GTO payload capacity, the Falcon 9 FT cost $3,390 per pound ($7,470/kg) for the expendable version and $5,113 per pound ($11,273/kg) for the 1st launch of the reusable version.

In 2011, Musk estimated that fuel and oxidizer for the Falcon 9 v1.0 rocket cost a total of about $200,000.[124] The first stage uses 39,000 US gallons (150,000 L) of liquid oxygen and almost 25,000 US gallons (95,000 L) of kerosene, while the second stage uses 7,300 US gallons (28,000 L) of liquid oxygen and 4,600 US gallons (17,000 L) of kerosene.[1]

Secondary payload services[edit]

Falcon 9 payload services include secondary and tertiary payload connection via an EELV Secondary Payload Adapter ring, the same interstage adapter first used for launching secondary payloads on US DoD missions that use the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) Atlas V and Delta IV. This enables secondary and even tertiary missions with minimal impact to the original mission. In 2011, SpaceX announced pricing for ESPA-compatible payloads on the Falcon 9.[125]

See also[edit]


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