Cosmopolis XXI was a late 2000s Russian concept launch vehicle billed as a space tourism vehicle, similar to Mojave Aerospace's Tier One program. Designed and built by the Myasishchev Design Bureau, it would use the M-55X launch aircraft (derived from Myasishchev M-55), and the proposed C-21 spaceplane or its successor the Explorer. It would be a TSTSO (Two-Stage to SubOrbit) launch platform.
The Explorer spaceplane is a suborbital tourist spaceplane based on the C-21 design. The plane is being developed by Space Adventures with the Russian Federal Space Agency and is designed to carry 3 passengers. It is to be air-launched by carrier aircraft from a Space Adventures spaceport. The spaceport for the Explorer is being developed with Prodea (the company of Anousheh and Amir Ansari, who funded the Ansari X-Prize) in the United Arab Emirates, the Ras Al Khaimah spaceport.
- Space.com Suborbital Rocketship Fleet to Carry Tourists Spaceward in Style February 22, 2006
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- Space Tourism Pioneers, Space Adventures and the Ansari X Prize Title Sponsors, to Provide First Suborbital Spaceflight Tourism Vehicles (SpaceAdventures)
- New group to develop passenger spaceship (MSNBC)
- C-21 Spacecraft at Space Adventures
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