|SpaceShipOne after its successful flight into space, June 21, 2004.|
|First flight||20 May 2003|
|Retired||4 October 2004|
|Primary user||Mojave Aerospace Ventures|
|Preserved at||National Air and Space Museum|
The SpaceShipOne is a suborbital air-launched spaceplane that completed the first manned private spaceflight in 2004. That same year, it won the US$10 million Ansari X Prize and was immediately retired from active service. Its mother ship was named "White Knight". Both craft were developed and flown by Mojave Aerospace Ventures, which was a joint venture between Paul Allen and Scaled Composites, Burt Rutan's aviation company. Allen provided the funding of approximately US$25 million.
Rutan has indicated that ideas about the project began as early as 1994 and the full-time development cycle time to the 2004 accomplishments was about three years. The vehicle first achieved supersonic flight on December 17, 2003, which was also the one-hundredth anniversary of the Wright Brothers' historic first powered flight. SpaceShipOne's first official spaceflight, known as flight 15P, was piloted by Mike Melvill. A few days before that flight, the Mojave Air and Space Port was the first commercial spaceport licensed in the United States. A few hours after that flight, Melvill became the first licensed U.S. commercial astronaut. The overall project name was "Tier One" which has evolved into Tier 1b with a goal of taking a successor ship's first passengers into space within the next few years.
SpaceShipOne's official model designation is Scaled Composites Model 316.
Development and winning the X Prize
SpaceShipOne was developed by Mojave Aerospace Ventures (a joint venture between Paul Allen and Scaled Composites, Burt Rutan's aviation company, in their Tier One program), without government funding. On June 21, 2004, it made the first privately funded human spaceflight. On October 4, it won the US$10 million Ansari X Prize, by reaching 100 kilometers in altitude twice in a two-week period with the equivalent of three people on board and with no more than ten percent of the non-fuel weight of the spacecraft replaced between flights. Development costs were estimated to be US$25 million, funded completely by Paul Allen.:10, 80–111
During its test program, SpaceShipOne set a number of important "firsts", including first privately funded aircraft to exceed Mach 2 and Mach 3, first privately funded manned spacecraft to exceed 100km altitude, and first privately funded reusable manned spacecraft.:80–111
SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with suborbital flight capability that uses a hybrid rocket motor. The design features a unique "feathering" atmospheric reentry system where the rear half of the wing and the twin tail booms folded upward along a hinge running the length of the wing; this increased drag while remaining stable. The achievements of SpaceShipOne are more comparable to the X-15 than orbiting spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. Accelerating a spacecraft to orbital speed requires more than 60 times as much energy as accelerating it to Mach 3. It would also require an elaborate heat shield to safely dissipate that energy during re-entry.
SpaceShipOne is registered with the FAA as N328KF. N is the prefix for US-registered aircraft; 328KF was chosen by Scaled Composites to stand for 328 kilofeet (about 100 kilometers), the officially designated edge of space. The original choice of registry number, N100KM, was already taken. N328KF is registered as a glider, reflecting the fact that most of its independent flight is unpowered.
SpaceShipOne's first flight, 01C, was an unmanned captive flight test on May 20, 2003. Glide tests followed, starting with flight 03G on August 7, 2003. Its first powered flight, flight 11P, was made on December 17, 2003, the 100th anniversary of the first powered flight.
On April 1, 2004, Scaled Composites received the first license for suborbital rocket flights to be issued by the US Office of Commercial Space Transportation. This license permitted the company to conduct powered test flights over the course of one year. On June 17, 2004, Mojave Airport reclassified itself (part-time) as the Mojave Spaceport.
Flight 15P on June 21, 2004, was SpaceShipOne's first spaceflight, and the first privately funded human spaceflight. There were a few control problems, but these were resolved prior to the Ansari X PRIZE flights that followed, with flight 17P to 112 km on October 4, 2004, winning the prize.
On 17 December 2003—on the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers first powered flight of an aircraft—SpaceShipOne, piloted by Brian Binnie on Flight 11P, made its first rocket-powered flight, and became the first privately built craft to achieve supersonic flight.:8
All of the flights of SpaceShipOne were from the Mojave Airport Civilian Flight Test Center. Flights were numbered, starting with flight 01 on May 20, 2003. One or two letters are appended to the number to indicate the type of mission. An appended C indicates that the flight was a captive carry, G indicates an unpowered glide, and P indicates a powered flight. If the actual flight differs in category from the intended flight, two letters are appended: the first indicating the intended mission and the second the mission actually performed.
|01C||May 20, 2003||14.63 km||1 h 48 min||unmanned|
|02C||July 29, 2003||14 km||2 h 06 min||Mike Melvill|
|03G||August 7, 2003||278 km/h||14.33 km||19 min 00 s||Mike Melvill|
|04GC||August 27, 2003||370 km/h||14 km||1 h 06 min||Mike Melvill|
|05G||August 27, 2003||370 km/h||14.69 km||10 min 30 s||Mike Melvill|
|06G||September 23, 2003||213 km/h||14.26 km||12 min 15 s||Mike Melvill|
|07G||October 17, 2003||241 km/h||14.08 km||17 min 49 s||Mike Melvill|
|08G||November 14, 2003||213 km/h||14.42 km||19 min 55 s||Peter Siebold|
|09G||November 19, 2003||213 km/h||14.72 km||12 min 25 s||Mike Melvill|
|10G||December 4, 2003||213 km/h||14.75 km||13 min 14 s||Brian Binnie|
|11P||December 17, 2003||Mach 1.2||20.67 km||18 min 10 s||Brian Binnie|
|12G||March 11, 2004||232 km/h||14.78 km||18 min 30 s||Peter Siebold|
|13P||April 8, 2004||Mach 1.6||32.00 km||16 min 27 s||Peter Siebold|
|14P||May 13, 2004||Mach 2.5||64.43 km||20 min 44 s||Mike Melvill|
|15P||June 21, 2004||Mach 2.9||100.124 km||24 min 05 s||Mike Melvill|
|16P||September 29, 2004||Mach 2.92||102.93 km||24 min 11 s||Mike Melvill|
|17P||October 4, 2004||Mach 3.09||112.014 km||23 min 56 s||Brian Binnie|
The SpaceShipOne pilots came from a variety of aerospace backgrounds. Mike Melvill is a test pilot, Brian Binnie is a former Navy pilot, and Doug Shane and Peter Siebold are engineers at Scaled Composites. They qualified to fly SpaceShipOne by training on the Tier One flight simulator and in White Knight and other Scaled Composites aircraft.
SpaceShipOne's spaceflights were watched by large crowds at Mojave Spaceport. A fourth suborbital flight, Flight 18P, was originally scheduled for October 13, 2004. However, Burt Rutan decided not to risk damage to the historic craft, and cancelled it and all future flights.
On July 25, 2005 SpaceShipOne was taken to the Oshkosh Airshow in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. After the airshow, Mike Melvill and crew flew the White Knight, carrying SpaceShipOne, to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, where Melvill spoke to a group of about 300 military and civilian personnel. Later in the evening, Melvill gave a presentation at the Dayton Engineers Club, entitled "Some Experiments in Space Flight", in honor of Wilbur Wright's now-famous presentation to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1901 entitled "Some Experiments in Flight." The White Knight then transported SpaceShipOne to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum to be put on display. It was unveiled on Wednesday October 5, 2005 in the Milestones of Flight gallery and is now on display to the public in the main atrium with the Spirit of St. Louis, the Bell X-1, and the Apollo 11 command module Columbia.
Commander Brian Binnie donated the flight suit worn during his Ansari X Prize-winning flight to an auction benefitting Seattle's Museum of Flight. Entertainer and charity auctioneer Fred Northup, Jr. purchased the flight suit, and subsequently announced his intention to display it on loan at the museum's new Charles Simonyi Space Gallery.
A year after its appearance in the Oshkosh Airventure airshow, the Experimental Aircraft Association featured a full-scale replica of the spacecraft in a wing of its museum which housed other creations of Burt Rutan. Using the same fiberglass molds as the original, it was so exact in its replication—despite not having any doors or interior—that it was dubbed "Serial 2 Scaled" by Scaled Composites. Each and every painstaking detail in its appearance was matched, down to the N328KF registration number on its fuselage. It is so precise that, during a video presentation held every hour in the museum, it can display the two different modes of its 'feathering' ability, albeit through the aid of pulleys and wires (there is no machinery in the replica).
Another full-scale replica of SpaceShipOne hangs in the rotunda of the William Thomas Terminal at Meadows Field Airport in Bakersfield, a third is on display in the Mojave Spaceport's Legacy Park alongside the original Roton Atmospheric Test Vehicle a fourth is at Paul Allen's Flying Heritage Museum at Paine Field in Everett., and a fifth is on display in Google's Mountain View Campus.
With the success of Tier One meeting its project goals, a successor project started in 2004 was Tier 1b. The successor ships are named SpaceShipTwo and White Knight Two. The name of the joint venture between Virgin Group and Scaled Composites is called The Spaceship Company, with a goal of carrying passengers under the name Virgin Galactic, a spaceliner with an initial target of a commercial fleet of five spacecraft.
Data from astronautix.com
- Crew: one pilot
- Capacity: 2 passengers
- Length: 28 ft (8.53 m) ()
- Wingspan: 16 ft 5 in (8.05 m)
- Height: ()
- Wing area: 161.4 ft² (15 m²)
- Empty weight: 2,640 lb (1,200 kg)
- Loaded weight: 7,920 lb (3,600 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × N2O/HTPB SpaceDev Hybrid rocket, 7,500 kgf (74 kN)
- Isp: 250 s (2450 Ns/kg)
- Burn time: 87 seconds
- Aspect Ratio: 1.6
- Maximum speed: Mach 3.09 (2,170 mph, 3,518 km/h)
- Range: 35 nm (40 mi, 65 km)
- Service ceiling: 367,360 ft (112,000 m)
- Rate of climb: 82,000 ft/min (416.6 m/s)
- Wing loading: 49.07 lb/ft² (240 kg/m²)
- Thrust/weight: 2.08
SpaceShipOne landing after its June 21, 2004 space flight (Flight 15P)
- 2004 in spaceflight
- Black Sky: The Race For Space documentary about SpaceShipOne
- Mojave Magic: A Turtle's Eye View of SpaceShipOne
- Belfiore, Michael (2007). Rocketeers: how a visionary band of business leaders, engineers, and pilots is boldly privatizing space. New York: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 978-0-06-114903-0.
- Elon Musk Is Betting His Fortune on a Mission Beyond Earth's Orbit
- "FAA Registry". Federal Aviation Administration.
- Brekke, Dan (7 July 2004). "SpaceShipOne Back on Course". Wired. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- "FAI Record ID #9881 - Altitude above the earth's surface with or without maneuvres of the aerospacecraft, Class P-1 (Suborbital missions) " Mass Time Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Retrieved: 21 September 2014.
- "SpaceShipOne Flight Tests". Scaled Composites.
- "SpaceShipOne". Encyclopedia Astronautica.
- Jefferson, Catherine (2004). "First Private Manned Space Flight".
- "Pluto Mission to Carry Piece of SpaceShipOne". Space.com. December 20, 2005.
- Jeff Hecht (29 July 2005). "SpaceShipOne". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
- Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne
- Laughing Squid
- Leonard David. "Virgin Galactic Spaceliner Steps Forward". Space News. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- "Space tourism company to fly in 2008". AirVenture Museum. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- "SpaceShipThree poised to follow if SS2 succeeds". Flight International. 23 August 2005. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- jnhtx (87543) (July 30, 2006). "Notes on Rutan presentations at EAA Oshkosh". Slashdot. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- SpaceShipOne: an illustrated history by Dan Linehan, Foreword by Arthur Charles Clarke (2008) ISBN 076033188X
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