List of government space agencies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Space agency)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.

As of 2022, 77 different government space agencies are in existence, 16 of which have launch capabilities. Six government space agencies—the China National Space Administration (CNSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the (US) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Russian State Space Corporation "Roscosmos" — have full launch capabilities (ability to launch and recover multiple satellites, develop and deploy cryogenic rocket engines and operate space probes) and extraterrestrial landing capabilities.

The name given is the English version, with the native language version below. The acronym given is the most common acronym: this can either be the acronym of the English version (e.g. JAXA), or the acronym in the native language. Where there are multiple acronyms in common use, the English one is given first.

The date of the founding of the space agency is the date of first operations where applicable. If the space agency is no longer running, then the date when it was terminated (i.e. the last day of operations) is given. In particular the Soviet space program is not listed since it was not organized as a consolidated agency.

List of space agencies[edit]

The accomplishments of the space agencies are color-coded as follows
  Human Lunar Exploration + Operates Space Station + Human Spaceflight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Operates Space station + Human Spaceflight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Human spaceflight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  None of the Above

Civilian[edit]

Country Name Initialisms/Acronym Founded Terminated Capabilities of the space agency Ref(s)
Astronauts Operates Satellites Sounding Rockets capable Recoverable Biological Sounding Rockets capable
 Australia Australian Space Agency ASA 1 July 2018 No Yes Yes No [1][2][citation needed]
 Belarus Belarus Space Agency BSA 2009 No Yes Yes No [3]
 Costa Rica Costa Rican Space Agency (Agencia Espacial Costarricense) AEC 2021 No No No No [4]
 El Salvador El Salvador Aerospace Institute (Instituto Aeroespacial de El Salvador) ESAI 2021 No No No No [5]
 Mexico Mexican Space Agency AEM 30 July 2010 Yes Yes Yes No [6]
 Algeria Algerian Space Agency
ASAL 16 January 2002 No Yes Yes No
 Austria Austrian Space Agency ALR 12 July 1972 No No No No [7][8]
 Azerbaijan Space Agency of the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azercosmos) Azercosmos 2021 No Yes No No [9]
 Bahrain National Space Science Agency NSSA 9 April 2014 No No No No [10]
 Belgium Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy BIRA
IASB
BISA
November 25, 1964 Yes No No No [11]
 Venezuela Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities ABAE 1 January 2008 No Yes No No [12]
 Brazil Brazilian Space Agency AEB 10 February 1994 Yes Yes Yes[13] No [14][15]
 United Kingdom United Kingdom Space Agency UKSA 1 April 2010 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Bolivia Bolivian Space Agency ABE 2012 No Yes No No [16][17][18]
 Bulgaria Bulgarian Space Agency ИКИ-БАН
SRI-BAS
ИСЗВ-БАН
STIL-BAS
1987 Yes Yes No No [19]
 Canada Canadian Space Agency CSA
ASC
1 March 1989 Yes Yes Yes No [20]
 China China National Space Administration CNSA 22 April 1993 Yes Yes Yes Yes [21]
 Colombia Colombian Space Commission CCE 18 July 2006 No Yes No No [22]
 Singapore Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing CRISP 1995 No Yes No No
International
Italy Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)
United Kingdom British National Space Centre (BNSC)
Canada Canadian Space Agency (CSA)
France Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES)
China China National Space Administration (CNSA)
Germany Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR)
Not the esa logo.png European Space Agency (ESA)
Brazil Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)
Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Russia Russian Federal Space Agency (RFSA)
Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems CCSDS 1982 No No No No
Committee on Space Research COSPAR 1958 No No No No [23][24][25]
 Czech Republic Czech: Ministerstvo dopravy České republiky
(Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic – Space Technologies and Satellite Systems Department[citation needed][26])
[1]
Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic
2003[citation needed] Yes No No No [26]
 Denmark Danish National Space Center DNSC
DNSC
1 January 1968 (DSRI)
1 January 2005 (DNSC)
- Yes Yes No No [citation needed]
European Space Agency ESA
ASE
EWO
1964 (ESRO/ELDO)
31 May 1975 (ESA)
Yes Yes Yes Yes [27][28]
 European Union European Union Agency for the Space Programme EUSPA
EUSPA
12 July 2004 (GSA)
21 May 2021 (EUSPA)
No Yes No No
 Thailand Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency GISTDA
สทอภ
3 November 2002 No Yes No No [29]
 Germany German Aerospace Center DLR 1969 Yes Yes Yes No [30]
 Greece Hellenic Space Centre (Greek: Ελληνικό Κέντρο Διαστήματος) ΕΛΚΕΔ
HSC
9 August 2019 No No No No [citation needed]
 Hungary Hungarian Space Office MŰI
HSO
January 1992 No Yes No No
 India Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO
इसरो
15 August 1969 Yes Yes Yes Yes [31][32][33]
 Spain Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial INTA 1942 Yes Yes Yes No [34][35][36]
 Iran Iranian Space Agency ISA 2004 Yes Yes Yes Yes [37][38][39]
 Israel Israeli Space Agency
ISA
סל"ה
April 1983 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Italy Italian Space Agency ASI 1988 Yes Yes Yes No [40][41]
 Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JAXA 1 October 2003 Yes Yes Yes Yes [42][43]
 Luxembourg Luxembourg Space Agency
LSA September 2018 No No No No [44]
 Kazakhstan National Space Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan KazCosmos
KazKosmos
27 March 2007 Yes Yes No No [45]
 New Zealand New Zealand Space Agency
NZSA April 2016 No No No No
 North Korea National Aerospace Development Administration NADA 1980s (KCST)
2013 (NADA)
No Yes Yes No [46][47][48][49]
 South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute KARI 10 October 1989 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Lithuania Lithuanian Space Association[citation needed] LSA 2007 No Yes No No [50]
 Malaysia Malaysian Space Agency MYSA 2002 Yes Yes No No [51]
 United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA 1 October 1958 Yes Yes Yes Yes [52]
 Egypt National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences NARSS 1994 No Yes No No [53]
 Australia National Space Program NSP 1986 1996 No Yes No No [54]
 France National Centre for Space Studies CNES 19 December 1961 Yes Yes Yes No [55]
 Paraguay Paraguayan Space Agency (Agencia Espacial de Paraguay) AEP 26 March 2014 No Yes No No [56]
 Peru National Commission for Aerospace Research and Development CONIDA 11 June 1974 No Yes Yes No [57]
 Philippines Philippine Space Agency PhilSA 2014 (DOSTASTI)
8 August 2019 (PhilSA)
No Yes No No [59][60][58] [61][62][60]
 Rwanda Rwanda Space Agency RSA 2021 No No No No [63]
 Argentina Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales CONAE 1961 (CNIE)
28 May 1991 (CONAE)
No Yes Yes Yes [64][65]
 Indonesia Aeronautics and Space Research Organization-LAPAN LAPAN November 27, 1964 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Mongolia National Remote Sensing Center of Mongolia[citation needed] NRSC 1987 No No No No [66]
 Tunisia French: Centre national de la cartographie et de la télédétection
(Arabic: المركز الوطني للإستشعار عن بعد)
(National Remote Sensing Center of Tunisia)[citation needed]
CNCT 1988 No No No No
 Uzbekistan The Space Research and Technology Agency under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan Uzbekspace agency 2019 No No No No [2][67]
 Ukraine State Space Agency of Ukraine ДКАУ
SSAU
2 March 1992 Yes Yes Yes No [3]
 Taiwan National Space Organization NSPO 3 October 1991 No Yes Yes No [68]
 Nigeria National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA 1998 No Yes No No [citation needed]
 Netherlands Netherlands Institute for Space Research SRON 1983 Yes Yes No No [citation needed]
 Norway Norwegian Space Agency NRS
NSC
1987 No Yes Yes No [69]
 Pakistan Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission SUPARCO
سپارکو
16 September 1961 No Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Poland Polish Space Agency POLSA
POLSA
29 September 1976 (CBK PAN)
26 September 2014 (POLSA)
Yes Yes No No [citation needed]
 Portugal Portugal Space PTSPACE
PTSPACE
2019 No No No No [70][71]
 Romania Romanian Space Agency ASR
ROSA
1991 Yes Yes No No [citation needed]
 Egypt Egypt Remote Sensing Center (defunct) EASRT-RSC 1971 1994 No No No No [53]
 Morocco French: Centre Royal de Télédétection Spatiale
Berber: Ammas Amrrukan n Tallunt
(Arabic: المركز الملكي للإستشعار البعدي الفضائي)
(Royal Center for Remote Sensing)[citation needed]
CRTS December 1989 No No No No
 Russia Roscosmos ROSCOSMOS
РОСКОСМОС
26 December 1991 Yes Yes Yes Yes [citation needed]
 Turkey Turkish Space Agency
(Türkiye Uzay Ajansı)
TUA
TUA
1985 (TÜBİTAK UZAY)
13 December 2018 (TUA)
No Yes Yes No [72][73][74][75]
 South Africa South African National Space Agency SANSA 9 December 2010 No No No No [76]
 Saudi Arabia Saudi Space Commission SSC 1977 (KACST-SRI)
2018 (SSC)
No Yes No No
 Vietnam Vietnam National Space Center (Trung tâm Vũ trụ Việt Nam) TTVTVN or VNSC
VAST-VNSC
20 November 2006 Yes Yes No No [77]
 Sweden Swedish National Space Agency SNSA 1972 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
  Switzerland Swiss Space Office SSO 1998 No No No No [78][79]
 Turkmenistan Turkmenistan National Space Agency TNSA 2011 No Yes No No [80]
 United Nations United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs UNOOSA 13 December 1958 [81]
 United Nations United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNCOPUOS December 12, 1959 [82]
 United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Space Agency UAESA 2014 Yes Yes No No [83]
Emirate of Dubai Dubai,  United Arab Emirates Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre MBRSC 6 February 2006 (as EIAST)
2015 (as MBRSC)
Yes Yes No No [84]
 Syria Syrian Space Agency SSA 18 March 2014 No No No No [85][86][87][88]

Military[edit]

List of space agencies with launch capability[edit]

Country Space agency Founded Terminated Capabilities of the space agency Ref(s)
Name Acronym Multiple Satellites Launch capable Developed and Deployed Cryogenic Rocket Engines Operates Extraterrestrial Probe Recoverable Satellites capable
 Australia Australian Space Agency ASA 1 July 2018 No No No No [1][2][citation needed]
 Brazil Brazilian Space Agency AEB 10 February 1994 Yes No No No [14][15]
 China China National Space Administration CNSA 22 April 1993 Yes Yes Yes Yes [21]
European Space Agency [27][28] 1975 31 May Yes Yes Yes Yes ESA
ASE
EWO
 Iran Iranian Space Agency ISA
ISA
2004 No No No No
 Israel Israeli Space Agency ISA
סל"ה
April 1983 No No No No [citation needed]
 Italy Italian Space Agency ASI 1988 Yes No Yes No [89]
 North Korea National Aerospace Development Administration
KCST 1980s No No No No [citation needed]
 South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute
KARI
항우연
October 1989 No No No No [citation needed]
 India Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO
इसरो
15 August 1969 Yes Yes Yes Yes [31][32][33]
 Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JAXA 1 October 2003 Yes Yes Yes Yes [42]
 United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA 1 October 1958 Yes Yes Yes Yes [52]
 France French: Centre National d’Études Spatiales CNES 19 December 1961 Yes Yes No No [55]
 Ukraine State Space Agency of Ukraine ДКАУ
SSAU
2 March 1992 Yes No No No [citation needed]
 Russia Roscosmos ROSCOSMOS
РОСКОСМОС
c. 1992 Yes Yes Yes Yes [citation needed]
 United States United States Space Force USSF 20 December 2019 Yes Yes No Yes [90][91][92]

List of space agencies with human spaceflight capability[edit]

Country Space agency Founded Terminated Accomplished tasks by the space agency Refs
Name Acronym Extravehicular activity Space rendezvous and docking Space station Crewed Moon landing
 United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA 1 October 1958 Yes Yes Yes Yes [52]
 Russia Russian Federal Space Agency ROSCOSMOS
RFSA
26 December 1991 Dissolution of Soviet Union Yes Yes Yes No [93]
 China China National Space Administration CNSA 22 April 1993 Yes Yes Yes No [21]

List of space agencies with extraterrestrial landing capability[edit]

Country Space agency Founded Terminated Accomplished tasks by the space agency Ref(s)
Name Acronym Controlled impact with surface Uncrewed soft landing Uncrewed (automated) rover operation Automated sample return mission Circumlunar crewed spaceflight Crewed Moon landing and sample return
 China China National Space Administration CNSA 22 April 1993 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No [21]
European Space Agency ESA
ASE
EWO
31 May 1975 Yes Yes No No No No Huygens (spacecraft), though launched and orbited by NASA
 Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JAXA 1 October 2003 Yes Yes No Yes No No Hayabusa 1 and 2
 India Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO
इसरो
15 August 1969 Yes No No No No No [31][32][33]
 United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA 1 October 1958 Yes Yes Yes Yes[4] Yes Yes [52]
 Russia Russian Federal Space Agency ROSCOSMOS
RFSA
26 December 1991 (principal successor of the Soviet space program) Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

^ sample successfully taken by OSIRIS-REx, though not returned yet

Expected and proposed future space agencies[edit]

Space agency Country/Countries Expected date of formation Current status Ref(s)
Name Acronym
African Space Agency AfSA  African Union 2023 Proposed in 2015. AU plans to launch the agency by 2019 with a proposed headquarter in Cairo, Egypt. Funded by Egypt. See the stamp issued by Egypt on 19 September 2019. [94][95][96][97][98]
Albanian Space Office ASO  Albania Proposed in 2020, at progress stage [99][100]
Armenian Space Agency ArmCosmos  Armenia Proposed in 2013 with the goal to launch satellites. Negotiating with the International Telecommunication Union to clear the path for its prospective launch. [101]
Bhutan Space Agency  Bhutan Proposed in 2016, at progress state. [102][103]
Brunei Aeronautics and Space Agency BruneiSpace and AngkasaBrunei  Brunei Proposed in 2018, at progress stage. [104][105][106][107]
Cambodian Aeronautics and Space Agency  Cambodia Proposed in 2016, at progress stage [108][109]
Caribbean Space Agency  Caribbean Community Proposed in 2017, at progress stage [110]
Croatian Space Office CSO  Croatia Proposed in 2020, currently operate as NGO Adriatic Aerospace Association (A3), at progress stage [111][112]
Guatemala Space Agency  Guatemala Proposed in 2019, at progress stage. [113][114][115]
Haiti Space Agency HSA  Haiti Proposed in 2018, at progress stage [116]
Honduras Space Agency AEH  Honduras Proposed in 2018, at progress stage [117][118]
Iceland Space Agency  Iceland Proposed in 2014, at progress stage [119]
Ireland National Space Agency  Ireland Proposed in 2013, at progress stage. [120]
Laos Space Agency  Laos Proposed in 2015, at progress stage [121][122]
Latin American and Caribbean Space Agency ALCE CELAC Announced in 2021, bill stage [123][124][125]
Lebanese Space Office LSO  Lebanon Proposed in 2015, at progress stage [126][127]
Malta Space Office MSO  Malta Proposed in 2017, at progress stage. [128]
Moldova National Space Office  Moldova Proposed in 2018, at progress stage [129]
Monaco Space Agency  Monaco Proposed in 2020, at progress stage [130][131]
Myanmar Aeronautics and Space Agency  Myanmar Proposed in 2019, at progress stage. [132][133][134][135]
Nepal Space Office NSO    Nepal Proposed in 2018, at progress stage [136]
Nicaraguan Space Agency AEN  Nicaragua Announced in 2021, bill stage. [137][138][139][140][141]
Oman Space Agency OSA  Oman Proposed in 2020, at progress stage [142][143][144][145]
Panama Space Agency AEP  Panama Proposed in 2014, at progress stage [146]
Serbian Space Office  Serbia Proposed in 2016, at progress stage. [147][148]
Slovenian Space Agency  Slovenia Proposed in 2019, at progress stage. [149][150]
South American Space Agency  South America Proposed in 2011, at progress stage [151]
Sri Lanka Aeronautics and Space Agency SLASA  Sri Lanka Proposed in 2009. Immediate goal was to construct and launch two satellites. Sri Lankan Telecommunications Regulatory Commission had signed an agreement with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd to get the relevant help and resources. [152]
Sudan Aeronautics and Space Agency  Sudan Proposed in 2017, at progress stage [153]
Tanzania National Space Agency  Tanzania Proposed in 2014, at progress state [154]
Uruguayan Space Agency AEU  Uruguay 2022 Announced in 2021, bill stage. [155]
Yemen Arab Space Agency YASA  Yemen Proposed in 2013, at progress stage [156]

Budgets[edit]

The annual budgets listed are the official budgets for national space agencies available in public domain. The budgets are not normalized to the expenses of space research in different countries, i.e. higher budget does not necessarily mean more activity or better performance in space exploration.[157][158] Budget could be used for different projects: e.g. GPS is maintained from the US defence budget, whereas ESA's money is used for developing the European Galileo positioning system[citation needed]. For European contributors to ESA, the national budgets shown include also their contributions to ESA.

Budgets of different space agencies.
Agency (country/region) Budget (in millions of US $)
NASA (United States)
22,629
CNSA (China)
11,000
ESA (Europe)
7,430
CNES (France)
3,384
Roscosmos (Russia)
1,922
ISRO (India)
1,831
ASI (Italy)
1,800
JAXA (Japan)
1,699
DLR (Germany)
1,424
KARI (South Korea)
583
UKSA (United Kingdom)
500
CSA (Canada)
421
ASA (Algeria)
360
ISAB (Belgium)
224
INTA (Spain)
211
SSO (Switzerland)
177
NSO (Netherlands)
110
SNSA (Sweden)
100
NOSA (Norway)
97
SSAU (Ukraine)
80
ALR (Austria)
75
LAPAN (Indonesia)
55
AEB (Brazil)
47
CONAE (Argentina)
45
PhilSA (Philippines)
38
ISA (Israel)
14.5
ISA, ISRC and ARI (Iran)
8
Country/
region
Agency Budget
(in millions of US $)
Year Reference
 United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration 22,629 2020 [159][160]
 China China National Space Administration 11,000 2018 [161]
European Space Agency 7,430 2020 [162]
 France National Centre for Space Studies 3,384 2020 [163]
 Russia Roscosmos 1,922 2021 [164]
 India Indian Space Research Organisation 1,831 2022 [165][166]
 Italy Italian Space Agency 1,800 2016 [167]
 Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 1,699 2017 [168]
 Germany German Aerospace Center 1,424 2021 [169]
 South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute 583 2016 [170]
 United Kingdom UK Space Agency 500 2017 [171]
 Canada Canadian Space Agency 421 2019 [172]
 Algeria Algerian Space Agency 360 2015 [173]
 Belgium Interfederal Space Agency of Belgium 224 2018 [174]
 Spain Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial 211 2018 [175]
  Switzerland Swiss Space Office 177 2019 [162]
 Netherlands Netherlands Space Office 110 2013 [176]
 Sweden Swedish National Space Agency 100 2011 [177]
 Norway Norwegian Space Agency 97 2014 [178]
 Ukraine State Space Agency of Ukraine 80 [179]
 Austria Austrian Space Agency 75 2018 [180]
 Poland Polish Space Agency 61.5 2019–21 [181]
 Indonesia National Institute of Aeronautics and Space 55 2019 [182][183]
 Brazil Brazilian Space Agency 47 2018 [184]
 Argentina Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales 45 2019 [185]
 Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission 45 2018–19 [186][187]
 Philippines Philippine Space Agency 38 2019 [188]
 Nigeria National Space Research and Development Agency 32.3 2019 [189]
 Australia Australian Space Agency 32 [190][191]
 Israel Israel Space Agency 14.5 2019 [192]
 South Africa South African National Space Agency 11.8 2014–15 [193]
 Iran Iranian Space Agency, Iranian Space Research Center and Aerospace Research Institute 8 2019–20 [194]
 Turkey Turkish Space Agency 5.4 2020 [195]
 Mexico Mexican Space Agency 3 2021 [196]
Earth symbol (fixed width).svg World All space agencies (Total of listed budgets) About 60,537

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Australia just launched a brand new space agency". The Independent. 25 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b hermes (6 October 2017). "Australia sets up space agency with eye on satellite tech". The Straits Times.
  3. ^ "Belarusian satellite takes pictures of Bahrain, Mozambique". Belarus News: Belarus Telegraph Agency. eng.belta.by. 30 August 2012.
  4. ^ "Alvarado firma como Ley la creación de la Agencia Espacial Costarricense, pero anuncia reforma". Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  5. ^ "El Salvador Aerospace Institute – ESAI". Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  6. ^ Lanzamiento de primer nanosatélite en Hidalgo, "Nanoconect 1", muestra de la innovación del fondo. (in Spanish). AEM. Published 11 December 2017.
  7. ^ Besser, Bruno (January 2004). "Austria's History in Space" (PDF). pp. 25–28. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
  8. ^ "ESA – Human Spaceflight and Exploration – Other space agencies". 3 January 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  9. ^ "Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the establishment of the public legal entity "Space Agency of the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azercosmos)"".
  10. ^ "Bahrain: Launch of National Space Science Agency". Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  11. ^ "Aeronomy.be – Contact – Who are we?". Archived from the original on 25 February 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  12. ^ Magan, Veronica (23 August 2013). "Venezuela: Latin America's Next Space Pioneer?". Satellite Today. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  13. ^ Brazil's Atlantic Spaceports SpaceToday. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  14. ^ a b "Presidency of Brazil: Law 8.854 of 02/10/1994 – "That creates the Brazilian Space Agency, and other measures"". Retrieved 6 April 2008.
  15. ^ a b "S-30 family". space.skyrocket.de.
  16. ^ Lin, Zhi. "Bolivia creates space agency for Chinese satellite". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
  17. ^ Carroll, Rory (12 February 2010). "Bolivia to launch satellite into space". The Guardian.
  18. ^ "China to launch Bolivian satellite in 2013: Chinese Ambassador". Space-travel.com. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  19. ^ Space research in Bulgaria is coordinated by the Inter-Department Commission for Space Research Archived 27 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine (Bulgarian: Междуведомствена комисия по космически изследвания) which is composed of the deputy ministers of several ministries and representatives of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  20. ^ "Canadian Space Milestones". 4 December 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  21. ^ a b c d "China National Space Administration – Organization and Function". Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  22. ^ "Colombian Space Commission – CCE". Retrieved 1 April 2009.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ Committee headquartered in France, within the International Council for Science (ICSU Archived 11 November 1998 at the Wayback Machine).
  24. ^ "COSPAR National Committee Members". Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  25. ^ "International Scientific Union Members and their Representatives to COSPAR". Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  26. ^ a b "About Space Technologies and Satellite Systems Department – Ministry of transport of The Czech Republic". Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  27. ^ a b "ESA – About ESA – What is ESA?". ESA. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
  28. ^ a b "ESA – About ESA – History of the European Space Agency". ESA. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
  29. ^ "Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency – About Us". Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  30. ^ "Relaunch - Erklärung". NAV_NODE DLR Portal.
  31. ^ a b c "About ISRO". isro.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 1999.
  32. ^ a b c "About ISRO". isro.gov.in. Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  33. ^ a b c "All Missions". isro.gov.in. Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  34. ^ "El astronauta español de la ESA vuelve al espacio". www.esa.int.
  35. ^ Programas de Alta Tecnología de Nanosatélites Archived 1 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial
  36. ^ "El Arenosillo". sat-net.com.
  37. ^ "Realtime Business News, Economic News, Breaking News and Forex News". RTTNews.
  38. ^ "Iran tests sounding rocket, unveils first homemade satellite | World". RIA Novosti. 28 October 2005. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  39. ^ "Iran launches homegrown satellite". BBC News. 3 February 2009.
  40. ^ ASI official site "ASI MISSIONS AND PROJECTS-ACTIVITY". Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  41. ^ ASI official site "ASI MISSIONS AND PROJECTS-CASSINI". December 2008. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  42. ^ a b "JAXA HISTORY". Retrieved 5 December 2006.
  43. ^ ライフサイエンス研究 (in Japanese). JAXA. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  44. ^ Luxembourg establishes space agency and new fund, SpaceNews, 13 September 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  45. ^ "PM introduced new head of Kazakh National Space Agency". kazinform. 12 April 2007.
  46. ^ "朝鲜宣布发展太空计划抗衡"西方强权"". 民族网. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2009.[permanent dead link]
  47. ^ "Despite Clinton, Korea has rights". Workers.org. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  48. ^ Levs, Josh (13 December 2012). "N. Korea's launch causes worries about nukes, Iran and the Pacific". CNN.
  49. ^ "National Aerospace Development Administration of DPRK". Korean Central News Agency. 31 March 2014. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  50. ^ "Association | Lithuanian Space Association". Space-lt.eu. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  51. ^ "Malaysian National Space Agency, Official Website – Background". Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  52. ^ a b c d "NASA History in Brief". NASA. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  53. ^ a b "NARSS official site". Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  54. ^ "Research Report 43; An Economic Evaluation of the National Space Program". Bureau of Industry Economics RPTS. 41–46. Australian Government Publishing Service. 1992.
  55. ^ a b "About CNES". Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  56. ^ Gaskill, Melissa (16 March 2021). "Paraguay's First Satellite Deployed From the International Space Station". NASA.gov. NASA. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  57. ^ "PeruSat-1". directory.eoportal.org. eoPortal. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  58. ^ a b Parrocha, Azer (13 August 2019). "Duterte signs law creating Philippine Space Agency". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  59. ^ Sabillo, Kristine (14 August 2019). "Philippine Space Agency: Is a Filipino in space in the horizon?". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  60. ^ a b "PH's Maya-2 launched into space: DOST". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 23 February 2021. The (satellite) program (of the DOST) will now transition into the leadership of the newly established Philippine Space Agency, he added.
  61. ^ Lopez, Virgil (13 August 2019). "Duterte signs law creating PHL space agency". GMA News. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  62. ^ "Duterte signs law creating PHL space agency".
  63. ^ "Rwanda Space Agency". Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  64. ^ "Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales – Background". CONAE. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
  65. ^ "IIAE Orion". Archived from the original on 5 September 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
  66. ^ "Remote Sensing activities in Mongolia". Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  67. ^ "Uzbekistan planning to launch two satellites with Russian help". Red Orbit. 8 June 2004. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  68. ^ Previously named National Space Program Organisation, until 1 April 2005 – "About NSPO/Heritage". Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  69. ^ "Norwegian Space Centre annual report" (PDF). 2007. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  70. ^ "Portugal Space Agency". 2019. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  71. ^ "Portugal Just Launched a National Space Agency!". Space.com. 2019. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  72. ^ "Turkey launches national space program". Hürriyet Daily News. 13 December 2018.
  73. ^ "Can Turkey's new space agency curb brain drain?". Ahval. 5 February 2019.
  74. ^ "Turkey's first sounding rocket passed the Kármán Line". iletisim.gov.tr. 30 August 2020.
  75. ^ "Turkish firm to develop hybrid rocket tech for 2023 moon mission". Daily Sabah. 28 February 2021.
  76. ^ "Home". SANSA. 14 October 2013. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  77. ^ "Vietnam National Space Center – About VNSC". Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  78. ^ "SSO – Swiss Space Office". Archived from the original on 2 February 2005.
  79. ^ "Organisation Chart of the SERI". Archived from the original on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  80. ^ "TurkmenAlem52E/MonacoSAT launch a success!". Thales Alenia Space. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  81. ^ "United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)". Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  82. ^ "COPUOS Membership Evolution". unoosa.org. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  83. ^ "About the Agency – UAE Space Agency". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  84. ^ "About Us – Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre". Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  85. ^ Rupar, Terri (18 March 2014). "Syria has set up a space agency". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
  86. ^ Ohlheiser, A. (18 March 2014). Syria Creates a Space Agency in the Middle of its Civil War. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/03/syria-creates-space-agency-middle-its-civil-war/359308/
  87. ^ Sheldon, J. (13 December 2018). Syria Seeks To Build Satellite, Establish A Space Programme. Retrieved from https://spacewatch.global/2018/12/syria-seeks-to-build-satellite-establish-a-space-programme/
  88. ^ "Syria Aims for the Stars With New Space Mission". Al Bawaba. 17 December 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  89. ^ ASI official missions history "ASI MISSIONS HISTORY". Archived from the original on 15 October 2013.
  90. ^ "AFSPC Unveils Tribute to Astronaut Airmen". Air Force Space Command.
  91. ^ Bennett, Jay (6 November 2017). "Space War: How the Air Force Plans to Defend the Final Frontier". Popular Mechanics.
  92. ^ "U.S. Air Force Looks To Bridge Sounding Rocket Contract Vehicles". SpaceNews.com. 2 November 2015.
  93. ^ "Russian Space Web". Archived from the original on 5 July 2006.
  94. ^ Smith, David (5 September 2010). "Africa prepares to join the big boys in the space race". The Guardian.
  95. ^ Smith, David (6 September 2012). "Sudanese president calls for African space agency". The Guardian.
  96. ^ "Africa eyes joint space agency". Phys.org. 11 September 2012.
  97. ^ Ezigbo, Onyebuchi; Okpara, Lois (9 August 2010). "AU to Establish African Space Agency". All Africa.
  98. ^ "Plans for African Space Agency jeopardized by lack of progress". Physics World. 24 February 2020.
  99. ^ Ozturk, Talha (20 October 2021). "Albania to launch 2 satellites into space in 2022". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  100. ^ "Albania ready to launch two satellites into space in 2022; PM Edi Rama mocked". Protothema.gr. 18 October 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  101. ^ "Armenia & Azerbaijan: A Caucasus Space Race is On!". Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  102. ^ "Bhutan to Create Own Space Agency and Launch CubeSat in 2018". SpaceWatch Global. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  103. ^ Seldon, Pema (30 June 2018). "Bhutan launches its first satellite into space". The Bhutanese. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  104. ^ "Sultanate of Brunei to host Indian Satellite Tracking and Telemetry Station". SpaceWatch Global. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  105. ^ "Japan's ASEAN Space Diplomacy: Is Brunei Next?". SpaceWatch Global. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  106. ^ "ISTRAC installs new satellite communications system in Brunei". The Bruneian. 7 September 2021. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  107. ^ Variath, Adithya Anil (17 November 2018). "Decoding The MoU Between India And Brunei For Space Research". Modern Diplomacy. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  108. ^ Goh, Deyana (12 January 2018). "China to build and launch Cambodia's first satellite". SpaceTech Asia. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  109. ^ Henry, Caleb (12 January 2018). "Cambodia to buy Chinese satellite as relations tighten on Belt and Road Initiative". SpaceNews. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  110. ^ "Does The Caribbean Need A Space Agency?". MNI Alive. 6 October 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  111. ^ "Adriatic Aerospace Association" (in Croatian). Adriatic Aerospace Association. 21 June 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  112. ^ Adamowski, Jarosław (30 April 2018). "Croatian space industry players eye European, U.S. export prospects". SpaceNews. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  113. ^ "Guatemala Launches Quetzmal CubeSat Through UNOOSA and JAXA KiboCUBE Programme". SpaceWatch Global. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  114. ^ Jewett, Rachel (28 April 2020). "Guatemala's First Satellite Quetzal-1 Deploys from ISS". Via Satellite. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  115. ^ "El primer satélite guatemalteco saldrá al espacio en marzo" (in Spanish). Agencia EFE. 5 November 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  116. ^ "Haiti Space Agency to be announced at Haiti Tech Summit in partnership with Singapore-based SpaceChain Foundation". Haiti Tech Summit. 23 June 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  117. ^ "Morazán, primer satélite diseñado en Honduras que llegará al espacio en 2022" (in Spanish). La Prensa (Honduras). 28 September 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  118. ^ "La ONU y Japón enviarán al espacio satélite Morazán" (in Spanish). La Prensa (Honduras). 12 December 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  119. ^ Fontaine, Andie Sophia (9 October 2020). "Iceland's Unlikely Role In Space Exploration: From 1965 And Into The Future". The Reykjavik Grapevine. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  120. ^ Donnelly, Ellie (26 August 2017). "Ireland told to launch its own agency in space race". Independent.ie. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  121. ^ Clark, Stephen (22 November 2015). "China launches first satellite for Laos". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  122. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (30 November 2015). "Laos, with China's Aid, Enters Crowded Satellite Telecom Field". SpaceNews. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  123. ^ "Mexico and Argentina lay the foundation for the Latin American Space Agency". Mexicanist. 13 October 2020. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  124. ^ Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores (24 July 2021). "A draft Convention establishing the Latin American and Caribbean Space Agency is presented in Mexico". Gobierno de México. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  125. ^ "Crean la Agencia Latinoamericana y Caribeña del Espacio" (in Spanish). Gobierno de Argentina. 20 September 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  126. ^ Hooper, Richard (14 November 2013). "Lebanon's forgotten space programme". BBC. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  127. ^ Matignon, Louis de Gouyon (27 February 2019). "The birth of the Lebanese space program". Space Legal Issues. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  128. ^ "Malta launches first ever National Space Strategy". The Malta Independent. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  129. ^ "Team from National Centre of Space Technologies of Technical University of Moldova selected for fourth round of KiboCUBE". UNOOSA. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  130. ^ Passamonti, Massimo (18 October 2021). "Small states in outer space: Monaco's ambitions for the NewSpace age". SpaceNews. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  131. ^ Zwierniak, Simon (15 October 2021). "Monaco strengthens its space program". Monaco Tribune. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  132. ^ "Myanmar Mulling Space Agency; Earth Observation Small Satellite with Japanese Assistance". SpaceWatch Global. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  133. ^ Kelly, Tim (12 March 2021). "Exclusive: Myanmar's first satellite held by Japan on space station after coup". Reuters. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  134. ^ Nitta, Yuichi (11 May 2020). "Myanmar to launch its first satellite in 2021 with Japan's help". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  135. ^ Giacomin, Nicolas (29 March 2021). "The First Satellite of Myanmar". Space Legal Issues. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  136. ^ Budhatoki, Arun (27 April 2019). "Nepal's Space Program Aims to Break Geopolitical Barriers". The Diplomat. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  137. ^ "Nicaragua Creates Ministry of Extraterrestrial Space Affairs". Associated Press. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  138. ^ Holt, Kris (19 February 2021). "Nicaragua is opening a Ministry for Extraterrestrial Space Affairs". Engadget. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  139. ^ Corso, Pablo (9 March 2021). "Nicaragua puzzles over space plans amid socio-political turmoil". SciDev.Net. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  140. ^ Romo, Rafael (31 January 2021). "Daniel Ortega impulsa la creación de una Agencia Espacial para Nicaragua" (in Spanish). CNN en Español. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  141. ^ "Ortega pide oficina para asuntos del espacio ultraterrestre" (in Spanish). DW Español. 31 January 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  142. ^ "First Omani satellite in space in 2022". Muscat Daily. 30 October 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  143. ^ "National Space Strategy for Oman on the anvil". Oman Observer. 18 May 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  144. ^ "Polish company becomes main partner of Oman space mission". The First News. 26 January 2022. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  145. ^ Wesołowska, Ewa (8 February 2022). "Polska firma na zamówienie Omanu, zbuduje satelitę. Poleci na Księżyc, Marsa lub Wenus" (in Polish). Polska Agencja Prasowa. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  146. ^ "Panamá tiene potencial para tener una agencia espacial" (in Spanish). La Estrella de Panamá. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  147. ^ "Serbia and China sign Space Technology Cooperation Agreement". SpaceWatch Global. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  148. ^ Ralev, Radomir (8 June 2020). "Serbia, China's space agency to jointly develop satellite systems". SeeNews. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  149. ^ Kraševec, Ana (3 September 2020). "Launching the first two Slovenian satellites". Slovenia.si. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  150. ^ Pavlova, Iskra (3 September 2020). "Slovenia's first satellites launched into space". SeeNews. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  151. ^ "Argentina, with Brazilian support proposes a South American Space agency". MercoPress. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  152. ^ "SSTL Contracted to Establish Sri Lanka Space Agency". Via Satellite. 18 November 2009.
  153. ^ "Sudan Has Launched Its First Satellite; A Remote Sensing Satellite". Space in Africa. 3 November 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  154. ^ "Tanzania, Three Other Nations Leading Africa Into Space?". TZ Business News. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  155. ^ "La Fuerza Aérea prepara proyecto de ley para crear una agencia espacial" (in Spanish). BUSQUEDA. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  156. ^ Marbun, Julkifli (22 April 2015). "Scud Dihancurkan, Bagaimana Nasib Lembaga Antariksa Yaman?" (in Indonesian). Republika Online. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  157. ^ "Global Space Revenues and Budgets". The Space Report. 2009. Archived from the original on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  158. ^ "The Space Report 2011 | Resources". Thespacereport.org. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  159. ^ NASA FY 2017 BUDGET REQUEST nasa.gov
  160. ^ Dreier, Casey (18 December 2015). "[Updated] An Extraordinary Budget for NASA in 2016 – Congressional omnibus increases the space agency's budget by $1.3 billion". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  161. ^ "In space, the US sees a rival in China". phys.org. 6 January 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  162. ^ a b "ESA Budget for 2019". esa.int. 14 January 2019.
  163. ^ Un budget exceptionnel, Activité institutionnelle du CNES, retrieved 10 May 2021
  164. ^ "«Роскосмосу» разрешили не возвращать в бюджет часть доходов". rbc.ru. 2 October 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  165. ^ "Budget 2022: Space gets Rs 13,700 crore as India pushes Gaganyaan, missions to Sun, Venus". India Today. 1 February 2022. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  166. ^ "Rupee slips 17 paise to close at 74.82 against US dollar". The Economic Times. 1 February 2022. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  167. ^ "Exomars and the future of Italy's space". ASI. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  168. ^ "Transition of Number of Staff and Budget". JAXA. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  169. ^ "Facts and figures". DLR. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  170. ^ "기관별 경영공시 한국항공우주연구원". alio.go.kr. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  171. ^ UK Space Agency Annual Report and Accounts 2016 to 2017 (PDF), retrieved 22 November 2017
  172. ^ "Budgetary details by allotment". 2019.
  173. ^ . 2015 https://asal.dz/. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  174. ^ "Belgium Gets own Space Agency". 6 December 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  175. ^ Infodefensa.com, Revista Defensa (6 April 2018). "El INTA contará con un presupuesto de 188 millones, un 36% más – Noticias Infodefensa España". Infodefensa.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  176. ^ "Programmes and Participations". Spaceoffice.nl. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  177. ^ "European Commission: CORDIS : ERAWATCH". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  178. ^ "More about the NSC". Norsk Romsenter. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  179. ^ https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/file/text/68/f479611n176.xls. Retrieved 21 June 2019. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  180. ^ "Beteiligung Österreichs an Programmen der ESA" (in German). ffg.at. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  181. ^ "The National Space Programme 2019-2021: 54 Projects Supporting The Development of The Polish Space Sector Within 3 Years". Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  182. ^ "RUU APBN 2019" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Ministry of Finance. 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  183. ^ "DIPA LAPAN 2019" (PDF) (in Indonesian). PPID LAPAN. 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  184. ^ "RELATÓRIO DE GESTÃO DO EXERCÍCIO DE 2018" [2018 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT REPORT] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  185. ^ "POLÍTICA PRESUPUESTARIA DE LA ENTIDAD" [BUDGET POLICY OF THE ENTITY] (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  186. ^ "135% increase in funds for space program likely". Daily Times. 4 June 2009. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  187. ^ Ali, Kalbe (29 April 2018). "Rs4.7bn allotted for Suparco projects". DAWN.COM.
  188. ^ Cervantes, Filane Mikee (20 May 2019). "Senate approves creation of PH Space Agency". Philippine News Agency.
  189. ^ "How much does Nigeria spend on space science and technology?". Space in Africa. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  190. ^ Corinne Reichert (8 May 2018). "Budget 2018 Government confirms AU41m Space Agency". ZDNet.
  191. ^ ":: Budget 2018 – New opportunities and jobs for Australian industry". minister.industry.gov.au. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  192. ^ "Space program budget (In Hebrew)". Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  193. ^ "Address by the Minister of Science and Technology, Naledi Pandor MP, on the occasion of the Science and Technology budget vote". Department of Science and Technology. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  194. ^ "زیر و بم لایحه بودجه سال 99 کل کشور در بخش هوا و فضا". مرکز پژوهش ها. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  195. ^ "Türkiye Uzay Ajansı'na (TUA) ayrılan devlet bütçesi 38 milyon TL olarak gözüküyor". BBC News Türkçe (in Turkish). 10 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  196. ^ "Federal Spending Budget 2021". Retrieved 8 December 2021.

External links[edit]