This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2008)
Space burial is the launching of human remains into space. Missions may go into orbit around the Earth or to extraterrestrial bodies such as the Moon, or farther into space.
Remains are sealed until the spacecraft burns up upon re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere or they reach their extraterrestrial destinations. Suborbital flights briefly transport them into space then return to Earth where they can be recovered. Small samples of remains are usually launched to minimize the cost of launching mass into space, thereby making such services more affordable.
History and typology
The concept of launching human remains into space using conventional rockets was proposed by the science fiction author Neil R. Jones in the novella "The Jameson Satellite", which was published in the pulp magazine Amazing Stories in 1931. It was later proposed as a commercial service in the 1965 movie, "The Loved One", and by Richard DeGroot in a Seattle Times newspaper article on April 3, 1977. Since 1997, the private company Celestis has conducted numerous space burials flying as secondary payloads.
The first private space burial, Celestis' Earthview 01: The Founders Flight, was launched on April 21, 1997. An aircraft departing from the Canary Islands carried a Pegasus rocket containing samples of the remains of 24 people to an altitude of 11 km (6.8 mi) above the Atlantic Ocean. The rocket then carried the remains into an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 578 km (359 mi) and a perigee of 551 km (342 mi), orbiting the Earth once every 96 minutes until re-entry on May 20, 2002, northeast of Australia. Famous people on this flight included Gene Roddenberry and Timothy Leary.
Short flights that cross the boundary of space without attempting to reach orbital velocity are a cost-effective method of space burial. The remains do not burn up and are either recovered or lost.
The first moon burial was that of Dr. Eugene Shoemaker, a portion of whose cremated remains were flown to the Moon by NASA. Shoemaker's former colleague Carolyn Porco, a University of Arizona professor, proposed and produced the tribute of having Shoemaker's ashes launched aboard the NASA's Lunar Prospector spacecraft. Ten days after Shoemaker's passing, Porco had the go-ahead from NASA administrators and delivered the ashes to the Lunar Prospector Mission Director Scott Hubbard at the NASA Ames Research Center. The ashes were accompanied by a piece of brass foil inscribed with an image of Comet Hale-Bopp, an image of a Meteor Crater in northern Arizona, and a passage from William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. The Lunar Prospector spacecraft was launched on January 6, 1998, and impacted the south polar region of the Moon on July 31, 1999.
In 2014, Celestis launched Celestis Pets, a pet memorial spaceflight service for animal cremated remains. Prior to then, Bismarck, a Monroe, Washington police dog may have flown on a 2012 memorial spaceflight. When this news broke, Celestis' President said that if dog ashes were on the rocket, the person who supplied the cremated remains likely violated the contract they signed with Celestis.
On May 17, 2017, Elysium Space announced the world's first memorial flight involving a dedicated spacecraft. The cubesat was placed as a secondary payload on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket as part of a dedicated rideshare mission called SSO-A planned by Spaceflight. The launch took place from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on December 3rd, 2018. The launch was successful, however, industry sources have noted that the ElysiumStar spacecraft remained attached to the deployer due to a failure to procure proper licensing.
Space burial businesses
Space burial businesses generally refer to their service offering as "Memorial Spaceflight".
|Business name||Date established||Operating status||Destinations offered|
|Celestis||1994||Active||launch to space and return to earth, launch into earth orbit, launch to lunar surface, launch into deep-space|
|Elysium Space||2013||Inactive||launch into earth orbit, launch to lunar surface|
|Aura Flights||2019||Active||launch to space and return to earth|
|Beyond Burials||2020||Active||launch to space and return to earth, launch into earth orbit, launch to lunar surface, launch into deep-space|
|Launch date||Mission provider||Launch vehicle||Destination||Remains samples||Results|
|May 15, 2022||Celestis||Falcon 9||Earth orbit||Remains Samples||Success|
|April 1, 2022||Space NTK||Falcon 9||Earth orbit||Remains Samples||Success|
|2018||Elysium Space||Falcon 9||Earth orbit||Remains Samples||Planned|
|November 3, 2015||Elysium Space||SPARK||Earth orbit||Remains Samples||Failure|
|December 5, 2014||NASA||Delta IV Heavy||Earth orbit||Remains sample of NASA Orion engineer||Success|
|May 22, 2012||Celestis||Falcon 9||Earth orbit||Over 300 Remains Samples||Success|
|August 2, 2008||Celestis||Falcon 1||Earth orbit||Over 200 Remains Samples||Failure|
|September 21, 2001||Celestis||Taurus rocket||Earth orbit||43 Remains Samples||Failure|
|December 20, 1999||Celestis||Taurus rocket||Earth orbit||36 Remains Samples||Success|
|February 10, 1998||Celestis||Taurus rocket||Earth orbit||30 Remains Samples||Success|
|April 21, 1997||Celestis||Pegasus rocket||Earth orbit||24 Remains Samples||Success|
|October 22, 1992||NASA||Space Shuttle Columbia||Earth orbit||Remains sample of Gene Roddenberry||Success|
|Launch Date||Mission Provider||Launch Vehicle||Destination||Remains Samples||Results|
|2018||Elysium Space||Falcon 9||Lunar surface||Remain Samples||Planned|
|Not available||Celestis||Details not available||Lunar surface||Remain Samples||Planned|
|January 6, 1998||NASA||Athena II/Lunar Prospector||Lunar surface||Remains sample of Eugene Shoemaker||Success|
|Launch Date||Mission Provider||Launch Vehicle||Destination||Remains Samples||Results|
|January 19, 2006||NASA||Atlas V/New Horizons||Deep space||Remains sample of Clyde Tombaugh||Success|
|Launch Date||Mission Provider||Launch Vehicle||Remains Samples||Results|
|October 23, 2014||Celestis||SpaceLoft XL||24 Remains Samples||Success|
|June 21, 2013||Celestis||SpaceLoft XL||31 Remains Samples||Success|
|May 20, 2011||Celestis||SpaceLoft XL||Over 8 Remains Samples||Success|
|May 4, 2010||Celestis||SpaceLoft XL||Over 19 Remains Samples||Success|
|May 2, 2009||Celestis||SpaceLoft XL||16 Remains Samples||Failure|
|April 28, 2007||Celestis||SpaceLoft XL||Over 200 Remains Samples||Success|
|September 29, 2004||Scaled Composites||SpaceShipOne||Remains sample of the mother of SpaceShipOne's designer, Burt Rutan.||Success|
Notable individuals buried in space
Launched into Earth orbit
- Gene Roddenberry (August 19, 1921 – October 24, 1991), creator of Star Trek.
- Gerard K. O'Neill (1927–1992), space physicist.
- Krafft Ehricke (1917–1984), rocket scientist.
- Timothy Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996), American writer, psychologist, psychedelic drug advocate and Harvard professor.
- James Doohan (March 3, 1920 – July 20, 2005), actor best known for his portrayal of Scotty in the television and film series Star Trek. Celestis also launched him into space in 2007 and in 2008.
- L. Gordon "Gordo" Cooper, Jr. (March 6, 1927 – October 4, 2004), American astronaut. He was one of the original Mercury Seven pilots in the Project Mercury program, the first crewed space effort by the United States.
Buried on the Moon
- Dr. Eugene Shoemaker, (April 28, 1928 – July 18, 1997), astronomer and co-discoverer of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9.
Launched into outer space
- Clyde Tombaugh (February 4, 1906 – January 17, 1997), American astronomer and discoverer of Pluto in 1930. A small sample of Tombaugh's ashes are aboard New Horizons, the first spacecraft to attempt to pass by and photograph Pluto. This is the first sample of human cremated remains which will escape the solar system.
Future space burials
- Leiji Matsumoto (born 1938), Japanese creator of numerous celebrated anime and manga series including Galaxy Express 999, Space Battleship Yamato and Space Pirate Captain Harlock announced his intention to have a symbolic portion of his cremated remains to be launched into space on a future Elysium Space mission.
- Majel Barrett (1932–2008), American actress who played Christine Chapel in the original Star Trek series; wife of Gene Roddenberry. A symbolic portion of both her cremated remains and Roddenberry's cremated remains will be launched into space on a future Celestis mission.
- William R. Pogue (1930–2014), American astronaut. and Luise Clayborn Kaish (1925–2013), American sculptor and painter.
- Nichelle Nichols (1932–2022), American actress known for her role as Nyota Uhura in Star Trek is confirmed to have her ashes launched to space with Vulcan Centaur rocket that is currently in development.
- "The Jameson Satellite" (Amazing Stories, July 1931; Amazing Stories, April 1956 (reprint); Ace Books collection #1, 1967.
- John Hinterberger: The Seattle Times Sunday Magazine, page 3, April 3, 1977.
- "Celetis Launch Manifest". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Shuttle bore Roddenberry's ashes". Rome News-Tribune. April 29, 1994. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Founders Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Stiles, Lorie. "Eugene Shoemaker Ashes Carried on Lunar Prospector". UA News Services, University of Arizona. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- Porco, Carolyn. "The Eugene M. Shoemaker Tribute". Diamond Sky Productions. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Porco, Carolyn C. (February 2000). "Destination Moon". Astronomy. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Williams, David. "Lunar Prospector". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- Clark, Liat. "This startup will send your loved one's ashes to the Moon". WIRED UK. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- "Home". celestispets.com.
- Rikki King (May 24, 2012). "Dog's ashes may have been sneaked on to space flight". Everett Herald. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
- "SpaceX launches swarm of satellites, flies rocket for third time – Spaceflight Now".
- "Spaceflight herded 64 cubesats onto a single Falcon 9 and has the scratch marks to prove it". August 23, 2019.
- "Ascension Flight". Celestis. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
- Yoshikawa, Mitsuko (June 18, 2021). "｢宇宙葬｣を亡き娘にプレゼントした夫婦の心情". Toyo Keizai (in Japanese). Retrieved May 17, 2022.
- Kharpal, Arjun (May 17, 2017). "You can send your loved one's ashes into space on Elon Musk's SpaceX rocket for $2,500". CNBC. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- "Man's remains travel to space with NASA's Orion". wtop.com. December 5, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Moskowitz, Clara (May 22, 2012). "Ashes of Star Trek's 'Scotty' Ride Private Rocket into Space". New York: Space.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "The New Frontier Memorial Spaceflight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Explorers Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Odyssey Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Millennial Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Ad Astra Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Elysium Space | Launch Schedule". elysiumspace.com. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- "Luna 02 Flight | Memorial Spaceflights". www.celestis.com. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- Leary, Warren E. (January 20, 2006). "NASA Launches Spacecraft on the First Mission to Pluto – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Conestoga Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Centennial Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Goddard Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Pioneer Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – The Discovery Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights – Legacy Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "SpaceShipOne takes wild suborbital flight". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "Gene Roddenberry – Participant on board The Founders Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Gerald K. O'Neil – Participant on board The Founders Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Krafft A. Ehricke – Participant on board The Founders Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Timothy Francis Leary – Participant on board The Founders Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "James M. Doohan – Celestis New Frontier Flight Participant". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "James M. Doohan – Participant on board The Legacy Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Celestis – The Legacy flight
- "James M. Doohan – Participant on board The Explorers Flight". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Luna Flight 01 – Celestis Memorial Spaceflights". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Launch of Eugene Shoemaker on First Celestis Luna Mission". CelestisInc. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "流れ星供養 - Elysium Space".
- "Celestis Memorial Spaceflights -- Participants in Future Flights". CelestisInc. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- "Gene & Majel Roddenberry - Participants on board a Future Celestis Memorial Spaceflight". CelestisInc. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- "William Reid Pogue - Participant on board a Future Celestis Memorial Spaceflight". CelestisInc. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- "Luise Clayborn Kaish - Participant on board a Future Celestis Memorial Spaceflight". CelestisInc. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- Aura Flights Website
- Celestis Website
- Celestis Pets Website
- Elysium Space Website
- The Real Elysium – Send Your Loved One Into Space for $2k, Pando Daily, August 9, 2013
- Have A Space Burial As Elysium Sends Your Ashes Into Orbit, TechCrunch, August 9, 2013
- Ash Scattering: Non-Traditional Ways To Be Memorialized, Huffington Post, May 25, 2012
- The Ultimate One-Way Ticket, Wired Magazine, February 21, 2006
- Death Is a Long, Strange Trip, Wired Magazine, November 7, 2006
- Argos Funeral Services Website