Space Invaders

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Space invaders)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Space Invaders
A promotional flyer for Space Invaders : an arcade display on the bottom-right corner is shown over a laser cannon surrounded by aliens and saucers; the background contains the screen against a background of a canyon and a block mountain; the Space Invaders and Taito logos are displayed on the top of the poster.
Promotional flyer
Developer(s)Taito
Publisher(s)
Atari, Inc. (home)
Designer(s)Tomohiro Nishikado
SeriesSpace Invaders
Platform(s)Arcade, Atari 2600, Atari 5200, Atari 8-bit, MSX, handheld, tabletop, watch, calculator,[12] NES,[13] SG-1000,[14] WonderSwan,[15] VG Pocket,[16] mobile,[17] iOS[18]
ReleaseArcade
Atari 2600
Genre(s)Shoot 'em up
Mode(s)Single-player, 2 players alternating
Arcade systemTaito 8080

Space Invaders[b] is a 1978 shoot 'em up arcade game developed by Tomohiro Nishikado. It was manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, and licensed by the Midway division of Bally for overseas distribution. Space Invaders was the first fixed shooter and set the template for the shoot 'em up genre. The goal is to defeat wave after wave of descending aliens with a horizontally moving laser to earn as many points as possible.

Designer Nishikado drew inspiration from Breakout (1976), Gun Fight (1975), target shooting games, and science fiction narratives such as The War of the Worlds, Space Battleship Yamato and Star Wars. To complete development of the game, he had to design custom hardware and development tools. Upon release, Space Invaders was an immediate commercial success; by 1982, it had grossed $3.8 billion (equivalent to over $13 billion adjusted for inflation as of 2016),[19] with a net profit of $450 million (equivalent to $2 billion adjusted for inflation). This made it the best-selling video game and highest-grossing "entertainment product" at the time, and the highest-grossing video game of all time.

Space Invaders is considered one of the most influential video games of all time. It helped expand the video game industry from a novelty to a global industry, and ushered in the golden age of arcade video games. It was the inspiration for numerous video games and game designers across different genres, and has been ported and re-released in various forms. The 1980 Atari VCS version quadrupled sales of the VCS, thereby becoming the first killer app for video game consoles. More broadly, the pixelated enemy alien has become a pop culture icon, often representing video games as a whole.

Gameplay[edit]

A vertical rectangular video game screenshot that is a digital representation of a battle between aliens and a laser cannon. The white aliens hover above four green, inverted U-shaped blocks. Below the blocks is a smaller horizontal block with a triangle on its top.
The player-controlled laser cannon shoots the aliens as they descend.

Space Invaders is a fixed shooter in which the player moves a laser cannon horizontally across the bottom of the screen and fires at aliens overhead. The aliens begin as five rows of eleven that move left and right as a group, shifting downward each time they reach a screen edge. The goal is to eliminate all of the aliens by shooting them. While the player has three lives, the game ends immediately if the invaders reach the bottom of the screen.[20][21][13][22] The aliens attempt to destroy the player's cannon by firing projectiles. The laser cannon is partially protected by stationary defense bunkers which are gradually destroyed from the top by the aliens and, if the player fires when beneath one, the bottom.

As aliens are defeated, their movement and the game's music both speed up. Defeating all the aliens brings another wave which starts lower, a loop which can continue endlessly.[20][21][13][22] A special "mystery ship" will occasionally move across the top of the screen and award bonus points if destroyed.

Development[edit]

Space Invaders was developed by Japanese designer Tomohiro Nishikado, who spent a year designing the game and developing the necessary hardware to produce it.[23] The game's inspiration is reported to have come from varying sources, including an adaptation of the electro-mechanical arcade game Space Monsters released by Taito in 1972, and a dream about Japanese school children who are waiting for Santa Claus when they are attacked by invading aliens.[20][24] Nishikado himself has cited Atari's arcade game Breakout (1976) as his original inspiration behind the game's concept, wanting to adapt the same sense of achievement and tension from destroying targets one at a time, combining it with elements of target shooting games.[23][25][26] The game uses a similar layout to that of Breakout but with different game mechanics; rather than bounce a ball to attack static objects, players are given the ability to fire projectiles at moving enemies.[27]

Nishikado added several interactive elements that he found lacking in earlier video games, such as the ability for enemies to react to the player's movement and fire back, and a game over triggered by the enemies killing the player (either by getting hit or enemies reaching the bottom of the screen) rather than simply a timer running out.[25] He replaced the timer, typical of arcade games at the time, with descending aliens who effectively served a similar function, where the closer they came, the less time the player had left.[26]

Early enemy designs for the game included tanks, combat planes, and battleships.[23] Nishikado, however, was not satisfied with the enemy movements; technical limitations made it difficult to simulate flying.[23][28] Humans would have been easier to simulate, but the designer considered shooting them immoral.[28][29] After the release of the 1974 anime Space Battleship Yamato in Japan,[30][31] and seeing a magazine feature about Star Wars (1977), he thought of using a space theme.[23][25] Nishikado drew inspiration for the aliens from a novel by H. G. Wells, The War of the Worlds, and created initial bitmap images after the octopus-like aliens.[23][25][28] Other alien designs were modeled after squids and crabs.[23][28] The game was originally titled Space Monsters after a popular song in Japan at the time, "Monster", but was changed to Space Invaders by the designer's superiors.[23][25]

Hardware[edit]

Because microcomputers in Japan were not powerful enough at the time to perform the complex tasks involved in designing and programming Space Invaders, Nishikado had to design his own custom hardware and development tools for the game.[23][28] He created the arcade board using the latest microprocessors from the United States.[25] The game uses an Intel 8080 central processing unit (CPU), displays raster graphics on a CRT monitor using a bitmapped framebuffer, and uses monaural sound hosted by a combination of analog circuitry and a Texas Instruments SN76477 sound chip.[32][29][33] The adoption of a microprocessor was inspired by Gun Fight (1975), Midway's microprocessor adaptation of Nishikado's earlier discrete logic game Western Gun, after the designer was impressed by the improved graphics and smoother animation of Midway's version.[34] Space Invaders also adopted the multi-chip barrel shifter circuit first developed by Midway for Gun Fight, which had been a key part of that game's smoother animation. This circuit allowed the 8080 CPU to shift pictures in the graphics framebuffer faster than it could using only its own native instructions.[35]

Despite the specially developed hardware, Nishikado was unable to program the game as he wanted—the Control Program board was not powerful enough to display the graphics in color or move the enemies faster—and he ended up considering the development of the game's hardware the most difficult part of the whole process.[23][28] While programming the game, Nishikado discovered that the processor was able to render each frame of the alien's animation graphics faster when there were fewer aliens on the screen. Since the alien's positions updated after each frame, this caused the aliens to move across the screen at an increasing speed as more and more were destroyed. Rather than design a compensation for the speed increase, he decided that it was a feature, not a bug, and kept it as a challenging gameplay mechanism.[25][36]

Taito first published Space Invaders on April 1, 1978, before entering mass-production in July 1978.[a] They released both an upright arcade cabinet and a so-called "cocktail-table" cabinet; following its usual practice, Taito named the cocktail version T.T. Space Invaders ("T.T." for "table-top"). Midway released its upright version a few months later and its cocktail version several months after that. The cabinet artwork featured large humanoid monsters not present in the game; Nishikado attributes this to the artist basing the designs on the original title of "Space Monsters", rather than referring to the actual in-game graphics.[23] In the upright cabinets, the game graphics are generated on a hidden CRT monitor and reflected toward the player using a semi-transparent mirror, behind which is mounted a plastic cutout of a moon bolted against a painted starry background. The backdrop is visible through the mirror and thus appears "behind" the graphics.[13] Both Taito's and Midway's first Space Invaders versions had black-and-white graphics with a transparent colored overlay using strips of orange and green cellophane over certain portions of the screen to add color to the image. Later Japanese releases used a rainbow-colored cellophane overlay,[13] and these were eventually followed by versions with a color monitor and an electronically-generated color overlay.[13]

Music[edit]

Despite its simplicity, the music to Space Invaders was revolutionary for the gaming industry of the time. Video game scholar Andrew Schartmann identifies three aspects of the music that had a significant impact on the development of game music:

  1. Whereas video game music prior to Space Invaders was restricted to the extremities (i.e., a short introductory theme with game-over counterpart), the alien-inspired hit featured continuous music—the well-known four-note loop—throughout, uninterrupted by sound effects: "It was thus the first time that sound effects and music were superimposed to form a rich sonic landscape. Not only do players receive feedback related directly to their actions through sound effects; they also receive stimulus in a more subtle, non-interactive fashion through music."[37]
  2. The music interacts with on-screen animation to influence the emotions of the player: "That seemingly pedestrian four-note loop might stir us in the most primitive of ways, but that it stirs us at all is worthy of note. By demonstrating that game sound could be more than a simple tune to fill the silence, Space Invaders moved video game music closer to the realm of art."[37]
  3. The music for Space Invaders popularized the notion of variability—the idea that music can change in accordance with the ongoing on-screen narrative. The variable in Space Invaders, the tempo, is admittedly simple, but its implications are not to be underestimated. "Over the years, analogous strategies of variation would be applied to pitch, rhythm, dynamics, form, and a host of other parameters, all with the goal of accommodating the nonlinear aspect of video games."[37]

At the deepest of conceptual levels, one would be hard-pressed to find an arcade game as influential to the early history of video game music as Space Invaders. Its role as a harbinger of the fundamental techniques that would come to shape the industry remains more or less unchallenged. And its blockbuster success ensured the adoption of those innovations by the industry at large.

— Andrew Schartmann, Thought Catalog (2013)

Next Generation editor Neil West also cited the Space Invaders music as an example of great video game art, commenting on how the simple melody's increasing tempo and synchronization with the enemies' movement chills and excites the player.[38]

Reception and versions[edit]

Arcade version[edit]

When Nishikado completed the game, it was initially met with a mixed response from within Taito and among amusement arcade owners; his colleagues praised the game, applauding his achievement while queuing up to play the game, whereas his bosses were predicting low sales, due to games often ending quicker than was the norm for timer-based arcade games at the time. A number of amusement arcade owners initially rejected the game, but some pachinko parlors and bowling alleys were willing to take a risk on the game, after which the game caught on, with many parlors and alleys clearing space for more Space Invaders cabinets.[52] In the first few months following its release in Japan, Space Invaders became popular,[29] and specialty video arcades opened with nothing but Space Invaders cabinets.[23][29]

By the end of 1978, Taito had installed over 100,000 machines and grossed $670 million ($2.7 billion adjusted for inflation) in Japan alone.[12][53] By June 1979, Taito had manufactured about 200,000–300,000 Space Invaders machines in Japan, with each unit earning an average of ¥10,000 or $46 (equivalent to $164 in 2020) in 100 yen coins per day. However, this was not enough to meet the high demand for the game, leading to Taito increasing production to 25,000–30,000 units per month and raising projections to 400,000 manufactured in Japan by the end of 1979.[5] In order to cope with the demand, Taito licensed the game's overseas rights to Midway for distribution outside of Japan. By the end of 1979, there was estimated to be around 750,000 Space Invaders machines installed worldwide, including 400,000 units in Japan, 85,000 in the United Kingdom,[9] and 60,000 within a year in the United States[54][55][56] (where prices ranged from $2,000 to $3,000 for each machine);[57] the game eventually sold 72,000 units in the United States by 1982.[58] By 1979, it had become the arcade game industry's all-time best-seller.[59] In Australia, Space Invaders was performing strongly for a long time, with a level of longevity not matched until Street Fighter II (1991).[60]

Space Invaders had about 8 million daily players in Japan, with daily revenue peaking at ¥2.6 billion or $114,000,000 (equivalent to $452,000,000 in 2020).[61] Space Invaders machines had grossed more than four billion US quarters ($1 billion at the time, or $4 billion adjusted for inflation) by 1979.[62] It remained the top arcade game for three years through 1980,[12] continuing to gross an average of $600,000,000 (equivalent to $1,710,000,000 in 2020) a year through 1982,[63] by which time it had crossed $2 billion in quarters[64][65] (equivalent to $7.94 billion adjusted for inflation),[66] with a net profit of $450 million[65] (equivalent to $1.79 billion adjusted for inflation).[66] This made it the best-selling video game and highest-grossing "entertainment product" of its time,[64] with comparisons made to the then highest-grossing film Star Wars,[64][67] which had grossed $486 million,[67] with a net profit of $175 million.[67] By 1982, it had grossed $3.8 billion, equivalent to over $13 billion as of 2016.[19] Space Invaders earned Taito profits of over $500,000,000 (equivalent to $2,000,000,000 in 2020).[23][68]

Home versions[edit]

The 1980 Atari VCS (Atari 2600) version was the first official licensing of an arcade game for consoles and became the first "killer app" for video game consoles after quadrupling the system's sales.[13][69] It sold over two million units in its first year on sale as a home console game,[70] making it the first title to sell over a million cartridges.[71] The game went on to sell 2.5 million copies,[72] then over 4.2 million copies by the end of 1981, and a total of over 6 million by 1982; it was the best-selling Atari 2600 game up until the Atari version of Pac-Man (1982).[73]

Other official conversions were released for the Atari 8-bit computer line and Atari 5200 console, while Taito later released it for the Nintendo Famicom in 1985, but only in Japan. By 1982, versions of Space Invaders were available for handheld electronic game devices, tabletop dedicated consoles, home computers, watches and pocket calculators.[12] The Atari VCS conversion was programmed by Richard Maurer,[74] while the Atari 5200 conversion was programmed by Eric Manghise and animated by Marilyn Churchill.[75] Adjusted for inflation, sales of all versions of Space Invaders combined are estimated to have exceeded $13 billion in gross revenue as of 2016, making it the highest-grossing video game of all time.[76]

Numerous unofficial clones were made, such as the popular computer games Super Invader (1979)[77] and TI Invaders (1981); the latter was the top-selling game for the Texas Instruments TI-99/4A through at least 1982.[78] There were more than a hundred Space Invaders clones released for various platforms.[79]

Legacy[edit]

As one of the earliest shooting games, Space Invaders set precedents and helped pave the way for future titles and for the shooting genre.[80][81] Space Invaders popularized a more interactive style of gameplay, with the enemies responding to the player-controlled cannon's movement,[25] and was the first video game to popularize the concept of achieving a high score,[20][82][80] being the first to save the player's score.[80] The highest score ever recorded was 1000. While earlier shooting games allowed the player to shoot at targets, Space Invaders was the first in which multiple enemies could fire back at the player,[83] and in contrast to earlier arcade games which often had a timer, Space Invaders introduced the "concept of going round after round."[84] It was also the first game where players were given multiple lives,[85] had to repel hordes of enemies,[29] could take cover from enemy fire, and use destructible barriers,[86] in addition to being the first game to use a continuous background soundtrack, with four simple diatonic descending bass notes repeating in a loop, which was dynamic and changed pace during stages,[87] like a heartbeat sound that increases pace as enemies approached.[88]

An urban legend states that Space Invaders' popularity led to a shortage of 100-yen coins in Japan.[23][82][89] However, Nishikado himself was skeptical of the story.[52] In actuality, 100-yen coin production was lower in 1978 and 1979 than in previous or subsequent years.[90][91] Additionally, arcade operators would have emptied their machines and taken the money to the bank, thus keeping the coins in circulation.[91] Reports from those living in Japan at the time indicate "nothing out of the ordinary ... during the height of the Space Invaders invasion".[91]

Space Invaders was inducted into the World Video Game Hall of Fame in 2016.[92] Space Invaders cabinets have become collector's items, with the cocktail and cabaret versions being the rarest.[93]

Impact[edit]

Game developers including Shigeru Miyamoto (creator of the franchises Donkey Kong, Mario, and The Legend of Zelda),[94] Hideo Kojima (Metal Gear),[95] Satoshi Tajiri (Pokémon),[96] and John Romero and John Carmack (both Doom) have cited Space Invaders as their introduction to video games.[97][98] Miyamoto considers Space Invaders to be the game that revolutionized the video game industry.[94] According to Alexander Smith, by "allowing targets to attack the player and eliminating the timer, Nishikado created a new paradigm in video games."[99] It also inspired Eugene Jarvis (Defender, Robotron: 2084) to become a video game designer, stating it "laid the groundwork for a whole generation" of video games with the "animated characters, the story, this amazing crescendo of action and climax"[100] and that many games "still rely on the multiple life, progressively difficult level paradigm" of Space Invaders.[101] Deus Ex creator Warren Spector said: "Space Invaders and games like it represent the roots of everything we see today in gaming. It represents the birth of a new art form, one that literally changed the world. Space Invaders is important as an historical artefact, no less than the silent films of the early twentieth century or early printed books."[102]

Several publications ascribed the expansion of the video game industry from a novelty into a global industry to the success of the game. Edge magazine attributed the shift of games from bars and amusement arcades to more mainstream locations, such as restaurants and department stores, to Space Invaders.[103] Its popularity was such that it was the first game where an arcade machine's owner could make up for the cost of the machine in under one month, or in some places within one week.[56]

Space Invaders also moved the gaming industry from sports games (such as Pong) grounded in real-world situations, towards fantastical action games.[104] Space Invaders helped action games become the dominant genre in arcades and on consoles.[105] Guinness World Records considered Space Invaders one of the most successful arcade shooting games by 2008.[82] In describing it as a "seminal arcade classic", IGN listed it as the number eight "classic shoot 'em up".[106] Space Invaders set the template for the shoot 'em up genre.[104] Its worldwide success created a demand for a wide variety of science fiction games, inspiring the development of arcade games, such as Atari's Asteroids,[107] Williams Electronics' Defender, and Namco's Galaxian and Galaga, which were modeled after Space Invaders's gameplay and design.[108][109] This influence could be said to extend to most shooting games released to the present day,[29] including first-person shooters (FPS) such as Wolfenstein,[110][111] Doom,[112] Halo[113] and Call of Duty.[114] Space Invaders also influenced other genres, including maze games such as Sega/Gremlin's Head On (1979) which adopted the concept of "going round after round" instead of a timer,[84] and early computer dungeon crawl games such as Dungeons of Daggorath, which used similar heartbeat sounds to indicate player health.[88]

Technology journalist Jason Whittaker credited the game with ending the video game crash of 1977, caused by Pong clones flooding the market, and beginning the golden age of video arcade games (1978–1980s).[115] According to The Observer, home console versions of Space Invaders were popular and encouraged users to learn to program; many became industry leaders.[89] 1UP.com stated that Space Invaders showed that video games could compete against the major entertainment media at the time: movies, music, and television.[29] IGN attributed the launch of the "arcade phenomenon" in North America in part to Space Invaders.[106] Electronic Games credited the game's success as the impetus behind video gaming becoming a rapidly growing hobby, and as "the single most popular coin-operated attraction of all time."[116] Game Informer considered it, along with Pac-Man, one of the most popular arcade games; it tapped into popular culture and generated excitement during the golden age of arcades.[117]

Rankings[edit]

In 1996, Next Generation magazine put Space Invaders at number 97 on their list of the "Top 100 Games of All Time", saying that it "provides an elegance and simplicity not found in later games like Phoenix [1980]."[118] IGN listed it as one of the "Top 10 Most Influential Games" in 2007, citing it as a source of inspiration to video game designers and the impact it had on the shooting genre.[80] The Times ranked it No. 1 on its list of "The ten most influential video games ever" in 2007.[51] 1UP ranked it at No. 3 on its list of "The 60 Most Influential Games of All Time," stating that, in contrast to earlier arcade games which "were attempts to simulate already-existing things," Space Invaders was "the first video game as a video game, instead of merely a playable electronic representation of something else."[119]

In 2008, Guinness World Records listed it as the top-rated arcade game in technical, creative, and cultural impact.[21] Entertainment Weekly named Space Invaders one of the top ten games for the Atari 2600 home console in 2013.[120] In 2018, it was ranked 87th in Video Game Canon's statistical meta-analysis of 48 "top games" lists published between 1995 and 2017.[121] The list aggregator site Playthatgame currently ranks Space Invaders as the 57th top game of all-time, game of the year, & game of the 1970s.[122] In 2021, The Guardian listed it as the third greatest video game of the 1970s, just below Galaxian and Asteroids.[123]

Remakes and sequels[edit]

In Japan, Epoch Co. released a Space Invaders clone in 1980 that could be played at home: the Epoch TV Vader.

Space Invaders has been remade on numerous platforms and spawned many sequels. Re-releases include ported and updated versions of the original arcade game. Ported versions generally feature different graphics and additional gameplay options—for example, moving defense bunkers, zigzag shots, invisible aliens, and two-player cooperative gameplay.[13] Ports on earlier systems like the Atari home consoles featured simplified graphics,[clarification needed] while later systems such as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and PlayStation featured updated graphics. Later titles include several modes of gameplay and integrate new elements into the original design. For example, Space Invaders Extreme, released on the Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable, integrated musical elements into the standard gameplay.[124][125] A 2008 spin-off for WiiWare, Space Invaders Get Even, allows players to control the aliens instead of the laser cannon in a reversal of roles.[126]

In 1980, Bally-Midway released a pinball version of the game. However, few elements from the original game are included, and the aliens instead resemble the xenomorphs from the film Alien; Bally-Midway was later sued over the game's resemblance to the designs by H. R. Giger.[127] It became the third highest-grossing pinball machine of 1980 in the United States.[128]

Ports of the game have been met with mixed receptions; the Atari 2600 version was very successful, while the Nintendo Entertainment System version was poorly received.[13]

Taito has released several arcade sequels. The first was Space Invaders Part II in 1979;[129][130] it featured color graphics, an attract mode, new gameplay elements, and added an intermission between gameplay.[131] According to the Killer List of Video Games, this was the first video game to include an intermission.[82][131] The game also allowed the player with the top score to sign their name on the high score table.[132] This version was released in the United States as Deluxe Space Invaders (also known as Space Invaders Deluxe), but it featured a different graphical color scheme and a lunar-city background. Another arcade sequel, Space Invaders II, was released exclusively in the United States. It was in a cocktail-table format with very fast alien firing and a competitive two-player mode. During the summer of 1985, Return of the Invaders was released with updated color graphics and more complex movements and attack patterns for the aliens.[13] Subsequent arcade sequels included Super Space Invaders '91, Space Invaders DX, and Space Invaders '95. Each game introduced minor gameplay additions to the original design. Like the original game, several of the arcade sequels have become collector's items, though some are considered rarer.[93] In 2002, Taito released Space Raiders, a third-person shooter reminiscent of Space Invaders.[133][134]

The game and its related games have been included in video game compilation titles. Space Invaders Anniversary was released in 2003 for the PlayStation 2 and included nine Space Invader variants.[135] A similar title for the PlayStation Portable, Space Invaders Pocket, was released in 2005.[136] Space Invaders, Space Invaders Part II and Return of the Invaders are included in Taito Legends, a compilation of Taito's classic arcade games released in 2005 on the PlayStation 2, Xbox, and PC.[137][138] Super Space Invaders '91, Space Invaders DX, and Space Invaders '95 were included in Taito Legends 2, a sequel compilation released in 2006.[139] In April 2017, a redemption game by Raw Thrills, Space Invaders Frenzy, was released.

A stand-alone version was released by Super Impulse as part of its Tiny Arcade series, along with the Namco games Pac-Man, Ms. Pac-Man, and Galaxian.[140]

A Space Invaders title for the Atari Jaguar was being worked on by Virtuality Entertainment, which would have featured support for the unreleased Jaguar VR peripheral; however, the project never entered full development beyond reaching pre-production stages, with the only remaining proof of its existence being a game design document.[141][142]

In popular culture[edit]

Many publications and websites use the pixelated alien graphic as an icon for video games in general, including the video game magazine Electronic Gaming Monthly, technology website Ars Technica, and concert event Video Games Live.[29] There has also been Space Invaders-themed merchandising, including necklaces and puzzles.[143] The trend continues to this day, with handmade sites like Etsy and Pinterest showcasing thousands of handmade items featuring Space Invaders characters.

A photograph of an orchestra on a dimly lit stage. Above the group is a projection screen with a black, white, and green image of pixel art. The pixel art is an oval object wearing headphones with eyes and four tentacles. Below the pixel art is the phrase "Video Games Live".
A pixelated alien graphic from Space Invaders used at the Video Games Live concert event

The game—and references to it—has appeared in numerous facets of popular culture. Soon after the game's release, hundreds of favorable articles and stories about the emerging video game medium as popularized by Space Invaders aired on television and were printed in newspapers and magazines. The Space Invaders Tournament, held by Atari in 1980 and won by Rebecca Heineman,[144] was the first electronic sports (eSports) event, and attracted more than 10,000 participants, establishing video gaming as a mainstream hobby.[107] The Arcade Awards ceremony was created that same year to honor the best video games, with Space Invaders winning the first Game of the Year (GoTY) award.[49] The impact of Space Invaders on the video game industry has been compared to that of The Beatles in the pop music industry.[145] Considered "the first 'blockbuster' video game," Space Invaders became synonymous with video games worldwide for some time.[146]

Within a year of the game's release, the Japanese PTA unsuccessfully attempted to ban the game for allegedly inspiring truancy.[53] In North America, doctors identified a condition called the "Space Invaders elbow" as a complaint,[147] while a physician in The New England Journal of Medicine named a similar ailment the "Space Invaders Wrist".[148] Space Invaders was also the first game to attract political controversy when a 1981 Private Member's Bill known as the "Control of Space Invaders (and other Electronic Games) Bill", drafted by British Labour Member of Parliament (MP) George Foulkes, attempted to allow local councils to restrict the game and those like it by licensing for its "addictive properties" and for causing "deviancy". Conservative MP Michael Brown defended the game as "innocent and harmless pleasure", which he himself had enjoyed that day, and criticized the bill as an example of "Socialist beliefs in restriction and control". A motion to bring the bill before Parliament was defeated by 114 votes to 94 votes; the bill itself was never considered by Parliament.[149][150][151] Similarly in the United States, in Westchester County, New York, there was a controversial political debate in 1981 over a resolution to place age restrictions on Space Invaders and other arcade games, following complaints that schoolchildren wasted time and lunch money, and went to school late; the resolution drew national attention.[152]

Music[edit]

Musicians have drawn inspiration for their music from Space Invaders. The pioneering Japanese synthpop group Yellow Magic Orchestra reproduced Space Invaders sounds in its 1978 self-titled album and hit single "Computer Game",[153] the latter selling over 400,000 copies in the United States.[154] Other pop songs based on Space Invaders soon followed, including disco records such as "Disco Space Invaders" (1979) by Funny Stuff,[153] and the hit songs "Space Invader" (1980) by The Pretenders,[153] "Space Invaders" (1980) by Uncle Vic,[155] and the Australian hit "Space Invaders" (1979) by Player One (known in the US as 'Playback'),[156] which in turn provided the bassline for Jesse Saunders' "On and On" (1984),[157][158] the first Chicago house music track.[159] The Clash sampled sound effects from the game on the song, "Ivan Meets G.I. Joe" from their 4th studio album, Sandinista!.

Video Games Live performed audio from the game as part of a special retro "Classic Arcade Medley" in 2007.[160] In honor of the game's 30th anniversary, Taito produced an album titled Space Invaders 2008. The album is published by Avex Trax and features music inspired by the game, six songs were originally used in the PSP version of Space Invaders Extreme.[161] Taito's store, Taito Station, also unveiled a Space Invaders themed music video.[162]

Television and film[edit]

In the 1982 original pilot of the series The Powers of Matthew Star, David Star uses his powers to cheat the game. The game is shown with a colored backdrop of the moon. Multiple television series have aired episodes that either reference or parody the game and its elements; for example, Danger Mouse,[163] That '70s Show,[164] Scrubs,[165] Chuck,[166] Robot Chicken,[167] Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles[168] and The Amazing World of Gumball.[169] Elements are prominently featured in the "Raiders of the Lost Arcade" segment of "Anthology of Interest II", an episode of the animated series Futurama.[170][171]

Space Invaders also appears in the films Cherry 2000 (1987), Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), and Pixels (2015) while its Deluxe game made an appearance in Fast Times At Ridgemont High (1982). A film version of the game is in the works by Warner Bros with Akiva Goldsman producing.[172][173] On February 13, 2015, Daniel Kunka was set to write the script for the film.[174] On July 12, 2019, Greg Russo is set to write the script for the film with Goldsman still producing alongside Safehouse Pictures partners Joby Harold and Tory Tunnell.[175]

Books[edit]

Various books have been published about Space Invaders, including Space Invaders: An addict's guide to battle tactics, big scores and the best machines (1982) by Martin Amis,[176] Tomb Raiders and Space Invaders: Videogame forms and Contexts (2006) by Geof King and Tanya Krzywinska, and Space Invaders (1980) by Mark Roeder and Julian Wolanski.[177]

Miscellaneous[edit]

A spaceship aiming at the Puma logo, with clear references to Space Invaders

Elon Musk, at the age of 12, programmed a space shoot 'em up game inspired by Space Invaders and Asteroids, called Blastar, which was published for the Commodore VIC-20 in 1984.[178]

In the mid-1990s, the athletics company Puma released a T-shirt with a stamp having references to Space Invaders, i.e. a spaceship aiming at the company's logo (see picture on the right).

In 2006, the game was one of several video game-related media selected to represent Japan as part of a project compiled by Japan's Agency for Cultural Affairs.[179][180] That same year, Space Invaders was included in the London Science Museum's Game On exhibition, meant to showcase the various aspects of video game history, development, and culture.[181] (The game is a part of the Barbican Centre's traveling Game On exhibition.)[182]

At the Belluard Bollwerk International 2006 festival in Fribourg, Switzerland, Guillaume Reymond created a three-minute video recreation of a game of Space Invaders as part of the "Gameover" project using humans as pixels.[183] The GH ART exhibit at the 2008 Games Convention in Leipzig, Germany, included an art game, Invaders!, based on Space Invaders's gameplay. The creator later asked for the game to be removed from the exhibit following criticism of elements based on the September 11 attacks in the United States.[184]

There is a bridge in Cáceres, Spain, projected by engineers Pedro Plasencia and Hadrián Arias, whose pavement design is based on the game. The laser cannon, some shots, and several figures can be seen on the deck.[185] A French street artist, Invader, made a name for himself by creating mosaic artwork of Space Invader aliens around the world.[29][186]

In 2014, two Brazilian zoologists described a new species of arachnid as Taito spaceinvaders. Kury & Barros, 2014, inspired by the game, because of the resemblance of a fleck in the dorsal scutum of the animal to a typical alien in the game. The genus, Taito, is named for the company that produces Space Invaders.[187]

In 2018, Highways England launched a campaign titled "Don't be a Space Invader, Stay Safe, Stay Back" to raise awareness on the dangers of tailgating. People were also able to order free car bumper stickers to raise awareness of the campaign.[188]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Space Invaders was first published on April 1, 1978,[3] before entering mass-production in July 1978.[4][5]
  2. ^ Japanese: スペースインベーダー, Hepburn: Supēsu Inbēdā

References[edit]

  1. ^ Akagi, Masumi (October 13, 2006). アーケードTVゲームリスト国内•海外編(1971–2005) [Arcade TV Game List: Domestic • Overseas Edition (1971–2005)] (in Japanese). Japan: Amusement News Agency. p. 124. ISBN 978-4990251215.
  2. ^ "Chicago Chatter: Happy Birthday "Space Invaders."". Cash Box. October 25, 1980.
  3. ^ "Space Invaders (Registration Number PA0000120007)". United States Copyright Office. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  4. ^ Akagi, Masumi (October 13, 2006). アーケードTVゲームリスト国内•海外編(1971–2005) [Arcade TV Game List: Domestic • Overseas Edition (1971–2005)] (in Japanese). Japan: Amusement News Agency. pp. 40–1. ISBN 978-4990251215.
  5. ^ a b Shibata, Yoko (June 28, 1979). "Electronic Games: Japan converts its Pachinko parlours". Financial Times.
  6. ^ "After Pong". ACE. No. 6 (March 1988). February 4, 1988. pp. 29–32 (31).
  7. ^ "Space Invaders (Registration Number TX0000452508)". United States Copyright Office. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  8. ^ Hahn, Duane Alan. "1980: Atari 2600 Video Game Release Dates with Pop Culture Atmosphere". Random Terrain.
  9. ^ a b "After Pong". ACE. No. 6 (March 1988). February 4, 1988. pp. 29–32 (29).
  10. ^ European releases:
  11. ^ Space Invaders (AU), The Arcade Flyer Archive
  12. ^ a b c d Cohen, Daniel (1982). Video Games. New York: Pocket Books. pp. 15–7. ISBN 0-671-45872-8.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Definitive Space Invaders". Retro Gamer. Imagine Publishing (41): 24–33. September 2007.
  14. ^ [1] Archived November 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Space Invaders for WS". GameSpot. Archived from the original on September 6, 2004. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
  16. ^ Block, Gerry (September 26, 2006). "VG Pocket Caplet Review". IGN. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
  17. ^ "NTTドコモ「FOMAR 904i」向けに新コンテンツ提供!!" (in Japanese). Taito. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
  18. ^ Crecente, Brian (August 3, 2009). "pace Invaders Infinity Gene Micro-Review: Evolve or Die". Kotaku. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
  19. ^ a b Hansen, Dusty (2016). Game On! Video Game History From Pong and Pac-Man to Mario, Minecraft and More. MacMillan Publishing Group, LLC. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-250-08095-0.
  20. ^ a b c d Kevin Bowen. "The Gamespy Hall of Fame: Space Invaders". GameSpy. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
  21. ^ a b c d Craig Glenday, ed. (March 11, 2008). "Top 100 Arcade Games: Top 5". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records. Guinness. p. 237. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3.
  22. ^ a b Seabrook, Andrea (April 12, 2008). "Replay: the Evolution of Video Game Music". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Retrieved May 12, 2008.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Staff (January 2008). "Classic GI: Space Invaders". Game Informer. No. 177. Game Stop. pp. 108–109.
  24. ^ Williams, Kevin. "Arcade Fantastic – Part 1". GameSpy. Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Staff (April 15, 2004). "Nishikado-San Speaks". Retro Gamer. No. 3. Live Publishing. p. 35.
  26. ^ a b Williams, Andrew (March 16, 2017). History of Digital Games: Developments in Art, Design and Interaction. CRC Press. pp. 73–6. ISBN 978-1-317-50381-1.
  27. ^ Loguidice, Bill; Matt Barton (January 9, 2009). "The History of Pong: Avoid Missing Game to Start Industry". Gamasutra. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Kiphshidze, N; Zubiashvili, T; Chagunava, K (October 2005). "The Creation of Space Invaders". Edge. No. 154. Future plc. pp. 7–13.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i Edwards, Benj. "Ten Things Everyone Should Know About Space Invaders". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2008.
  30. ^ "Tomohiro Nishikado – 2000 Developer Interview". Game Maestro. 1. 2000. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  31. ^ Kohler, Chris (2016). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Courier Dover Publications. p. 19. ISBN 9780486801490.
  32. ^ "Space Invaders Videogame by Bally Midway (1978)". Killer List of Videogames. Retrieved May 12, 2008.
  33. ^ Morris, Dave (2004). The Art of Game Worlds. HarperCollins. p. 166. ISBN 0-06-072430-7.
  34. ^ Chris Kohler (2005), "Chapter 2: An Early History of Cinematic Elements in Video Games", Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, BradyGames, p. 19, ISBN 0-7440-0424-1, retrieved March 27, 2011
  35. ^ In Gun Fight, the bit-shifts performed by this circuit appear on the screen as horizontal offsets. The circuit in Space Invaders works the same, but the bit shifts it does are now vertical from the player's perspective because the entire screen has been rotated by 90 degrees.
  36. ^ Glenday, Craig, ed. (2009). "Record-Breaking Games/Space Games". Guinness World Records 2009 Gamer's Edition. Guinness World Records. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-904994-45-9.
  37. ^ a b c Schartmann, Andrew. Maestro Mario: How Nintendo Transformed Videogame Music into an Art. New York: Thought Catalog, 2013.
  38. ^ West, Neil (November 1997). "The Way Games Ought to Be...: Great Videogame Art (with No Pictures)". Next Generation. No. 35. Imagine Media. p. 157.
  39. ^ Weiss, Brett Alan. "Space Invaders". AllGame. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  40. ^ Weiss, Brett Alan. "Space Invaders". AllGame. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  41. ^ Weiss, Brett Alan. "Space Invaders". AllGame. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  42. ^ Weiss, Brett Alan. "Space Invaders". AllGame. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  43. ^ "Complete Games Guide" (PDF). Computer and Video Games (Complete Guide to Consoles): 46–77. October 16, 1989.
  44. ^ "Video Game Explosion! We rate every game in the world". Electronic Fun with Computers & Games. Vol. 1 no. 2. December 1982. pp. 12–7.
  45. ^ "Space Invaders: Atari VCS". Electronic Games (1983 Software Encyclopedia): 30–1. 1983.
  46. ^ "Space Invaders: Atari 5200". Electronic Games (1983 Software Encyclopedia): 15. 1983.
  47. ^ Perry, Dave; Walkland, Nick; Roberts, Nick; Price, Adrian (November 1994). "Reviews". Games World. No. 7 (January 1995). Paragon Publishing. p. 23.
  48. ^ "Software Report Card". Video Games Player. Vol. 1 no. 1. United States: Carnegie Publications. September 1982. pp. 62–3.
  49. ^ a b "The Arcade Awards" (PDF). Electronic Games. 1 (1): 38–9. Winter 1981. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
  50. ^ "VideoGames Best of '94". VideoGames - The Ultimate Gaming Magazine. No. 74 (March 1995). February 1995. pp. 44–7.
  51. ^ a b The ten most influential video games ever, The Times, September 20, 2007
  52. ^ a b Barton, Matt (May 8, 2019). "Space Invaders: The Japanese Invasion". Vintage Games 2.0: An Insider Look at the Most Influential Games of All Time. CRC Press. pp. 21–7. ISBN 978-1-000-00092-4.
  53. ^ a b "Can Asteroids Conquer Space Invaders?" (PDF). Electronic Games. 1 (1): 30–33 [31]. Winter 1981. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
  54. ^ Dale Peterson (1983), Genesis II, creation and recreation with computers, Reston Publishing, p. 175, ISBN 0-8359-2434-3, retrieved May 1, 2011, By 1980, some 300,000 Space Invader video arcade games were in use in Japan, and an additional 60,000 in the United States.
  55. ^ Ellis, David (2004). "Arcade Classics". Official Price Guide to Classic Video Games. Random House. p. 345. ISBN 0-375-72038-3.
  56. ^ a b Kohler, Chris (2004). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Indianapolis, Ind.: BradyGames. p. 19. ISBN 0-7440-0424-1. Within one year of its US release, an additional 60,000 machines had been sold.
    One arcade owner said of Space Invaders that it was the first arcade game whose intake "represented a significant portion of the cost of [buying] the game in any one week." That is, it was the first video game that paid for itself within about a month.
  57. ^ "Video arcades rival Broadway theatre and girlie shows in NY", InfoWorld, 4 (14), p. 15, April 12, 1982, ISSN 0199-6649, retrieved May 1, 2011
  58. ^ Stone, Andrea (December 1982). "The House That Pac Built: Midway Manufacturing is king of the coin-op hill and loving it!". Video Games. Pumpkin Press. 1 (3): 53–55 (54).
  59. ^ "1979: The Year in Review". Cash Box. Cash Box Pub. Co. December 19, 1979. p. 114.
  60. ^ ""Street Fighter II' CE" Has Legs". Leisure Line. Australia: Leisure & Allied Industries. June 1992. p. 3.
  61. ^ "The Games Boom Rolls On". Asiaweek. Vol. 7. Asiaweek Limited. May 1981. p. 32. Roughly 8 million people played the game daily, spending 2.6 billion yen (US$114m.) a day and forcing the Bank of Japan to make three special mintings of 100-yen coins.
  62. ^ Sullivan, George (1983). "The First Big Hits". Screen Play: The Story of Video Games. F. Warne. pp. 38–47 (40). ISBN 978-0-7232-6251-0.
  63. ^ Information, Reed Business (August 5, 1982), "Video Warriors on the Screen", New Scientist, 95 (1317), p. 377, ISSN 0262-4079, retrieved May 1, 2011, But this is 1982, and the game Space Invaders – as the Disney handout enviously reminds us – grosses over $600 million a year.
  64. ^ a b c "Making millions, 25 cents at a time". The Fifth Estate. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 23, 1982. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
  65. ^ a b "Space Invaders vs. Star Wars", Executive, Southam Business Publications, 24, p. 9, 1982, retrieved April 30, 2011, According to TEC, Atari's arcade game Space Invaders has taken in $2 billion, with net recipts of $450 million.
  66. ^ a b "CPI Inflation Calculator". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  67. ^ a b c "Space Invaders vs. Star Wars", Executive, Southam Business Publications, 24, p. 9, 1982, retrieved April 30, 2011, They compare this to the box office movie top blockbuster Star Wars, which has taken in only $486 million, for a net of $175 million.
  68. ^ Kevin Bowen. "The Gamespy Hall of Fame: Space Invaders". GameSpy. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
  69. ^ Kent, Steven (2001). Ultimate History of Video Games. Three Rivers Press. p. 190. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
  70. ^ Hutcheon, Stephen (June 7, 1983). "The video games boom has yet to come". The Age. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
  71. ^ Weiss, Brett (2007). Classic home video games, 1972–1984: a complete reference guide. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7864-3226-4.
  72. ^ "Superstars gather at NE Computer Show in Boston". InfoWorld. InfoWorld Media Group, Inc. 3 (25): 1. November 9, 1981.
  73. ^ Cartridge Sales Since 1980. Atari Corp. Via "The Agony & The Ecstasy". Once Upon Atari. Episode 4. Scott West Productions. August 10, 2003. 23 minutes in.
  74. ^ Haque, James (January 5, 1999). "Reminiscing from Richard Maurer". Giant List of Classic Game Programmers. Dadgum Games. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  75. ^ Stilphen, Scott. "DP Interviews... Marilyn Churchill". Digital Press. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  76. ^ Jonathan, Leack (January 26, 2017). "World of Warcraft Leads Industry With Nearly $10 Billion In Revenue". GameRevolution. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  77. ^ "Super Invader Is Reader's Choice". Softalk (13). April 1981. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  78. ^ Earl g. Graves, Ltd (December 1982), "Cash In On the Video Game Craze", Black Enterprise, 12 (5), pp. 41–2, ISSN 0006-4165, retrieved May 1, 2011
  79. ^ Grace, Lindsay (June 19, 2018). "The Original 'Space Invaders' Is a Meditation on 1970s America's Deepest Fears". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  80. ^ a b c d Geddes, Ryan; Hatfield, Daemon (December 10, 2007). "IGN's Top 10 Most Influential Games". IGN. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2008.
  81. ^ Craig Glenday, ed. (March 11, 2008). "Record Breaking Games: Shooting Games". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records. Guinness. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3.
  82. ^ a b c d Craig Glenday, ed. (March 11, 2008). "Record Breaking Games: Shooting Games Roundup". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records. Guinness. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3.
  83. ^ "スペースインベーダー・今明かす開発秘話――開発者・西角友宏氏、タイトー・和田洋一社長対談" [Space Invader, Development Secret Story Revealed Now―Interview With Developer Tomohiro Nishikado, Taito President Yoichi Wada]. The Nikkei (in Japanese). March 21, 2008. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved May 3, 2021. Lay summary.
  84. ^ a b "San Diego's Gremlin: how video games work". San Diego Reader. July 15, 1982. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  85. ^ Brian Ashcraft & Jean Snow (2008), Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers, Kodansha International, ISBN 978-4-7700-3078-8, retrieved May 1, 2011, Space Invaders offered a novelty: players had three lives. Those who got good at the game could play for as long as they could keep from being blown to bits.
  86. ^ Brian Ashcraft (January 20, 2010). "How Cover Shaped Gaming's Last Decade". Kotaku. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
  87. ^ Karen Collins (2008). From Pac-Man to pop music: interactive audio in games and new media. Ashgate. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7546-6200-6. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
  88. ^ a b Bill Loguidice & Matt Barton (2009), Vintage games: an insider look at the history of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the most influential games of all time, Focal Press, p. 232, ISBN 978-0-240-81146-8, retrieved May 1, 2011
  89. ^ a b Richards, Giles (July 24, 2005). "A life through video games". The Observer. UK: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
  90. ^ "JAPAN 100 Yen Y# 82 Yr.42(1967)-Yr.63(1988)". World Coin price Guide. Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
  91. ^ a b c Fox, Mark (2012). "Space Invaders targets coins". World Coin News. Krause Publications. 39 (2): 35–37. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  92. ^ Scalzo, John (May 5, 2016). "World Video Game Hall of Fame Class of 2016 announced: Legend of Zelda, GTA3, Sonic, Space Invaders, Oregon Trail, The Sims". Warp Zoned. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  93. ^ a b Ellis, David (2004). "Arcade Classics". Official Price Guide to Classic Video Games. Random House. pp. 411–412. ISBN 0-375-72038-3.
  94. ^ a b Sayre, Carolyn (July 19, 2007). "10 Questions for Shigeru Miyamoto". Time. Archived from the original on August 26, 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2007.
  95. ^ Snyder, Daniel D. (March 21, 2012). "How Hideo Kojima Became a Legendary Video-Game Designer". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  96. ^ Petit, Carolyn (August 16, 2021). "This 2004 Interview With The Creator Of Pokémon Is Full Of Details I Love". Kotaku. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  97. ^ JOHN ROMERO, Retro Gamer, issue 75
  98. ^ All the RAGE: John Carmack, Bethesda Softworks
  99. ^ Smith, Alexander (November 19, 2019). They Create Worlds: The Story of the People and Companies That Shaped the Video Game Industry, Vol. I: 1971-1982. CRC Press. p. 391. ISBN 978-0-429-75261-2.
  100. ^ Obsessions (December 18, 2013). "This Game Industry Pioneer Never Gave Up on the Video Arcade". WIRED. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  101. ^ Hague, James (1997). "Eugene Jarvis". Halcyon Days: Interviews with Classic Computer and Video Game Programmers. Dadgum Games. Archived from the original on June 22, 2002. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  102. ^ Betters, Elyse (May 31, 2013). "Space Invaders keeps on blasting". BBC News. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  103. ^ Edge Staff (August 13, 2007). "The 30 Defining Moments in Gaming". Edge. Future plc. Archived from the original on October 29, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
  104. ^ a b "Essential 50: Space Invaders". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
  105. ^ Whittaker, Jason (2004). The cyberspace handbook. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 0-415-16835-X.
  106. ^ a b Buchanan, Levi (April 8, 2008). "Top 10 Classic Shoot 'Em Ups". IGN. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
  107. ^ a b "Players Guide To Electronic Science Fiction Games". Electronic Games. 1 (2): 35–45 [36]. March 1982. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
  108. ^ Osborne, Scott (June 1, 2001). "Hall of Fame: Galaxian and Galaga". GameSpy. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  109. ^ "The Making of Defender". Retro Gamer. Imagine Publishing (55): 34–39. October 2008.
  110. ^ Strickland, Ronald (2002). Growing Up Postmodern: Neoliberalism and the War on the Young. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 112–113. ISBN 0-7425-1651-2. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
  111. ^ Gee, James Paul (2004). What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 47. ISBN 1-4039-6538-2. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
  112. ^ Mäyrä, Frans (2008). An Introduction to Games Studies: Games in Culture. SAGE. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4129-3445-9. Retrieved April 10, 2011. The gameplay of Doom is at its core familiar from the early classics like Space Invaders ... it presents the player with the clear and simple challenge of surviving while shooting everything that moves.
  113. ^ Jones, Steven Edward (2008). The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Studies. Taylor & Francis. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-415-96055-7. Retrieved April 10, 2011. The developers of Halo are aware of their own place in gaming history, and one of them once joked that their game could be seen as "Space Invaders in a tube." The joke contains a double-edged insight: on the one hand, Halo is first and finally about shooting aliens; on the other hand, even the 1978 2-D arcade shooter, Space Invaders, designed by Tomohiro Nishikado for the company Taito, is more interesting than that would suggest.
  114. ^ Simon Carles (November 16, 2010). "No More Russian – Infinity Ward's Modern Warfare 2, One Year On". GameSetWatch. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
  115. ^ Whittaker, Jason (2004). The Cyberspace Handbook. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 0-415-16835-X.
  116. ^ "Atari Offers Largest Game Library" (PDF). Electronic Games. 1 (1): 40–41 [41]. Winter 1981. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
  117. ^ "Classic GI: King of the Hill". Game Informer. No. 178. Cathy Preston. February 2008. p. 108.
  118. ^ "Top 100 Games of All Time". Next Generation. No. 21. Imagine Media. September 1996. p. 38.
  119. ^ Kaiser, Rowan (May 10, 2011). "The 60 Most Influential Games of All Time". 1UP.com. p. 13. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
  120. ^ Morales, Aaron (January 25, 2013). "The 10 best Atari games". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  121. ^ "Space Invaders". Video Game Canon. February 17, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  122. ^ Jeroen te Strake, Peter Searle. "Thebiglist". Playthatgame.
  123. ^ "The 15 greatest video games of the 70s – ranked!". The Guardian. May 13, 2021. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
  124. ^ Hatfield, Daemon (April 2, 2008). "Space Invaders Extreme Set for US". IGN. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
  125. ^ "Space Invaders". Official Nintendo Magazine (29): 46. May 2008.
  126. ^ "Space Invaders Set for WiiWare". IGN. June 17, 2008. Archived from the original on May 16, 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
  127. ^ "A Whole Different Ball Game". Retro Gamer. Imagine Publishing (45): 47. January 2008.
  128. ^ Adlum, Eddie (November 1985). "The Replay Years: Reflections from Eddie Adlum". RePlay. Vol. 11 no. 2. pp. 134-175 (160-3).
  129. ^ "Space Invaders Part II". The Arcade Flyer Archive. Killer List of Videogames. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
  130. ^ Davies, Jonti (May 16, 2005). "Space Invaders Pocket". GameSpy. Archived from the original on March 31, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
  131. ^ a b Space Invaders Deluxe, klov.com. Accessed on line March 28, 2011.
  132. ^ "The Definitive Space Invaders". NowGamer. January 19, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  133. ^ "Space Raiders: Release Summary". GameSpot. Archived from the original on March 17, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  134. ^ Rico Komanoya, ed. (2004). "Space Raiders". Japanese Game Graphics: Behind the Scenes of Your Favorite Games. New York, NY: Harper Design International. pp. 116–121. ISBN 0-06-056772-4.
  135. ^ Calvert, Justin (January 22, 2004). "Empire signs Space Invaders titles". GameSpot. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  136. ^ Nix (May 12, 2005). "Boot to the Head for Bootleggers". IGN. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
  137. ^ "Sega and Empire Interactive Launch Taito Legends for PlayStation 2, Xbox, PC". Sega. October 25, 2005. Archived from the original on May 12, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
  138. ^ Surette, Tim (August 13, 2005). "Sega goes old school with Taito". GameSpot. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  139. ^ Sinclair, Brendan (April 10, 2007). "More Taito Legends headed to US". GameSpot. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  140. ^ "Miniature iconic arcade games are now available from Super Impulse". October 14, 2017.
  141. ^ JAYSMITH2000 (January 2, 2004). "Jaguar Photo Collection – My Photo Gallery". members.cox.net. Archived from the original on August 23, 2004. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  142. ^ Buchanan, Adam (January 23, 2015). "Incredibly Rare Working Prototype 'Atari Jaguar Virtual Reality Headset' Hardware Surfaces on eBay". retrocollect.com. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  143. ^ Paige, Earl (September 25, 1982). "Children's Video Promotions Help Boost Volume". Billboard. Vol. 94 no. 38. p. 19. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  144. ^ "It is 1980 and the National Space Invader's Tournament Finals is Approaching…". Retroist.com. May 20, 2013. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
  145. ^ Horwitz, Jeremy (July 8, 2002). "Technology: Mortal Apathy?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  146. ^ Chris Kohler (2005), Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, BradyGames, p. 18, ISBN 0-7440-0424-1
  147. ^ Forester, Tom (1988). High-tech society: the story of the information technology revolution (1st MIT Press paperback ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-262-56044-5.
  148. ^ "The Video Game Invasion: What Is It Doing To Children?". The Herald Journal. December 18, 1981. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  149. ^ "30 Great Gaming World Records". Computer and Video Games. ComputerAndVideoGames.com. February 14, 2009. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
  150. ^ Haddon, L. (1988). "Electronic and Computer Games: The History of an Interactive Medium". Screen. 29 (2): 52–73. doi:10.1093/screen/29.2.52. In the UK, the Labour MP George Foulkes led a campaign in 1981 to curb the 'menace' of video games, maintaining that they had addictive properties. His 'Control of Space Invaders (and other Electronic Games) Bill' was put to the Commons and only narrowly defeated.
  151. ^ "Control of Space Invaders and Other Electronic Games". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. May 20, 1981. col. 287–291.
  152. ^ Whitehouse, Franklin (June 15, 1981). "Village Zeros in on Space Invaders". The New York Times. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  153. ^ a b c "The Wire, Issues 221–226", The Wire, p. 44, 2002, retrieved May 25, 2011
  154. ^ "Computer rock music gaining fans". Sarasota Journal: 8. August 18, 1980. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  155. ^ Lovelace, Craven (August 27, 2010). "Take a waka-waka-waka on the wild side". Grand Junction Free Press. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
  156. ^ Playback – Space Invaders at Discogs
  157. ^ "Jesse Saunders – On And On". Discogs. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
  158. ^ Church, Terry (February 9, 2010). "Black History Month: Jesse Saunders and house music". BeatPortal. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  159. ^ Bracelin, Jason (May 22, 2007). "House music finds a home". Las Vegas Review-Journal. p. 1E. Retrieved May 23, 2012. A native of Chicago, where house was first popularized, Saunders is credited for producing and releasing the first house single, "On and On," on his own Jes Say Records label.
  160. ^ Microsoft (August 28, 2007). "Microsoft Brings Video Games Live to London". GameSpot. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
  161. ^ 30周年記念 スペシャルコンピレーションアルバム発売! (in Japanese). Taito. 2008. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
  162. ^ 弓削 (October 21, 2008). "ź 舗限定で配信中のアニメーションPVを大公開しちゃいます!" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
  163. ^ "Custard". Danger Mouse. Season 2. Episode 12. January 4, 1982. ITV.
  164. ^ "Donna's Story". That '70s Show. Episode 84. November 20, 2001. Fox Broadcasting Company.
  165. ^ "My Bad Too". Scrubs. Season 7. Episode 7. April 10, 2008. NBC.
  166. ^ "Spy to you". Chuck. Season 3. Episode 11. March 3, 2009. NBC.
  167. ^ "Suck It". Robot Chicken. Season 2. Episode 1. April 2, 2006. Cartoon Network (US).
  168. ^ "Graduation Day: Class of 2105". Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2003). Season 6. Episode 15. March 24, 2007. 4Kids Entertainment (US).
  169. ^ "The Phone". The Amazing World of Gumball. Season 2. Episode 7. September 18, 2012. Cartoon Network (US).
  170. ^ "Anthology of Interest II". Futurama. Season 3. Episode 18. January 6, 2002. Fox Broadcasting Company.
  171. ^ Baker, Chris (December 17, 2007). "Videogames & Futurama, Part 1: Raiders of the Lost Arcade". Wired News. Retrieved May 12, 2008.
  172. ^ Jeff Sneider (July 18, 2014). "Akiva Goldsman to Produce 'Space Invaders' for Warner Bros. (Exclusive)". The Wrap. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
  173. ^ Chris Kohler (July 23, 2014). "Classic video game characters unite via film 'Pixels'". Philstar. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  174. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (February 13, 2015). "'Space Invaders' Lands Dan Kunka To Script". deadline.com. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
  175. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (July 12, 2019). "'Space Invaders' On New Line Launchpad; 'Mortal Kombat's Greg Russo To Script Alien-Invasion Pic". deadline.com. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  176. ^ London Review of Books. Tom Shipley. December 30, 1982. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v04/n24/tom-shippey/vidkids
  177. ^ Space Invaders by Mark Roeder (Mendick) and Julian Wolanski. 1980 National Library of Australia
  178. ^ O'Kane, Sean (June 9, 2015). "Play the PC game Elon Musk wrote as a pre-teen". The Verge. New York City: Vox. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  179. ^ Wyman, Walt (October 4, 2006). "Japan honors NES, PS2, Mario". GameSpot. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
  180. ^ 日本のメディア芸術100選 (in Japanese). Japan Media Arts Plaza. Archived from the original on April 15, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
  181. ^ Boyes, Emma (October 9, 2006). "London museum showcases games". GameSpot. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
  182. ^ "Barbicon: Game on". Barbicon International Enterprises. Archived from the original on September 9, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  183. ^ "Space Invaders—Guillaume Reymond—video performance". NOTsoNOISY. 2006. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
  184. ^ Remo, Chris (August 25, 2008). "Creator of Space Invaders-Based 9/11 Art Piece Pulls Exhibit". Gamasutra. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
  185. ^ Plasencia-Lozano, Pedro and Arias-Durán, Hadrián (2013) "La Ribera del Marco en Cáceres, un problema aún no resuelto de ordenación territorial", in Agua, Cultura y Sociedad, CICCP, Vigo. The ISBN printed in the document (978-84-380-0464-4) is invalid, causing a checksum error.
  186. ^ Fairey, Shepard. "Space Invader". Swindle Magazine. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
  187. ^ Kury, Adriano B.; Barros, Carla ML (May 28, 2014). "A new genus and eight new species of Amazonian cosmetines (Opiliones, Laniatores, Cosmetidae)". Zoological Studies. 53: 25. doi:10.1186/s40555-014-0024-4.
  188. ^ "Stay Safe, Stay Back". Highways England. August 6, 2020.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]