Spaceflight before 1951

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Spaceflight before 1951
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1978-Anh.026-01, Peenemünde, V2 beim Start.jpg
Launch of a V-2 from Peenemünde.
National firsts
Spaceflight  Germany (1944)
 United States (1946)
 Soviet Union (1948)

This is a list of known spaceflights launched before 1951.

Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

1944[edit]

20 June Nazi GermanyV-2 Nazi GermanyPeenemünde Nazi GermanyWehrmacht
Nazi GermanyMW 18014 Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test 20 June Successful
First man-made object to cross what would later be defined as the Kármán line and hence first spaceflight.
Vertical test, apogee: 174.6 kilometres (108.5 mi)
June Nazi GermanyV-2 Nazi GermanyPeenemünde Nazi GermanyWehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test   Launch failure
Vertical test, guidance system malfunction
June Nazi GermanyV-2 Nazi GermanyPeenemünde Nazi GermanyWehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test   Successful
Vertical test, apogee: 189 kilometres (117 mi)
14 September Nazi GermanyV-2 Nazi GermanyPeenemünde Nazi GermanyWehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test 14 September Successful
First spaceflight with recorded date, vertical test, apogee: 175 kilometres (109 mi)
7 December
17:00
Nazi GermanyV-2 Nazi GermanyPeenemünde Nazi GermanyWehrmacht
Nazi GermanyMa-333 Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test 7 December Successful
Vertical test, apogee: 104 kilometres (65 mi)
9 December
17:10
Nazi GermanyV-2 Nazi GermanyPeenemünde Nazi GermanyWehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test 9 December Successful
Vertical test, apogee: 106 kilometres (66 mi)

1946[edit]

16 April
21:47
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands - Launch Complex 33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
WSPG[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation (Applied Physics Laboratory)[2] 16 April Guidance failure[1]
First launch of Project Hermes, apogee: 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)
10 May
21:15
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
WSPG[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation (APL),[2] Chemical Release?*[3] 10 May Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi), First US spaceflight
29 May
21:12
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation (APL),[2] Chemical Release?*[3] 29 May Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi)
13 June
23:40
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[1] Suborbital Solar Radiation, Ionosphere (Naval Radiation Laboratory)[2] 13 June Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
28 June
19:25
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
Naval Radiation Laboratory[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, Pressure, Temperature. Ionosphere[4] 28 June Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)
9 July
19:25
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere (Naval Radiation Laboratory), Biological (Harvard University)[5] 9 July Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 134 kilometres (83 mi)
19 July
19:11
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[1] Suborbital Ionospheric (NRL)[2] 19 July Explosion at 28.5 seconds[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
30 July
19:36
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
Applied Physics Laboratory[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere (NRL)[6] 30 July Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
15 August
18:00
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
Princeton University[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere[7] 15 August Guidance Failure at 13.9 seconds[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 3 kilometres (1.9 mi)
22 August
17:15
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
University of Michigan,[1] ARDC?[8] Suborbital Pressure, Density, Ionosphere Aeronomy, Sky Brightness[2] 22 August Guidance Failure immediately after lift[1]
Project Hermes launch
10 October
18:02
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL[1] Suborbital Cosmic Ray, Ionosphere, Pressure-Temperature, Solar Spectroscopy, Ejection of Cosmic Ray Recording Camera[9] Selected seeds (Harvard), Cross jet attenuation transmitter & receiver[10] 10 October Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 164 kilometres (102 mi)
24 October
19:15
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
APL[1] Cosmic & Solar radiation, winds, photography,[2] 24 October Successful, Short burning time (59 sec)[11]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi), First photo of Earth from space
7 November
20:31
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
Princeton University[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation,[2] 7 November Guidance Failure at 2 seconds, missile turned sideways, flew horizontal and was destroyed[12]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 0.39 kilometres (0.24 mi)
21 November
16:55
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./US Army
Watson Laboratories, University of Michigan,[13] ARDC?[8] Suborbital Pressure, Temperature, Ionosphere, Sky Brightness,Voltage breakdown[14] 21 November Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 102 kilometres (63 mi)
5 December
20:08
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL [1] Suborbital Cosmic & Solar Radiation, Pressure, Temperature, Photography[2] 5 December Successful, Guidance Problems
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
18 December
05:12
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesGRENADES APL[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Meteor research, Biological (National Institute of Health),[2] Chemical release*[3] 18 December Successful, extraordinary range due to guidance failure[15]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 187 kilometres (116 mi)

1947[edit]

10 January
21:13
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation,[2] "Daughter Canister Release (Air Material Command)[16] 10 January Successful, Roll at 40 seconds[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 116 kilometres (72 mi)
24 January
00:22
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United States G.E.[1] Suborbital Test Guidance System,[1] Hermes A-2 Telemetry System Test[17] 24 January Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 49.88 kilometres (30.99 mi).
20 February
18:16
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBlossom I Air Materiel Command[1] Suborbital Pressure-temperature (University of Michigan), Ionosphere (Air Force Cambridge Research Center, UoM), Sky brightness, Voltage Breakdown measurements (AFCRC), Biological rye, cotton seeds and fruit flies, first animals in space,[18] Blossom parachute recovery of canister (Cambridge Field Station)[19] 20 February Successful, Guidance disturbance at 27 sec, Roll at 37.5 sec[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 109 kilometres (68 mi).
7 March
18:23
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Pressure-temperature, Solar Radiation, Ionosphere (NRL), Biological rye, cotton seeds and fruit flies (Harvard)[20] 7 March Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 161 kilometres (100 mi).
1 April
20:10
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
APL[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation (APL & Yerkes Observatory), High altitude photography (Gun Sight Aiming Point camera)[21] 1 April Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 129 kilometres (80 mi)
9 April
00:10
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
APL[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, High altitude photography.[22] 9 April Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 103 kilometres (64 mi)
17 April
23:22
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesGRENADES G.E.[1] Suborbital Pressure-Temperature: 9 Grenades (Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories)[23] 17 April Successful, Roll at 57.5 seconds[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
15 May
23:08
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL[1] Suborbital Density-pressure-temperature grenades (SCEL), (Michigan University), Composition, Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation (NRL)[24] 15 May Successful, Steering trouble from lift[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 122 kilometres (76 mi)
29 May[25] Allied-occupied GermanyUnited StatesHermes B-1 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesHermes II G.E. Suborbital Missile test of ramjet diffusers called "Organ."[26] 29 May Missile went South instead of North, landed in Mexico[27]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 50 kilometres (31 mi), maiden flight of Hermes II, aka Hermes B-1
10 July
19:18
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL[1] Suborbital Density-pressure-temperature, Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere, Simulant agent experiment - Camp Detrick, Indiana, seed containers in control chamber (Harvard College Observatory)[28] 10 July Launch failure, Steering trouble from lift[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 16 kilometres (9.9 mi)
29 July
12:55
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
APL[1] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, High altitude photography (APL)[29] 29 July Successful, Vane #4 ceased to operate at 27 sec[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 159 kilometres (99 mi)
6 September Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesUSS Midway, AO-10 United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 6 September Launch failure
Operation Sandy, first shipboard missile launch, apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
9 October
19:15
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[1] Suborbital Density-pressure-temperature, Skin temperature, Composition (University of Michigan), Solar radiation (NRL)[30] 9 October Successful, Steering disturbance at 48.4 sec. Roll at 52 sec.[1]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 156 kilometres (97 mi)
20 November
23:47
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[1] Suborbital Technology development flight for GE.[31] 20 November Launch failure, Propulsion trouble at 36 sec.[1]
Apogee: 21 kilometres (13 mi)
24 November
17:20
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-8 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Navy
Applied Physics Laboratory[32] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation[33] 24 November Launch failure, off course, flight terminated.[34]
Apogee: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
8 December
21:42
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBlossom II AMC[1] Suborbital Density-pressure-temperature (Michigan University), Skin temperature (Boston University), Solar soft X-rays,Vertical incidence ionosphere propagation, Oblique incidence ionosphere propagation, Aspect project (cameras to be lowered by parachute) (Wright Air Development Center), Sky brightness (AFCRC)[35] 8 December Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)

1948[edit]

22 January
20:12
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL Suborbital 22 January Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 159 kilometres (99 mi)
6 February
17:17
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E. Suborbital 6 February Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
5 March
22:51
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-8 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Navy
APL Suborbital Chemical release 5 March Successful
Apogee: 118 kilometres (73 mi)
19 March
23:10
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBlossom IIA G.E. Suborbital 19 March Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
2 April
13:47
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
US Army Signal Corps Suborbital 2 April Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 144 kilometres (89 mi)
13 April
21:41
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-8 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Navy
APL Suborbital 13 April Successful
Apogee: 114 kilometres (71 mi)
19 April
19:54
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL Suborbital 19 April Guidance Failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
13 May
13:43
Allied-occupied GermanyUnited StatesBumper United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBumper 1 G.E. Suborbital 13 May Successful
Maiden flight of Bumper, apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
27 May
14:15
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
APL Suborbital 27 May Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
11 June
10:22
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
AMC Suborbital 11 June Launch Failure, Premature Valve Closure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 63 kilometres (39 mi)
26 July
16:47
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-8 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Navy
APL Suborbital 26 July Successful
Apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
26 July
18:03
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
APL Suborbital 26 July Successful, Propulsion issues at 45.2s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 97 kilometres (60 mi)
5 August
12:07
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL Suborbital UV Astronomy
Solar X-ray
5 August Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
19 August
14:45
Allied-occupied GermanyUnited StatesBumper United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBumper 2 G.E. Suborbital 19 August Launch failure
Apogee: 13 kilometres (8.1 mi)
3 September
01:00
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesGRENADES USASC Suborbital 3 September Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 151 kilometres (94 mi)
17 September Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 17 September Launch failure
Maiden flight of R-1
30 September
15:30
Allied-occupied GermanyUnited StatesBumper United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBumper 3 G.E. Suborbital 30 September 2nd Stage Failure
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
10 October Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), first Soviet spaceflight
13 October Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 October Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 21 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 October Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 23 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
1 November
14:24
Allied-occupied GermanyUnited StatesBumper United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBumper 4 G.E. Suborbital 1 November Tail explosion at 28.5s
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
1 November Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
3 November Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 3 November Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
4 November Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 4 November Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
5 November Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 5 November Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 November
22:35
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E. Suborbital Ramjet research 18 November Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 145 kilometres (90 mi)
9 December
16:08
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
USASC Suborbital 9 December Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)

1949[edit]

14 January
20:26
Allied-occupied GermanyUnited StatesHermes B-1 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesUS Army
United StatesHermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test 14 January Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
28 January
17:20
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL Suborbital 28 January Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 60 kilometres (37 mi)
17 February
17:00
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
APL Suborbital 17 February Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 127 kilometres (79 mi)
24 February
22:14
Allied-occupied GermanyUnited StatesBumper United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBumper 5 G.E. Suborbital 24 February Successful
Apogee: 393 kilometres (244 mi). The new altitude record.
17 March
23:20
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-8 United StatesUSS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 United StatesUS Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric 17 March Successful
Apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
22 March
06:43
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBlossom IVA AMC Suborbital 22 March Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 129 kilometres (80 mi)
22 March
17:20
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-8 United StatesUSS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 United StatesUS Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric 22 March Successful
Apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
24 March
15:14
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-8 United StatesUSS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 United StatesUS Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric 24 March Launch failure
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), pressure valve malfunction, booster separated on ignition
11 April
22:05
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
USASC Suborbital 11 April Successful, Thrust issues starting at 43.4s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 85 kilometres (53 mi)
22 April
00:17
Allied-occupied GermanyUnited StatesBumper United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBumper 6 G.E. Suborbital 22 April Launch failure
Apogee: 50 kilometres (31 mi)
5 May
15:15
Allied-occupied GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
G.E. Suborbital 5 May Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)
7 May
03:12
Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1A Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 7 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), maiden flight of R-1A
10 May
15:57
Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1A Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
15 May
02:48
Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1A Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 15 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 May
21:55
Allied-occupied GermanySoviet UnionR-1A Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 16 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
24 May
01:40
GermanySoviet UnionR-1A Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
Soviet UnionFIAR-1 OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 24 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
28 May
01:50
GermanySoviet UnionR-1A Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 28 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
14 June
22:35
GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBlossom IVB AMC Suborbital Biological
Atmospheric
14 June Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 134 kilometres (83 mi), carried Albert II, first monkey in space[18][36]
15 June
02:03
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-8 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Navy
NRL Suborbital Ozone research 15 June Successful
Apogee: 109 kilometres (68 mi)
6 September
16:57
United StatesViking United StatesWhite Sands ALA-1 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesViking 2 NRL Suborbital Aeronomy
Imaging
6 September Launch failure
Apogee: 57 kilometres (35 mi)
10 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 11 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
14 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 14 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 September
23:19
GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
United StatesBlossom IVC AMC Suborbital Biological 16 September Launch Failure, Tail explosion at 10.7s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), carried Albert III
17 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 17 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
19 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 19 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
20 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 20 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 23 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
25 September
11:16
GermanySoviet UnionR-2E Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 25 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), maiden flight of R-2E
28 September GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 28 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
29 September
16:58
GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./U.S. Army
NRL Suborbital 29 September Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 151 kilometres (94 mi)
30 September
11:49
GermanySoviet UnionR-2E Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 30 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
2 October
11:00
GermanySoviet UnionR-2E Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 2 October Launch failure
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
3 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 3 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
6 October GermanyUnited StatesHermes B-1 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesUS Army
United StatesHermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test 6 October Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 4 kilometres (2.5 mi)
8 October
06:05
GermanySoviet UnionR-2E Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 8 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
8 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 8 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
10 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 October
12:45
GermanySoviet UnionR-2E Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 11 October Launch failure
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
15 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 15 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 18 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
19 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 19 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
22 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 22 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 23 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 November
16:03
GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./US Army
United StatesGRENADES USASC Suborbital 18 November Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 124 kilometres (77 mi)
6 December United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-1 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Army
US Army Suborbital Air sampling aironomy mission 6 December Launch failure
Doesn't reach Karman line; Apogee: 64.9 kilometres (40.3 mi)
8 December
19:15
GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./US Army
United StatesBlossom IVD AMC Suborbital Biological 8 December Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 127 kilometres (79 mi), carried Albert IV

1950[edit]

9 February
21:44
United StatesViking United StatesWhite Sands ALA-1 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesViking 3 NRL Suborbital Solar
Imaging
9 February Launch failure
Veered off-course, failed to reach space, apogee: 80.5 kilometres (50.0 mi)
17 February
18:00
GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./US Army
NRL Suborbital 17 February Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 148 kilometres (92 mi)
26 April
01:11
United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Navy
US Army Suborbital Atmospheric 26 April Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 May
03:08
United StatesViking United StatesUSS Norton Sound, PO-8 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesViking 4 US Navy Suborbital Ionospheric
Aeronomy
12 May Successful
Apogee: 171 kilometres (106 mi)
17 August
15:45
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-10 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Navy
APL Suborbital Spectrometry 17 August Successful
Apogee: 101 kilometres (63 mi)
31 August
17:09
GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./US Army
United StatesBlossom IVG AMC Suborbital Biological 31 August Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 137 kilometres (85 mi), carried a mouse
21 October GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 21 October Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi), maiden flight of R-2
26 October
23:02
GermanyV-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesG.E./US Army
Ballistic Research Laboratory Suborbital 26 October Launch Failure
Project Hermes launch
1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
9 November GermanyUnited StatesHermes B-1 United StatesWhite Sands LC-33 United StatesUS Army
United StatesHermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test 9 November Partial Success[37]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
21 November
17:18
United StatesViking United StatesWhite Sands ALA-1 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesViking 5 NRL Suborbital Solar
Ionospheric
21 November Successful
Apogee: 174 kilometres (108 mi)
1 December GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 December Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 December GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 December Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 December GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 December Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
12 December
07:04
United StatesViking United StatesWhite Sands ALA-1 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesViking 6 US Navy Suborbital 12 December Launch failure
Apogee: 64 kilometres (40 mi)
12 December
18:26
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1 United StatesHolloman LC-A United StatesARDC
ARDC Suborbital 12 December Successful
Apogee: 106 kilometres (66 mi)
20 December GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 20 December Launch failure
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao White,, L. D. (September 1952). Final Report,Project Hermes V-2 Missile Program. Schnectady, New York: Guided Missile Department, Aeronautic and Ordnance Systems Division, Defense Products Group, General Electric. p. Table I. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kennedy, Gregory P. (2009). The Rockets and Missiles of White Sands Proving Ground. Atglen, PA.: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7643-3251-7. 
  3. ^ a b c I have found no evidence that a chemical release experiment was flown. Chemical release is usually done to conduct aeronomy or wind studies.
  4. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 336–337 (V–2 NO. 6). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 338–339 (V–2 NO. 7). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  6. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 342–343 (V–2 NO. 9). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  7. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 344 (V–2 NO. 10). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Kennedy list the Agency for this flight as ARDC while White does not as the Air Research and Development Command did not exist until 1950 kennedy may have confused ARDC with the AAF Technical Service Command, the Air Technical Service Command, or the Air Materiel Command.
  9. ^ Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 11, 91. 
  10. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 346–347 (V–2 NO. 12). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  11. ^ Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. p. Table I. 
  12. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 350 (V–2 NO. 14). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  13. ^ Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number II (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table I. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
  14. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 351–352 (V–2 NO. 15). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  15. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 354 (V–2 NO. 16). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  16. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 357–358 (V–2 NO. 18). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  17. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 359–360 (V–2 NO. 19). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  18. ^ a b "Part 1: 1900 - 1950". Chronology of Human Space Exploration. I-Spy Space. 
  19. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 361–362 (V–2 NO. 20). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  20. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 363–365 (V–2 NO. 21). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  21. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 366–367 (V–2 NO. 22). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  22. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 368–369 (V–23 NO. 20). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  23. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 370–371 (V–2 NO. 24). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  24. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 374–375 (V–2 NO. 26). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  25. ^ Newell & Siry, Neufeld, and Kennedy agree that the launch was on 29 May.
  26. ^ Neufeld, Michael J. (2007). Von Braun, Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Vintage Books. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-307-38937-4. 
  27. ^ Kennedy, Gregory P. (2009). The Rockets and Missiles of White Sands Proving Ground. Atglen, PA.: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7643-3251-7. 
  28. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 363–364 (V–2 NO. 29). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  29. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 386–387 (V–2 NO. 30). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  30. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 376–378 (V–2 NO. 27). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  31. ^ Wade, Mark. "1947". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2016-03-03. 
  32. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table I. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  33. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table 7.3. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  34. ^ Van Allen, James A. & Townsend, Jr. (1959). "Chapter 4:The Aerobee Rocket". In Newell,, Homer E. Sounding Rockets. McGraw-Hill Book Company. pp. 61–62. 
  35. ^ Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 379–382 (V–2 NO. 28). Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  36. ^ Wade, Mark. "V-2 Chronology". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 
  37. ^ Neufeld, Michael J. (2007). Von Braun, Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Vintage Books. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-307-38937-4. 

See also[edit]