List of spaceflight records

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Spaceflight records)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965

This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and animal records are listed as well.

First independent suborbital and orbital human spaceflight by country[edit]

Country Mission Crew Spacecraft Launch vehicle Date Type
Soviet Union USSR[1] Vostok 1[1] Yuri Gagarin[1] Vostok 3KA[1] Vostok-K[1] 12 April 1961[1] Orbital[1]
United States USA[2] Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)[2] Alan Shepard[2] Mercury Spacecraft No.7[2] Mercury-Redstone[2] 5 May 1961[2] Sub-orbital[2]
United States USA[3] Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7)[3] John Glenn[3] Mercury Spacecraft No.13[3] Atlas LV-3B 20 February 1962[3] Orbital[3]
China China[4] Shenzhou 5[4] Yang Liwei[4] Shenzhou spacecraft[4] Long March 2F[4] 15 October 2003[4] Orbital[4]

Human spaceflight firsts[edit]

First Person(s) Mission Country Date
  • Person to reach space
  • Person in orbit
Gagarin in Sweden-2.jpg
Yuri Gagarin Vostok 1[5] Soviet Union USSR 12 April 1961
  • Person to make suborbital flight
  • Person to land in a spacecraft after spaceflight (thus the first complete human spaceflight by FAI definitions)
  • Person to pilot a craft in space
Alan Shepard Freedom 7 United States USA 5 May 1961
  • Person in space for over 24 hours
  • Multiple orbits during a spaceflight
Gherman Titov Vostok 2 Soviet Union USSR 6 August 1961 –
7 August 1961
Person to land (splashdown) in a spacecraft after orbital flight John Glenn Friendship 7 United States USA 20 February 1962
  • Group flight
  • Adjacent orbits
  • Spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications
Soviet Union USSR 12 August 1962 –
15 August 1962
  • Woman in space
  • Civilian in space
Valentina Tereshkova Vostok 6 Soviet Union USSR 16 June 1963 –
19 June 1963
Spaceflight (suborbital) by winged spacecraft Joe Walker X-15 Flight 90 United States USA 19 July 1963
Person to enter space twice (suborbital flights above 100 kilometres (62 mi)) Joe Walker X-15 Flights 90 and 91 United States USA 22 August 1963
  • Three-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
  • Persons to land in a spacecraft on hard ground
  • Manned spaceflight without pressurized spacesuits
Voskhod 1[5] Soviet Union USSR 12 October 1964 –
13 October 1964
Spacewalk
Berkut spacesuit at Air and Space - back removed.jpg
Alexey Leonov Voskhod 2[5] Soviet Union USSR 18 March 1965
Orbital maneuvers (change orbit) Gus Grissom, John W. Young Gemini 3[5] United States USA 23 March 1965
Person to fly two orbital spaceflights Gordon Cooper United States USA
  • 15 May 1963 –
    16 May 1963
  • 21 August 1965 –
    29 August 1965
Persons to spend one week in space Gemini 5 United States USA 21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
  • Space rendezvous (orbital maneuver and station-keeping)
  • Four people in space at the same time
United States USA 15 December 1965 –
16 December 1965
Space docking
Gemini 8 docking.jpg
Gemini 8 and Agena[5] United States USA 16 March 1966
Multiple rendezvous Gemini 10 with Agena 10 and Agena 8 United States USA
  • 19 July 1966
  • 20 July 1966
Spaceflight fatality (during landing) Vladimir Komarov Soyuz 1 Soviet Union USSR 23 April 1967 –
24 April 1967
Person to complete three spaceflights Walter Schirra United States USA 22 October 1968
  • Persons to leave low Earth orbit (LEO)
  • Persons to fully escape Earth's gravity
  • Persons to enter lunar orbit
Apollo8 Prime Crew2.jpg
Apollo 8 United States USA 24 December 1968 –
25 December 1968
  • Space docking of two manned spacecraft
  • Dual spacewalk
  • Сrew transfer (Khrunov, Yeliseyev)
Soviet Union USSR 16 January 1969
Solo flight around the Moon John Young Apollo 10 United States USA 22 May 1969
  • Moon landing
  • Planetary surface EVA
Aldrin Apollo 11 original.jpg
Apollo 11 United States USA 20 July 1969
Five people in space at the same time Soviet Union USSR 12 October 1969 –
13 October 1969
  • Triple spaceflight
  • Seven people in space at the same time
Soviet Union USSR 13 October 1969 –
16 October 1969
Person to complete four spaceflights James A. Lovell United States USA 17 April 1970
  • Person to fly two lunar flights
  • Person to complete two flights beyond low Earth orbit
James A. Lovell United States USA 11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
  • People to spend two weeks in space
  • Night launch
Soyuz 9 Soviet Union USSR 1 June 1970 –
19 June 1970
People to EVA out of sight of their spacecraft Apollo 14 United States USA 6 February 1971
  • Docking with space station (soft dock)
  • Night landing
Soviet Union USSR 22 April 1971 –
24 April 1971
Manned space station
Salyut 4 and Soyuz drawing.svg
Soviet Union USSR 7 June 1971 –
29 June 1971
In-space fatalities Soyuz 11 Soviet Union USSR 29 June 1971
People to travel in a wheeled vehicle on a planetary body other than Earth
Scott on the Rover – GPN-2000-001306
Apollo 15 United States USA 31 July 1971–
2 August 1971
EVA outside low Earth orbit (trans-Earth trajectory) Al Worden Apollo 15 United States USA 5 August 1971
Person to be in lunar orbit twice (during separate lunar expeditions) John W. Young United States USA 16 April 1972 –
27 April 1972
People in orbit for four weeks Skylab 2 United States USA 25 May 1973 –
22 June 1973
People in orbit for eight weeks Skylab 3 United States USA 28 July 1973 –
25 September 1973
People in orbit for 12 weeks Skylab 4 United States USA 16 November 1973 –
8 February 1974
  • Spaceflight aborted during liftoff (at 145 kilometers (90 mi) altitude)
  • Re-entry with 20g acceleration (emergency)
Vasily Lazarev, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 18a Soviet Union USSR 5 April 1975
Crew to visit occupied space station Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 27 visits Salyut 6 EO-1 crew Soviet Union USSR 10 January 1978 –
16 January 1978
People in orbit 19 weeks
(4 months)
Vladimir Kovalyonok, Aleksandr Ivanchenkov Salyut 6 EO-2, Soyuz 29-Soyuz 31 Soviet Union USSR 15 June 1978 –
2 November 1978
People in orbit 26 weeks
(6 months)
Leonid Popov, Valery Ryumin Salyut 6 EO-4, Soyuz 35-Soyuz 37 Soviet Union USSR 9 April 1980 –
11 October 1980
Spaceflight (orbital) by winged spacecraft STS-1 United States USA 12 April 1981
Person to fly four different types of spacecraft John W. Young
  • Gemini
  • Apollo
  • Lunar Module
  • STS-1
United States USA 12 April 1981
Person to complete five spaceflights John W. Young United States USA 14 April 1981
Four-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-5 United States USA 11 November 1982 –
16 November 1982
Five-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-7 United States USA 18 June 1983 –
24 June 1983
Six-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-9
  • United States USA
  • Germany West Germany
28 November 1983 –
8 December 1983
Person to complete six spaceflights John W. Young United States USA 8 December 1983
Untethered spacewalk
EVAtion - GPN-2000-001087.jpg
Bruce McCandless II STS-41-B United States USA 7 February 1984
Eight people in space at the same time (no docking) Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10, STS-41-B
  • Soviet Union USSR
  • United States USA
8 February 1984 –
11 February 1984
11 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-41-C, Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11
  • Soviet Union USSR
  • United States USA
  • India India
6 April 1984 –
11 April 1984
People to complete four spacewalks during the same mission Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov Salyut 7 Soviet Union USSR 26 April –
18 May 1984
Spacewalk by a woman Svetlana Savitskaya Soyuz T-12 Soviet Union USSR 25 July 1984
People in orbit 33 weeks (7 months) Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov, Oleg Atkov Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11 Soviet Union USSR 8 February 1984 –
2 October 1984
Seven-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
STS41G-19-006.jpg
STS-41-G
  • United States USA
  • Canada Canada
5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Two women in space at the same time Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride STS-41-G United States USA 5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Partial crew exchange at a space station Alexander Volkov, Vladimir Vasyutin replace Vladimir Dzhanibekov Soyuz T-14, Salyut 7 Soviet Union USSR 17 September 1985 –
26 September 1985
Eight-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
STS 61-A crew portrait onboard Challenger middeck.jpg
STS-61-A
  • United States USA
  • West Germany West Germany
  • Netherlands Netherlands
30 October 1985 –
6 November 1985
Fatalities during launch STS-51-L United States USA 28 January 1986
  • Space station-to-space station flight
  • Space station-to-space station return flight
  • Expedition on two space stations
Soyuz T-15 from Mir to Salyut 7 back to Mir[6] Soviet Union USSR 15 March 1986 –
16 July 1986
Complete crew exchange at a space station Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov replace Yuri Romanenko, Alexander Alexandrov Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-3, at Mir Soviet Union USSR 21 December 1987 –
29 December 1987
People in orbit 52 weeks (one year) Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov Mir EO-3, Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-6 Soviet Union USSR 21 December 1987 –
21 December 1988
12 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-35, Mir EO-7, Soyuz TM-10-Soyuz TM-11
  • Soviet Union USSR
  • United States USA
  • Japan Japan
2 December 1990 –
10 December 1990
Three women in space at the same time Millie Hughes-Fulford, Tamara E. Jernigan, M. Rhea Seddon STS-40 United States USA 5 June 1991 –
14 June 1991
Three-person spacewalk
Three Crew Members Capture Intelsat VI - GPN-2000-001035.jpg
STS-49 United States USA 13 May 1992
13 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-67, Mir, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
14 March 1995 –
18 March 1995
Ten people in a single spacecraft (docking)
Crewmembers of STS-71, Mir-18 and Mir-19 Pose for Inflight Picture - GPN-2002-000061 rotated.jpg
STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
29 June 1995 –
4 July 1995
Space tourist Dennis Tito Soyuz TM-32/31, ISS EP-1
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
April 28, 2001 –
May 6, 2001
Person to complete seven trips to space Jerry L. Ross United States USA 19 April 2002
Privately funded human space flight (suborbital)
Kluft-photo-SS1-landing-June-2004-Img 1406c.jpg
Mike Melvill SpaceShipOne flight 15P United States USA 21 June 2004
13 people in a single spacecraft (docking)[7]
STS-127 group picture 03.jpg
ISS, Soyuz TMA-14, Soyuz TMA-15, STS-127
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
  • Canada Canada
  • Belgium Belgium
  • Japan Japan
17 July 2009
Four women in space at the same time
STS-131 and Expedition 23 Group Portrait.jpg
  • United States USA
  • Japan Japan
5 April 2010 –
20 April 2010
Six spacecraft docked to a space station
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
9 July 2018

Most spaceflights[edit]

Duration records[edit]

Total human spaceflight time by country[edit]

Total Human Spaceflight statistics by nation [10] [11]
Nation Total persons Total person flights Total in orbit (@ update)* Total person days*+ % of Total person days
TOTAL 555 1256 5 52287.24 -
1
 Russia
 Soviet Union
123 269 2 27366.50
0.523387857722557
 United States 340 851 2 19900.16
0.380593128457356
39 64 1 2813.46
0.0538077610655616
 Japan 12 20 - 1354.76
0.02590993785548
 Italy 7 12 - 765.92
0.0146483195859736
 Germany 11 16 1 700.67
0.013400485873176
 France 10 18 - 628.92
0.0120282702175362
 Canada 9 17 - 506.14
0.00968006327291347
 Netherlands 2 3 - 210.69
0.00402947822605061
 Belgium 2 3 - 207.65
0.0039714254981586
 United Kingdom 2 2 - 193.81
0.00370660890208478
 China 11 14 - 165.35
0.00316237951960234
  Switzerland 1 4 - 42.50
0.00081285772252904
 Sweden 1 2 - 26.73
0.000511291664529524
 Spain 1 2 - 18.78
0.00035920706441711
 Israel 1 1 - 15.93
0.000304673891064428
 Ukraine 1 1 - 15.69
0.000300078548156481
 Bulgaria 2 2 - 11.80
0.00022564993065321
 Malaysia 1 1 - 10.88
0.000208158408659668
 South Korea 1 1 - 10.88
0.000208158408659668
 South Africa 1 1 - 9.89
0.000189192658160975
 Brazil 1 1 - 9.89
0.000189086407457901
 Kazakhstan 1 1 - 9.84
0.000188249683171194
 Denmark 1 1 - 9.84
0.000188249683171194
 Afghanistan 1 1 - 8.85
0.000169283932672502
 Syria 1 1 - 7.96
0.000152257257504908
 Czechoslovakia 1 1 - 7.93
0.000151619753286465
 Austria 1 1 - 7.93
0.000151566627934928
 Poland 1 1 - 7.92
0.000151433814556086
 Slovakia 1 1 - 7.91
0.00015135412652878
 India 1 1 - 7.90
0.000151141625122632
 Hungary 1 1 - 7.86
0.000150411151538999
 Cuba 1 1 - 7.86
0.000150384588863231
 Mongolia 1 1 - 7.86
0.000150371307525347
 Vietnam 1 1 - 7.86
0.000150371307525347
 Romania 1 1 - 7.86
0.000150358026187462
 Saudi Arabia 1 1 - 7.07
0.000135177456985778
 Mexico 1 1 - 6.88
0.000131538370405497
Astronauts currently in space:
Serena Maria Auñón-Chancellor
Russia Sergei Valerievich Prokopyev
United States Andrew Jay "Drew" Feustel
United States Richard Robert II "Ricky" Arnold
Germany Alexander Gerst
Russia Oleg Germanovich Artemyev
Crew Vehicles currently in space:
Soyuz MS-08
Soyuz MS-09
Table data accurate as of 2018-07-18 04:05 UTC
* includes those in orbit at time table was updated
+TOTAL person days in orbit will not match the sum of the totals for individual nations as some individuals are dual citizens (based solely on those identified as such by spacefacts.de - see table references).


Most time in space[edit]

Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, who has spent 879 days in space over five missions, became the record holder for the most time spent in space when he surpassed, on 28 June 2015, the record of cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, who spent 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes (about 2.2 years) in space over the span of six spaceflights on Soyuz, the Space Shuttle, Mir, and the International Space Station. Yuri Malenchenko is currently in second place, having spent 828 days in space on six spaceflights.[9][12][13][14]

The following is a list of the 50 space travelers with the most total time in space, as of 4 June 2018.[15] Travelers currently in space are ranked by total time in space of their completed missions only.

Color key:

  •   Currently in space
  •   Active
  •   Retired
  •   Deceased
Rank Person Days Flights Status Nationality
1 Gennady Padalka 878.480 5 Retired  Russia
2 Yuri Malenchenko 827.389 6 Retired  Russia
3 Sergei Krikalev 803.371 6 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
4 Alexandr Kaleri 769.276 5 Active  Russia
5 Sergei Avdeyev 747.593 3 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
6 Valeriy Polyakov 678.690 2 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
7 Fyodor Yurchikhin 672.860 5 Active  Russia
8 Peggy A. Whitson 665.932 3 Retired  United States
9 Anatoly Solovyev 651.117 5 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
10 Viktor Afanasyev 555.772 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
11 Yury Usachev 552.773 4 Retired  Russia
12 Sergey Volkov 547.931 3 Retired  Russia
13 Pavel Vinogradov 546.939 3 Active  Russia
14 Musa Manarov 541.021 2 Retired  Soviet Union ( Azerbaijan)
15 Jeffrey Williams 534.116 4 Active  United States
16 Anton Shkaplerov 533.230 3 Active  Russia
17 Oleg Kononenko 533.000 3 Active  Russia
18 Mikhail Tyurin 532.118 3 Active  Russia
19 Oleg Kotov 526.211 3 Retired  Russia
20 Scott Kelly 520.440 4 Retired[16]  United States
21 Mikhail Borisovich Korniyenko 516.417 2 Active  Russia
22 Alexander Viktorenko 489.066 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
23 Nikolai Budarin 444.060 3 Retired  Russia
24 Yuri Romanenko 430.765 3 Retired  Soviet Union
25 Alexander Volkov 391.495 3 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
26 Yuri I. Onufrienko 389.282 2 Retired  Russia
27 Vladimir G. Titov 387.036 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
28 Vasili Tsibliyev 381.662 2 Retired  Russia
29 Valery G. Korzun 381.653 2 Retired  Russia
30 Michael Fincke 381.633 3 Active  United States
31 Leonid Kizim 374.749 3 Deceased  Soviet Union
32 Michael Foale 373.763 6 Retired  United States /  United Kingdom[17]
33 Aleksandr Serebrov 372.954 4 Deceased  Soviet Union /  Russia
34 Valeri Ryumin 371.725 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
35 Donald Pettit 369.696 3 Active  United States
36 Vladimir Solovyov 361.952 2 Retired  Soviet Union
37 Thomas Reiter 350.239 2 Retired  Germany
38 Koichi Wakata 347.356 4 Active  Japan
39 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Skvortsov 345.267 2 Active  Russia
40 Talgat Musabayev 341.408 3 Retired  Russia
41 Oleg Novitskiy 340.419 2 Active  Russia
42 Andrei Borisenko 337.377 2 Active  Russia
43 Maksim Surayev 334.508 2 Retired  Russia
44 Alexander Misurkin 334.468 2 Active  Russia
45 Roman Romanenko 333.459 2 Retired  Russia
46 Vladimir Lyakhov 333.324 3 Deceased  Soviet Union
47 Oleg Skripochka 331.521 2 Active  Russia
48 Aleksandr Samokutyayev 331.474 2 Retired  Russia
49 Yuri P. Gidzenko 329.950 3 Retired  Russia
50 Sunita Williams 321.719 2 Active  United States

Ten longest human spaceflights[edit]

# Time in space Crew Country Launch date (Launch craft) Landing date (Landing craft) Space station or mission type
1 437.7 days[18][19] Valeri Polyakov[18]  Russia 1994-01-08 (Soyuz TM-18) 1995-03-22 (Soyuz TM-20) Mir[18]
2 379.6 days[19] Sergei Avdeyev[19]  Russia 1998-08-13 (Soyuz TM-28) 1999-08-28 (Soyuz TM-29) Mir[19]
3 365.0 days[19]  Soviet Union 1987-12-21 (Soyuz TM-4) 1988-12-21 (Soyuz TM-6) Mir[19]
4 340.4 days 2015-03-27 (Soyuz TMA-16M) 2016-03-01 (Soyuz TMA-18M) International Space Station,
ISS year long mission
5 326.5 days[20] Yury Romanenko[20]  Soviet Union 1987-02-05 (Soyuz TM-2) 1987-12-29 (Soyuz TM-3) Mir[20]
6 311.8 days[21] Sergei Krikalev[21]  Soviet Union/ Russia 1991-05-18 (Soyuz TM-12) 1992-03-25 (Soyuz TM-13) Mir[21]
7 289.2 days[22] Peggy Whitson[22]  United States 2016-11-17 (Soyuz MS-03) 2017-09-03 (Soyuz MS-04) International Space Station[22]
8 240.9 days[23] Valeri Polyakov[23]  Soviet Union 1988-08-29 (Soyuz TM-6) 1989-04-7 (Soyuz TM-7) Mir[23]
9 237.0 days[6]  Soviet Union 1984-02-08 (Soyuz T-10) 1984-10-02 (Soyuz T-11) Salyut 7[6]
10 215.4 days[24] 2006-09-18 (Soyuz TMA-9) 2007-04-21 (Soyuz TMA-9) International Space Station[24]

Longest single flight by a woman[edit]

NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson holds the record for the longest single spaceflight by a woman when she surpassed Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti's 199 days, 16 hours during Expedition 52 in 2017. She returned to Earth in September 2017, having spent 289 days, 5 hours and 1 minute in space.[25][26] In third place is American astronaut Sunita Williams with 195 days[27][28] on the ISS, where she was a member of Expedition 14/Expedition 15 (2006–2007).

Longest continuous occupation of space[edit]

An international partnership consisting of Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan and the member states of the European Space Agency have jointly maintained a continuous human presence in space since 31 October 2000, when Soyuz TM-31 was launched. Two days later it docked with the International Space Station.[7][29] Since then space has been continuously occupied for 17 years, 260 days.[7]

Longest continuous occupation of a spacecraft[edit]

The International Space Station has been continuously occupied since 2 November 2000 (17 years, 258 days).[7][29] It broke the record of 9 years and 358 days of the Soviet/Russian Space Station Mir on 23 October 2010.[29]

Longest solo flight[edit]

Valery Bykovsky flew solo for 4 days, 23 hours in Vostok 5 from 14 to 19 June 1963.[30] The flight set a space endurance record which was broken in 1965 by the (non-solo) Gemini 5 flight. The Apollo program included long solo spaceflight, and during the Apollo 16 mission, T.K. Mattingly orbited solo around the Moon for more than 3 days and 9 hours.

Longest time on the lunar surface[edit]

Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission stayed for 74 hours 59 minutes and 40 seconds (over 3 days) on the lunar surface after they landed on 11 December 1972.[31] They performed three EVAs (extra-vehicular activity) totaling 22 hours 3 minutes, 57 seconds (as commanders were always the first one out of the LM and the last to get back in, Cernan's EVA time was slightly longer).[31]

Longest time in lunar orbit[edit]

Ronald Evans of Apollo 17 mission stayed in lunar orbit for 6 days and 4 hours (148 hours);[32] however, for the solo portion of that flight around the Moon, T. K. Mattingly on Apollo 16 spent 1 hour 38 minutes longer than Evans' solo duration.

Speed and altitude records[edit]

Farthest humans from Earth[edit]

The Apollo 13 crew (Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swigert), while passing over the far side of the moon at an altitude of 254 km (158 mi) from the lunar surface, were 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth.[33] This record-breaking distance was reached at 0:21 UTC on 15 April 1970.[33]

Highest altitude for manned non-lunar mission[edit]

Gemini 11 crew Charles Conrad, Jr. and Richard F. Gordon, Jr. fired their Agena Target Vehicle rocket engine on 14 September 1966, at 40 hours 30 minutes after liftoff and achieved a record apogee altitude of 739.2 nautical miles (1,369.0 km).[34]

Fastest[edit]

The Apollo 10 crew (Thomas Stafford, John W. Young and Eugene Cernan) achieved the highest speed relative to Earth ever attained by humans: 39,897 kilometers per hour (11.082 kilometers per second or 24,791 miles per hour, approximately 32 times the speed of sound and 0.0037 percent of the speed of light).[7] The record was set 26 May 1969.[7]

Age records[edit]

John Glenn, 14 April 1998

Earliest-born to reach space (suborbital flight)[edit]

Joe Walker (born 20 February 1921), on X-15 Flight 90 on 19 July 1963.

Earliest-born to reach space (orbital flight)[edit]

Youngest (age during spaceflight)[edit]

Oldest (age during spaceflight)[edit]

Spacewalk records[edit]

Most spacewalks[edit]

Most spacewalks during a single mission[edit]

Animal records[edit]

First living organisms in space[edit]

The first living organisms of any kind to enter space were fruit flies launched by the United States in 1947 aboard a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 68 miles (109 km).[40] They were also the first animals to safely return from space.[40]

First animal in orbit[edit]

Laika was a Soviet female canine launched on 3 November 1957 on Sputnik 2. The technology to de-orbit had not yet been developed, so there was no expectation for survival. She died several hours into flight. Belka and Strelka became the first canines to safely return to Earth from orbit on 19 August 1960.

Longest canine single flight[edit]

Soviet space dogs Veterok (Ветерок, "Light Wind") and Ugolyok (Уголёк, "Ember") were launched on 22 February 1966 on board Cosmos 110 and spent 22 days in orbit before landing on 16 March.

First animals beyond low-Earth orbit[edit]

An assortment of animals including a pair of Russian tortoises, as well as wine flies and mealworms launched with a number of other biological specimens including seeds and bacteria on a circumlunar mission aboard the Soviet Zond 5 spacecraft on 15 September 1968.[40] It was launched by a Proton-K rocket.[40] The capsule came within 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) of the Moon and later successfully returned to Earth, the first spacecraft in history to return safely to Earth from the Moon.[40]

Notable unmanned spaceflights[edit]

In reference to: Spacecraft Event Origin Date
Earth MW 18014 (A-4(V-2)) First rocket to reach space (suborbital flight). Germany Germany 20 June 1944
Earth V-2 No. 20 First living organisms (fruit flies) in space (suborbital flight). Successfully recovered. United States USA 20 February 1947
Earth R-1V[41] First mammals (dogs) in space (suborbital flight). Successfully recovered. Soviet Union USSR 22 July 1951
Earth Sputnik 1 First satellite in orbit.[5] Soviet Union USSR 4 October 1957
Earth Sputnik 2 First animal in orbit, Laika the dog. Soviet Union USSR 3 November 1957
Earth Vanguard 1 Oldest satellite still in orbit, in addition to its upper launch stage. Expected to stay in orbit 240 years. Ceased transmission in May 1964. United States USA 17 March 1958
Earth Pioneer 1 Failed to reach the moon as intended, but reached a record–setting distance of 113,800 kilometres (70,700 mi) from Earth. United States USA 11 October 1958
Earth Jupiter AM-13 First monkey in space, Gordo, a squirrel monkey. United States USA 13 December 1958
Earth Luna 1 First spacecraft to achieve Earth's escape velocity. Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 1 First flyby. Distance of 5,995 kilometres (3,725 mi). Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Sun Luna 1 First spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 2 First impact.[5] Soviet Union USSR 14 September 1959
Moon Luna 3 First image of lunar far-side.[5] Soviet Union USSR 7 October 1959
Earth Discoverer 13 First satellite recovered from orbit.[5] United States USA 11 August 1960
Earth Korabl-Sputnik 2 First living beings recovered from orbit.[42] Soviet Union USSR 19 August 1960
Venus Venera 1 First flyby. Distance of 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi) (lost communication contact before).[5] Soviet Union USSR 19 May 1961
Moon Ranger 4 First spacecraft to impact the far side of the Moon.[43] United States USA 26 April 1962
Earth Alouette 1 First satellite designed and constructed by a country other than the USA or USSR (the British satellite Ariel 1, launched five months earlier, was designed and constructed by the USA).[44] Canada Canada 29 September 1962
Venus Mariner 2 First planetary flyby. Distance of 34,762 kilometres (21,600 mi) (with communication contact). United States USA 14 December 1962
Earth Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 Oldest spacecraft still in use (50 years as of 2015). United States USA 6 May 1965
Mars Mariner 4 First flyby and first planetary imaging. Distance of 9,846 kilometres (6,118 mi). United States USA 14 July 1965
Earth Astérix First satellite launched independently by a nation other than the USA or USSR (other nations had previously flown satellites launched on American rockets). France France 26 November 1965
Moon Luna 9 First soft landing and first pictures from the lunar surface.[5] Soviet Union USSR 3 February 1966
Venus Venera 3 First impact.[5] Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1966
Moon Luna 10 First orbiter.[5] Soviet Union USSR 3 April 1966
Docking Cosmos 186, Cosmos 188 First automated docking of unmanned spacecraft. Soviet Union USSR 30 October 1967
Moon Zond 5
  • First to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth.
  • First animals to circle the Moon.
Soviet Union USSR 15 September 1968
Moon Luna 16 First automated sample return. Soviet Union USSR 24 September 1970
Moon Luna 17 First automated roving vehicle, Lunokhod 1. Soviet Union USSR 17 November 1970
Venus Venera 7 First soft landing. Soviet Union USSR 15 December 1970
Mars Mariner 9 First orbiter. United States USA 14 November 1971
Mars Mars 2 First impact. Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971
Mars Mars 3 First soft landing. Maintained telemetry signal for 20 seconds before transmissions ceased. Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971
Sun Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to achieve the Sun's escape velocity. United States USA 3 March 1972
Jupiter Pioneer 10 First flyby. Distance of 132,000 kilometres (82,000 mi). United States USA 4 December 1973
Mercury Mariner 10 First flyby. Distance of 703 kilometres (437 mi). United States USA 29 March 1974
Venus Venera 9
  • First orbiter.
  • First surface-level imaging of another planet.
Soviet Union USSR 22 October 1975
Sun Helios 2
  • Highest velocity of a spacecraft relative to the Sun: 252,792 kilometres per hour (157,078 mph).
  • Closest ever approach to the Sun. Distance of 0.29 AU (43,000,000 kilometres (27,000,000 mi)), slightly inside the orbit of Mercury. Record still unbeaten as of November 2009, but expected to be beaten by the future Solar Orbiter probe (0.23 AU / 33 million km).
17 April 1976
Mars Viking 1 First surface-level imaging of Mars. United States USA 20 July 1976
Saturn Pioneer 11 First flyby. Distance of 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi). United States USA 1 September 1979
Venus Venera 13 First sound recording made on another planet. Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1982
Trans-Neptunian region Pioneer 10 First to travel past the orbit of Neptune, the furthest major planet from the Sun. United States USA 13 June 1983
Venus Vega 1 First helium balloon atmospheric probe. Soviet Union USSR 11 June 1985
Comet Giacobini-Zinner International Cometary Explorer (ICE) First flyby through a comet tail (no pictures). Distance of 7,800 kilometres (4,800 mi). United States USA 11 September 1985
Uranus Voyager 2 First flyby. Distance of 81,500 kilometres (50,600 mi). United States USA 24 January 1986
Comet Halley Vega 1 First comet flyby (with pictures returned). Distance of 8,890 kilometres (5,520 mi). Soviet Union USSR 6 March 1986
Orbital Spaceplane Buran First fully automated orbital flight of a spaceplane (with airstrip landing). Soviet Union USSR 15 November 1988
Phobos Phobos 2 First flyby. Distance of 860 kilometres (530 mi). Soviet Union USSR 21 February 1989
Neptune Voyager 2 First flyby. Distance of 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi). United States USA 25 August 1989
951 Gaspra Galileo First asteroid flyby. Distance of 1,600 kilometres (990 mi). United States USA 29 October 1991
Jupiter Galileo probe First impact. United States USA 7 December 1995
Jupiter Galileo First orbiter. United States USA 8 December 1995
Mars Mars Pathfinder First automated roving vehicle, Sojourner. United States USA 4 July 1997
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid orbiter. United States USA 14 February 2000
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid soft landing. United States USA 12 February 2001
Saturn Cassini orbiter First orbiter.
  • Not the esa logo.svg ESA
  • United States USA
1 July 2004
Solar wind Genesis First sample return from farther than the Moon. United States USA 8 September 2004
Titan Huygens probe First soft landing.
  • Not the esa logo.svg ESA
  • United States USA
14 January 2005
Comet Tempel 1 Deep Impact First comet impact. United States USA 4 July 2005
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa
  • First asteroid ascent.
  • First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff.
Japan Japan 19 November 2005
81P/Wild Stardust First sample return from comet. United States USA 15 January 2006
Earth Voyager 1
  • Farthest distance from Earth.
  • Farthest distance from the Sun (20.479 billion km).
United States USA As of November 2016[45]
Longest time in operation Voyager 2 Longest continually operating space probe (since August 1977). United States USA As of 2015
Earth to Venus trajectory IKAROS First interplanetary solar sail. Japan Japan Set sail on 10 June 2010
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa First sample return from an asteroid. Japan Japan 13 June 2010
Mercury MESSENGER First orbiter. United States USA 17 March 2011
Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point Chang'e 2 First object to reach the L2 Lagrangian point directly from lunar orbit.[46] China China 25 August 2011
International Space Station SpaceX Dragon First commercial spacecraft to berth with the International Space Station. United States SpaceX 25 May 2012
Interstellar medium Voyager 1 First spacecraft to cross the heliopause, thereby exiting the heliosphere and entering interstellar space. United States USA 25 August 2012
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2
  • First object to reach an asteroid directly from a Sun-Earth Langrangian point.
  • First probe to explore both the Moon and an asteroid.[47]
China China 13 December 2012
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta First comet orbiter.[48] Not the esa logo.svg ESA 6 August 2014
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Philae First comet soft landing.[49] Not the esa logo.svg ESA 12 November 2014
Ceres Dawn First dwarf planet orbiter.[50] United States USA 6 March 2015
Mars Opportunity Longest distance traveled on surface of another world (26.219 miles (42.195 km), marathon-length).[51] United States USA 23 March 2015 (ongoing)
Mercury MESSENGER First impact.[52] United States USA 30 April 2015
Pluto New Horizons
United States USA 14 July 2015
All 9 planets in the pre-IAU redefinition version of the Solar System All United States spacecrafts including New Horizons With the New Horizons flyby of Pluto, the United States is the first nation to have its space probes explore all 9 planets in the pre-2006 IAU redefinition version of the Solar System. United States USA 14 July 2015
Earth Juno Fastest man-made object relative to Earth (c. 265,000 kilometres per hour (165,000 mph)).[53] United States USA 4 July 2016
Earth Falcon 9 First re-flight of orbital class rocket.[54] United States SpaceX 30 March 2017
Earth Shortest period between orbital launches (launched 72 seconds apart).[55]
  • United States SpaceX
  • Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
23 December 2017

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gebhardt, Chris (12 April 2011). "Anniversaries: 50 years of human spaceflight – 30 years for Shuttle". NASASpaceFlight (not affiliated with NASA). Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)". NASA. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7)". NASA. 20 November 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Making History: China's First Human Spaceflight". Space.com. 28 September 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "MAJOR SPACE "FIRSTS'-AN AMERICAN ASSESSMENT" (PDF). Flight. 91 (3028): 459. 1967-03-23. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Pearlman, Robert (17 June 2010). "Cosmonaut Leonid Kizim, Who Visited 2 Space Stations in 1 Mission, Dies". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wall, Mike (11 March 2015). "The Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records". Space.com. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  8. ^ "Astronaut Biography". NASA. 
  9. ^ a b NASA (2005). "Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev Biography". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  10. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts flown in space (in alphabetical order)". spacefacts.de.  The alphabetical list of astronauts provides the "Total Persons" "Total Person Flights" as well as the "Total person days", excepting the time of astronauts currently in orbit
  11. ^ "Manned spaceflights". spacefacts.de.  The flight list allows is searched to determine which flight is in orbit, and when it reached orbit. This allows determination of "Total in orbit (@ update) and update the "Total person days" accordingly.
  12. ^ NASA (2005). "Krikalev Sets Time-in-Space Record". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  13. ^ Thompson, Curtiss (29 June 2015). "Russian Cosmonaut Sets Record For Most Time Spent In Space". Penny4NASA. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  14. ^ Russian astronaut record-breaker Padalka returns to Earth, BBC News, 12 September 2015
  15. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts (sorted by "Time in Space")". spacefacts.de.  The current missions are listed but not included in day count.
  16. ^ Northon, Karen (2016-03-11). "Astronaut Scott Kelly to Retire from NASA in April". NASA. Retrieved 2016-06-01. 
  17. ^ Michael Foale holds dual U.S./British citizenship.
  18. ^ a b c Schwirtz, Michael (2009-03-30). "Staying Put on Earth, Taking a Step to Mars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Pearlman, Robert (26 March 2015). "One Year in Space: A History of Ultra-Long Missions Off Planet Earth". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  20. ^ a b c Carroll, Michael (2015). Living Among Giants: Exploring and Settling the Outer Solar System. Springer. p. 195. ISBN 3319106732. 
  21. ^ a b c Leary, Warren (4 Feb 1994). "Man in the News: Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev; Symbol of New Cooperation". Cape Canaveral: New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  22. ^ a b c "Soyuz MS-04 lands as Peggy Whitson ends record-breaking mission". NASASpaceflight. 2 Sep 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  23. ^ a b c Dunn, Marcia (28 Dec 1997). "Mischief a Specialty for Mir's Doctor in Residence". Associated Press. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  24. ^ a b c d Wenz, John (27 March 2015). "5 Things You Must Know About Scott Kelly's Year in Space". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  25. ^ {{cite web|url=http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/astronauts/english/whitson_peggy.htm%7Ctitle=Peggy Whitson Astronaut Biography|publisher=Space Facts
  26. ^ American Astronaut Peggy Whitson Sets Record for Women in Space, James Rogers, Fox News Channel, Apr 24 2017
  27. ^ Tariq Malik (2007). "Orbital Champ: ISS Astronaut Sets New U.S. Spacewalk Record". Space.com. 
  28. ^ "Astronaut Bio: Sunita Williams (5/2008)". NASA Logo National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  29. ^ a b c "10 Years and Counting". NASA. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  30. ^ "Astronautic World Records: Spacecraft with one astronaut – General category". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24.  This only counts the duration of solo flight within a mission, so a longer mission with solo flight, such as Apollo 17 at 12d+13h duration is surpassed because the solo undocked duration was only 3d+7h.)
  31. ^ a b "Mission Report: Apollo 17 – The Most Productive Lunar Expedition" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  32. ^ "Ronal Evans Biographical Data". NASA. April 1990. Retrieved 21 June 2015. longest time in lunar orbit, 147 hours, 48 minutes 
  33. ^ a b "Apollo 13 The Seventh Mission: The Third Lunar Landing Attempt 11 April–17 April 1970". NASA. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  34. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (August 25, 2000), NASA Project Gemini-XI, retrieved April 12, 2010 
  35. ^ News, ABC. "ABC News". 
  36. ^ "GCTC, Biographies of Cosmonauts: Solovyev, Anatoly Yakovlevich". Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre. Archived from the original on 2007-09-20. Retrieved 2017-10-31. 
  37. ^ Spacewalking astronauts pull off urgent station repairs[permanent dead link], May 23, 2017
  38. ^ "ISS astronauts complete 200th station EVA for maintenance tasks". NASASpaceflight.com. 12 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  39. ^ Spacefacts (2017). "Astronauts and Cosmonauts with EVA Experience (sorted by "EVA Time")". Spacefacts. Retrieved May 13, 2017. 
  40. ^ a b c d e Tate, Karl. "Cosmic Menagerie: A History of Animals in Space (Infographic)" (infographic). Space.com. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  41. ^ "R-1V". Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  42. ^ Asif A. Siddiqi. "Challenge to Apollo" (PDF). NASA. ; see page. 253
  43. ^ Williamson, Mark (1998). "Protecting the space environment: Are we doing enough?". Space Policy. 14 (1): 5–8. doi:10.1016/S0265-9646(97)00038-6. 
  44. ^ "Alouette I and II". Canadian Space Agency. Government of Canada. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  45. ^ "Where are the Voyagers?". Retrieved 2016-11-27. Because Earth moves around the sun faster than Voyager 1 is traveling from Earth, the distance between Earth and the spacecraft actually decreases at certain times of the year. 
  46. ^ "Ching'e 2 to reaches liberation point 2". 2011-08-27. 
  47. ^ "China's space probe flies by asteroid Toutatis". Chinadaily.com.cn.16 December 2012.
  48. ^ esa. "Rosetta arrives at comet destination". 
  49. ^ "Philae probe makes historic comet landing". 12 November 2014 – via www.bbc.com. 
  50. ^ CNN, Amanda Barnett. "NASA's Dawn spacecraft begins orbiting Ceres". 
  51. ^ CNN, Euan McKirdy. "Opportunity rover celebrates marathon milestone". 
  52. ^ Corum, Jonathan (30 April 2015). "Messenger's Collision Course With Mercury" – via NYTimes.com. 
  53. ^ "Fastest-Ever Spacecraft to Arrive at Jupiter Tonight". 
  54. ^ "Used SpaceX Rocket Launches Satellite, Then Lands in Historic 1st Reflight". 
  55. ^ "TMRO:Space - Looking forward to 2018 - Orbit 11.01". 

External links[edit]