Spacing Modifier Letters

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Spacing Modifier Letters
Range U+02B0..U+02FF
(80 code points)
Plane BMP
Scripts Bopomofo (2 char.)
Latin (14 char.)
Common (64 char.)
Major alphabets IPA
Assigned 80 code points
Unused 0 reserved code points
Unicode version history
1.0.0 57 (+57)
3.0 63 (+6)
4.0 80 (+17)
Note: [1][2]

Spacing Modifier Letters is a Unicode block containing characters for the IPA, UPA, and other phonetic transcriptions. Included are the IPA tone marks, and modifiers for aspiration and palatalization.

Character table[edit]

Code Glyph Decimal Description
U+02B0 ʰ ʰ Modifier Letter Small H
U+02B1 ʱ ʱ Modifier Letter Small H with hook
U+02B2 ʲ ʲ Modifier Letter Small J
U+02B3 ʳ ʳ Modifier Letter Small R
U+02B4 ʴ ʴ Modifier Letter Small Turned R
U+02B5 ʵ ʵ Modifier Letter Small Turned R with hook
U+02B6 ʶ ʶ Modifier Letter Small Capital Inverted R
U+02B7 ʷ ʷ Modifier Letter Small W
U+02B8 ʸ ʸ Modifier Letter Small Y
U+02B9 ʹ ʹ Modifier Letter Prime
U+02BA ʺ ʺ Modifier Letter Double Prime
U+02BB ʻ ʻ Modifier Letter Turned Comma
U+02BC ʼ ʼ Modifier Letter Apostrophe
U+02BD ʽ ʽ Modifier Letter Reversed Comma
U+02BE ʾ ʾ Modifier Letter Right Half Ring
U+02BF ʿ ʿ Modifier Letter Left Half Ring
U+02C0 ˀ ˀ Modifier Letter Glottal Stop
U+02C1 ˁ ˁ Modifier Letter Reversed Glottal Stop
U+02C2 ˂ ˂ Modifier Letter Left Arrowhead
U+02C3 ˃ ˃ Modifier Letter Right Arrowhead
U+02C4 ˄ ˄ Modifier Letter Up Arrowhead
U+02C5 ˅ ˅ Modifier Letter Down Arrowhead
U+02C6 ˆ ˆ Modifier Letter Circumflex Accent
U+02C7 ˇ ˇ Caron
U+02C8 ˈ ˈ Modifier Letter Vertical Line
U+02C9 ˉ ˉ Modifier Letter Macron
U+02CA ˊ ˊ Modifier Letter Acute Accent
U+02CB ˋ ˋ Modifier Letter Grave Accent
U+02CC ˌ ˌ Modifier Letter Low Vertical Line
U+02CD ˍ ˍ Modifier Letter Low Macron
U+02CE ˎ ˎ Modifier Letter Low Grave Accent
U+02CF ˏ ˏ Modifier Letter Low Acute Accent
U+02D0 ː ː Modifier Letter Triangular Colon
U+02D1 ˑ ˑ Modifier Letter Half Triangular Colon
U+02D2 ˒ ˒ Modifier Letter Centered Right Half Ring
U+02D3 ˓ ˓ Modifier Letter Centered Left Half Ring
U+02D4 ˔ ˔ Modifier Letter Up Tack
U+02D5 ˕ ˕ Modifier Letter Down Tack
U+02D6 ˖ ˖ Modifier Letter Plus Sign
U+02D7 ˗ ˗ Modifier Letter Minus Sign
U+02D8 ˘ ˘ Breve
U+02D9 ˙ ˙ Dot Above
U+02DA ˚ ˚ Ring Above
U+02DB ˛ ˛ Ogonek
U+02DC ˜ ˜ Small Tilde
U+02DD ˝ ˝ Double Acute Accent
U+02DE ˞ ˞ Modifier Letter Rhotic Hook
U+02DF ˟ ˟ Modifier Letter Cross Accent
U+02E0 ˠ ˠ Modifier Letter Small Gamma
U+02E1 ˡ ˡ Modifier Letter Small L
U+02E2 ˢ ˢ Modifier Letter Small S
U+02E3 ˣ ˣ Modifier Letter Small X
U+02E4 ˤ ˤ Modifier Letter Small Reversed Glottal Stop
U+02E5 ˥ ˥ Modifier Letter Extra-High Tone Bar
U+02E6 ˦ ˦ Modifier Letter High Tone Bar
U+02E7 ˧ ˧ Modifier Letter Mid Tone Bar
U+02E8 ˨ ˨ Modifier Letter Low Tone Bar
U+02E9 ˩ ˩ Modifier Letter Extra-Low Tone Bar
U+02EA ˪ ˪ Modifier Letter Yin Departing Tone Mark
U+02EB ˫ ˫ Modifier Letter Yang Departing Tone Mark
U+02EC ˬ ˬ Modifier Letter Voicing
U+02ED ˭ ˭ Modifier Letter Unaspirated
U+02EE ˮ ˮ Modifier Letter Double Apostrophe
U+02EF ˯ ˯ Modifier Letter Low Down Arrowhead
U+02F0 ˰ ˰ Modifier Letter Low Up Arrowhead
U+02F1 ˱ ˱ Modifier Letter Low Left Arrowhead
U+02F2 ˲ ˲ Modifier Letter Low Right Arrowhead
U+02F3 ˳ ˳ Modifier Letter Low Ring
U+02F4 ˴ ˴ Modifier Letter Middle Grave Accent
U+02F5 ˵ ˵ Modifier Letter Middle Double Grave Accent
U+02F6 ˶ ˶ Modifier Letter Middle Double Acute Accent
U+02F7 ˷ ˷ Modifier Letter Low Tilde
U+02F8 ˸ ˸ Modifier Letter Raised Colon
U+02F9 ˹ ˹ Modifier Letter Begin High Tone
U+02FA ˺ ˺ Modifier Letter End High Tone
U+02FB ˻ ˻ Modifier Letter Begin Low Tone
U+02FC ˼ ˼ Modifier Letter End Low Tone
U+02FD ˽ ˽ Modifier Letter Shelf
U+02FE ˾ ˾ Modifier Letter Open Shelf
U+02FF ˿ ˿ Modifier Letter Low Left Arrow
Code Glyph Decimal Description

Compact table[edit]

Spacing Modifier Letters[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+02Bx ʰ ʱ ʲ ʳ ʴ ʵ ʶ ʷ ʸ ʹ ʺ ʻ ʼ ʽ ʾ ʿ
U+02Cx ˀ ˁ ˂ ˃ ˄ ˅ ˆ ˇ ˈ ˉ ˊ ˋ ˌ ˍ ˎ ˏ
U+02Dx ː ˑ ˒ ˓ ˔ ˕ ˖ ˗ ˘ ˙ ˚ ˛ ˜ ˝ ˞ ˟
U+02Ex ˠ ˡ ˢ ˣ ˤ ˥ ˦ ˧ ˨ ˩ ˪ ˫ ˬ ˭ ˮ ˯
U+02Fx ˰ ˱ ˲ ˳ ˴ ˵ ˶ ˷ ˸ ˹ ˺ ˻ ˼ ˽ ˾ ˿
1.^ As of Unicode version 9.0


The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Spacing Modifier Letters block:

Version Final code points[a] Count L2 ID WG2 ID Document
1.0.0 U+02B0..02DE, 02E0..02E9 57 (to be determined)
L2/99-246 N2043 Everson, Michael (1999-07-24), On the apostrophe and quotation mark, with a note on Egyptian transliteration characters 
L2/00-421 N2307 Whistler, Ken (2000-11-27), Response to Japanese Query re IPA tone letters 
L2/01-025 N2312 Constable, Peter (2001-01-08), Presentation of tone contours encoded as UCS tone letter sequences 
L2/06-373 Proposal for additional character, 2006-11-04 
L2/06-398 Pandey, Anshuman (2006-12-15), Comments on L2/06-373 (addition of 'apostrophe' to Devanagari) 
L2/08-197 Representation of Bodo, Dogri and Maithili languages in Unicode Standard, 2008-05-06 
L2/08-210 Lata, Swaran (2008-05-07), Usage examples for Bodo, Dogri, Maithili tone marker 
L2/12-065 N4281 Pentzlin, Karl (2012-02-05), Proposal for additional annotations for some modifier letters used for transliteration of Hebrew 
3.0 U+02DF 1 L2/98-261 N1812 Ellert, Mattias (1998-05-21), Proposal to encode CROSS ACCENT in ISO/IEC 10646 
U+02EA..02EB 2 L2/98-090 N1713R Proposal to add 24 extended Bopomofo and 2 modifier letters for Minnan and Hakka, 1998-03-19 
U+02EC..02ED 2 L2/98-299 N1845 Everson, Michael (1998-09-08), Additional IPA “disturbed speech” characters for the UCS 
U+02EE 1 L2/98-295 N1817 Everson, Michael (1997-08-10), Proposal to add the letter MODIFIER LETTER DOUBLE APOSTROPHE in the BMP 
4.0 U+02EF..02FF 17 L2/02-141 N2419 Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20), Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS 
L2/02-192 Everson, Michael (2002-05-02), Everson's Reply on UPA 
N2442 Everson, Michael; Kolehmainen, Erkki I.; Ruppel, Klaas; Trosterud, Trond (2002-05-21), Justification for placing the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet in the BMP 
L2/02-291 Whistler, Ken (2002-05-31), WG2 report from Dublin 
L2/02-292 Whistler, Ken (2002-06-03), Early look at WG2 consent docket 
L2/02-166R2 Moore, Lisa (2002-08-09), "Scripts and New Characters - UPA", UTC #91 Minutes 
L2/02-253 Moore, Lisa (2002-10-21), UTC #92 Minutes 
  1. ^ Proposed code points and characters names may differ from final code points and names

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  2. ^ "Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09.