Spaghetti House siege
The Spaghetti House siege took place between 28 September and 3 October 1975. An attempted robbery of the Spaghetti House restaurant in Knightsbridge, London, went wrong and the police arrived quickly. The robbers took the staff down into a storeroom and barricaded themselves in. They released all the hostages unharmed after six days; two of the gunmen gave themselves up, the ringleader, Franklin Davies, shot himself in the stomach. All three were later imprisoned, as was one of their accomplices.
All three had been involved in black liberation organisations and, from the earliest stages of the siege and throughout their subsequent prison sentences, the men stated that they were acting for political reasons. The police did not believe their claims, and stated that this was a criminal act, not a political one.
The police used technology as a live surveillance technique, and had audio and visual facilities which monitored the actions and conversations of the gunmen. The feed was watched by a forensic psychologist who advised police on the state of the men's minds, and how to best manage the ongoing negotiations.
Attempted robbery: 28 September 1975
In the mid-1970s, the managers of the London-based Spaghetti House restaurant chain would close the various branches and meet at the company's Knightsbridge branch. The outlet would be closed, but managers would deposit the week's takings there, prior to it being paid into a night safe at a nearby bank. At approximately 1:30 am on Sunday 28 September 1975, three black males entered the Spaghetti House. One carried a sawn-off shotgun, the others each carried a handgun. The ringleader was Franklin Davies, a 28-year-old Nigerian student who had previously served time in prison for armed robbery; he was accompanied by two men, Wesley Dick (later known as Shujaa Moshesh), a 24-year-old West Indian, and Anthony "Bonsu" Munroe, a 22-year-old Guyanan. All three had been involved in black liberation organisations. Davies had tried to enlist in the guerrilla armies of Zimbabwe African National Union and FRELIMO in Africa; Munroe had links to the Black Power movement; Dick was an attendee at meetings of the Black Panthers, the Black Liberation Front (BLF), the Fasimba,[a] and the Black Unity and Freedom Party; he regularly visited the offices of the Institute of Race Relations to volunteer and access their library.
On entering the restaurant, the three men demanded the week's takings from the chain – between £11,000 and £13,000.[b] In the dim lights of the closed restaurant, the staff were able to swiftly hide the two briefcases of money under the tables. The robbers forced the restaurant staff down into the basement; the company's general manager took the opportunity to escape out of a rear fire escape while they were being moved. He alerted the Metropolitan Police, who arrived on the scene within minutes. The getaway driver, Samuel Addison, saw the plan had gone wrong, and drove off in a stolen Ford. When the police entered the ground floor of the restaurant, Davies and his colleagues forced the restaurant staff into a rear storeroom measuring 14 by 10 feet (4.3 by 3.0 m), locked the door, barricaded it with beer kegs and shouted to the police that they would shoot if they approached the door; the police surrounded the building and the siege began.
Siege: 28 September – 3 October 1975
In the initial conversations, the hostage-takers provided the police with the names of the hostages they held and Davies's identity and criminal record was established. By 7:00 am the police had sealed off the area and put a cordon in place; 400 policemen were involved, including specialist firearms teams and dog-handlers.
Davies informed police that he was a captain in the BLF;[c] a subsequent message said that they were members of the Black Liberation Army, a Black Panther splinter group. Davies made several demands to the police. He wanted two black prisoners released from prison, although he did not know that they had already been released. He also wanted the Home Secretary to visit the siege, an aircraft made available to fly to the West Indies and a radio for them to listen to. Only the request for a radio was granted to them.
From the outset it was rightly assumed that this was a simple armed robbery that had gone wrong and any attempts by Davies, the Nigerian, to represent it as a political act were received with the derision they clearly deserved.
Tony Soares, one of the founders of the BLF, told police he knew the three men, and offered to mediate in the negotiations, but his offer turned down. He added that the BLF was a peaceful organisation, and that it did not know of or support the robbery. On the morning of 29 September—fifteen hours after the siege had begun—one of the hostages was released was a sign of good faith. He was a 59-year-old manager of one of the outlets. On the second day another hostage was released after he fell ill.
During the course of the siege Mario Manca, the Italian consul general attempted to liaise with the men, acting as a go-between. After the siege, Robert Mark stated that "The whole force, and the whole police service, recognises in him a sensitive, gallant and truly unselfish man. I cannot praise his behaviour too highly." Lord Pitt, the former chairman of the Greater London Council who was also West Indian-born, also attempted to negotiate with the men, but had limited success.
Dr Peter Scott, a forensic psychologist at the Maudsley Hospital, gave advice about the mental state of the criminals throughout the siege. He told the police that the longer the siege went on, the more an emotional transference would take place, in which the gunmen would be less likely to kill the hostages. On his advice, the main strategy of the police was to wait as long as was needed, keep the situation calm and to talk to the hostage takers as long as possible. The siege saw an early use of technology by the police as a live surveillance technique. Two fibre optic cameras were used to observe what happened. One was threaded through the wall alongside a hot water pipe; the second way was through a vent, after acid was dripped onto it using an eyedropper, in order to make a small hole. The police were able to monitor the movement and conversations of the three hostage-takers.
The police persuaded the media to assist them. They asked the Daily Mail not to publish a story about the arrest of one of the gang's associates. Using the information and advice from Scott, the police attempted to drive a wedge between Davies and his two colleagues. On the fourth day the police pushed a copy of the Daily Express under the door of the storeroom. It showed a photograph of Davies on the front page, describing him as the leader, and providing background information from his associates, making it look like he was selling the information to the newspapers. The following day, when two of the co-conspirators were arrested, police briefed the media about the arrests and stressed the criminal, not political, aspects of the case. The men heard the news on the radio that evening, which lowered their spirits. The following morning, the men decided to surrender.
At 2:55 am the gunmen turned out the lights and began a discussion among themselves. At 3:40 am they told the police that they were giving up. After the hostages came out first—all unharmed—the police told the three men to come out one at a time. The first two threw their guns out and followed; as police led them away there was a gunshot from the room, where Davies had shot himself in the stomach with a .22 rim-fire revolver. In his pocket police found a note he had written to his brother just before the robbery:
Today I set out on a mission for the people. If things go wrong I shall pass over to the warrior's rest. So if this note reaches you, It would mean that I am dead. You must accept what happens to me as it should be accepted—with joy—because it is the most natural fate that awaits any of us blacks conscious enough to try and do something about our pathetic state of existence.
Davies was taken to St George's Hospital where he underwent an operation; the bullet was not removed during the process. The hostages were also taken to the same hospital for a check-up, but none needed treatment. They then gave preliminary statements to the police at Cannon Street police station.
While on remand, Davies went on hunger strike. He was visited regularly by Giovanni Scrano, one of the hostages from the siege, who had built up a relationship with Davies during the incident; the relationship was later identified as an example of Stockholm syndrome.
The trial opened on 8 June 1976. In addition to Davies, Dick and Munroe, three accomplices were also present, charged with different offences, including assisting the robbery (the getaway driver), supplying firearms, and conspiracy charges. Davies, Dick and Munroe refused to accept the legitimacy of the court. When asked how they pled to the charges, Davies shouted "We've stopped pleading—we've been pleading for 500 years. This isn't a trial—it's a lynching party." The three men turned their backs on the court and talked between themselves. The judge, Mervyn Griffith-Jones, ordered that the three men be taken back to their cells and that a plea of not guilty be entered on their behalf. One of the accomplices, Lillo Termaine, pleaded guilty to the charges of conspiracy to rob the restaurant. Police said that he had been the one behind the robbery, and had planned it in order to pay off gambling debts.
The trial ended on 30 June. Davies, Dick and Munroe were sentenced to 22, 18 and 17 years in prison respectively, Termaine was given six years. One of the accomplices was acquitted and the final one was sent for re-trial as the jury could not reach a verdict.
In 1976 Horace Ové, a Trinidadian-born writer and filmmaker, wrote the play A Hole in Babylon, which was later broadcast on the BBC's Play for Today series. A fictionalised account, The Siege of Babylon, was written by Farrukh Dhondy in 1978. In 1982 Spaghetti House, an Italian comedy film, was produced which was loosely based on the events of the siege.
Notes and references
- The Fasimba was a youth organisation involved in the black liberation movement. It was merged into the BLF in 1972.
- Sources differ as to the amount of money involved. The biography of Sir Robert Mark—the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police at the time of the siege—and a history of the Black Museum put the figure at £13,000; a report in The Observer states that it was £11,000; a news report covering the trial reports that it was £12,284.
- Two days later he stated that he was a major.
- Knewstub, Mchardy & Pallister 1975, p. 1.
- Mark 1978, pp. 187–188.
- Bourne 2011, pp. 1–2.
- Kelley & Tuck 2016, p. 29.
- Bourne 2011, p. 3.
- Mark 1978, p. 188.
- Moss & Skinner 2015, 3081.
- "Siege-Trial Jury Told of 'Death Lottery'". The Times.
- Gould & Waldren 1986, pp. 157–158.
- "Siege Man Loses". The Guardian.
- Real-Life Crimes 1993, p. 663.
- Horsnell 1975a, p. 1.
- Gould & Waldren 1986, p. 158.
- McHardy 1975, p. 11.
- Horsnell 1975b, p. 1.
- Horsnell 1975b, p. 2.
- Bourne 2011, p. 2.
- Borrell 1975, p. 1.
- Manwaring-White 1983, p. 184.
- Walker 1976b, p. 15.
- Jordan 1975, p. 20.
- Manwaring-White 1983, pp. 98–99.
- Keily & Hoffbrand 2015, p. 133.
- Niesewand & Pallister 1975, p. 1.
- Gould & Waldren 1986, p. 160.
- "Siege Man's Farewell Notes". The Guardian, p. 6.
- Niesewand & Pallister 1975, p. 20.
- "Spaghetti Man Fasts in Prison". The Observer, p. 3.
- Ochberg 1982, p. 101.
- Walker 1976a, p. 15.
- Borrell 1976, p. 3.
- Walker 1976c, p. 6.
- Sands-O'Connor 2017, p. 84.
- "Spaghetti House (1982)". British Film Institute.
- Real-Life Crimes 1993, p. 667.
- Gerrard 2015.
Books, journals and websites
- Bourne, Jenny (2011). "Spaghetti House Siege: Making the Rhetoric Real". Race & Class. 53 (2): 1–13. doi:10.1177/0306396811414319.
- Gerrard, Neil (12 January 2015). "Spaghetti House to Close Knightsbridge Site After 46 Years". The Caterer. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Gould, Robert; Waldren, Michael (1986). London's Armed Police. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 978-0-85368-880-8.
- Keily, Jackie; Hoffbrand, Julia (2015). The Crime Museum Uncovered. London: IB Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78130-041-1.
- Kelley, Robin; Tuck, Stephen (2016). The Other Special Relationship: Race, Rights, and Riots in Britain and the United States. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-39270-1.
- Mark, Robert (1978). In the Office of Constable. London: Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-216032-2.
- Manwaring-White, Sarah (1983). Policing Revolution: Police Technology and Liberty in Britain. Brighton: Harvester Press. ISBN 978-0710806154.
- Moss, Alan; Skinner, Keith (2015). Scotland Yard's History of Crime in 100 Objects (Kindle ed.). Stroud, Glos: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7509-6655-9.
- Ochberg, Frank M. (1982). "The Victims of Terrorism: The Moluccan Train Incident". In Cowley, R. Adams. Mass Casualties, a Lessons Learned Approach: Accidents, Civil Disorders, Natural Disasters, Terrorism. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. OCLC 173447703.
- Sands-O'Connor, Karen (2017). Children's Publishing and Black Britain, 1965-2015. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-57904-1.
- "Spaghetti House (1982)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- Borrell, Clive (4 October 1975). "Hostages released Unharmed After Five Days". The Times. p. 1.
- Borrell, Clive (9 June 1976). "Accused Halt Spaghetti House Siege Trial". The Times. p. 3.
- Horsnell, Michael (29 September 1975a). "London Gunmen Take Hostages After Robbery That 'Went Wrong'". The Times. p. 1.
- Horsnell, Michael (30 September 1975b). "Restaurant Gunmen Free Hostage". The Times. pp. 1–2.
- Jordan, Philip (4 October 1975). "Softly, Softly Tactics Win at Knightsbridge". The Guardian. p. 16.
- Knewstub, Nikki; Mchardy, Anne; Pallister, David (29 September 1975). "Siege Police Search for Freed West Indians". The Guardian. p. 1.
- McHardy, Anne (2 October 1975). "Black Voices". The Guardian. p. 11.
- Niesewand, Peter; Pallister, David (4 October 1975). "Radio Brought Down Spaghetti Gunmen". The Guardian. pp. 1 and 20.
- "Siege Man Loses". The Guardian. 12 November 1976. p. 3.
- "Siege Man's Farewell Notes". The Guardian. 16 June 1976. p. 6.
- "Siege-Trial Jury Told of 'Death Lottery'". The Times. 10 June 1976. p. 3.
- "Spaghetti House Siege". Real-Life Crimes. 2 (30): 662–667. 1993.
- "Spaghetti Man Fasts in Prison". The Observer. 7 March 1976. p. 3.
- Walker, Martin (9 June 1976a). "Spaghetti House Siege Trio Ordered Back to Cells". The Guardian. p. 1.
- Walker, Martin (1 July 1976b). "Psychology of the Stake Out". The Guardian. p. 16.
- Walker, Martin (1 July 1976c). "Four in Spaghetti Siege Trial Get 62 Years in Prison". The Guardian. p. 6.
- BBC On this day London's Spaghetti House siege ends