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Spaghetti Junction" is a nickname sometimes given to a complicated or massively intertwined road traffic interchange that resembles a plate of spaghetti. The term was originally used to refer to the Gravelly Hill Interchange on the M6 motorway in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In an article published in the  on 1 June 1965 the journalist Roy Smith described plans for the junction as "like a cross between a plate of spaghetti and an unsuccessful attempt at a Birmingham Evening Mail Staffordshire knot", with the headline above the article on the newspaper's front page, written by sub-editor Alan Eaglesfield, reading "Spaghetti Junction".   Since then many complex interchanges around the world have acquired the nickname. 
By country [ edit ]
Australia [ edit ]
The interchange of
Queen Elizabeth Way, Gardiner Expressway, Highway 427, and Brown's Line. The interchange of
Highway 401, Highway 427, Eglinton Avenue, Highway 27, and several terminal roads such as Renforth Drive, Carlingview Drive, and The East Mall in Toronto, Ontario near its boundary with Mississauga; it is also a mega-interchange.  The road network at
Toronto Pearson International Airport, the interchange of Highway 409 and Highway 427; the airport portion of the 409, Airport Road, and the terminal access roads. The interchange of
Highway 401, Highway 404, and the Don Valley Parkway in Toronto, Ontario. The interchange of
Highway 401, Allen Road, Yorkdale Road, and Yorkdale Shopping Centre in Toronto, Ontario. The interchange between
Bloor Street, Dundas Street, and Kipling Avenue in Toronto's west end, officially known as the Six Points Interchange, but often referred to as "Spaghetti Junction" by local residents.   The
Montréal interchange between Autoroute 20, 15, and 720, commonly known as Turcot Interchange, a few kilometers west of the Champlain Bridge approach. The east and west lanes of A-20 reverse from right-hand running to left-hand running a few kilometers to the west, and then flip back while passing through the interchange. 300,000 vehicles use the interchange daily. The
Québec City interchange between Autoroute 440 (Autoroute Charest) and Quebec Autoroute 740 (Autoroute Robert-Bourassa formerly known as Autoroute Du Vallon).
Germany [ edit ]
Ireland [ edit ]
Red Cow interchange is a major road junction in west Dublin, Ireland on the M50, meeting the N7 Naas Road (to Cork and Limerick) at a free-flow grade separated junction which incorporates a light railway line. The junction was approved and built between 1972 and 1973 to help accommodate the increased flow of traffic coming into Dublin from commuter areas to the west of the city.
Japan, somewhat colloquially, has adopted the term "Tentacle Junction" in lieu of the Western phrase.
New Zealand [ edit ]
South Africa [ edit ]
United Arab Emirates [ edit ]
The interchange between
E 11 (Sheikh Zayed Road) And D 71 (Al Safa Street) in Dubai.
United Kingdom [ edit ]
Gravelly Hill Interchange, the intersection of the M6 motorway (Junction 6), A38(M) motorway, A38 road and A5127 road above two railway lines, three canals and two rivers in Birmingham, England. 
Worsley Braided Interchange, between the M60 (formerly M62), M61, A580 and A666(M), between Manchester and Bolton, which opened in December 1970, 17 months before Gravelly Hill.  
United States [ edit ]
Alabama [ edit ]
Arizona [ edit ]
Arkansas [ edit ]
California [ edit ]
Inland Southern California [ edit ]
Los Angeles County [ edit ]
I-5 (Santa Ana Freeway), I-605 (San Gabriel River Freeway), and Florence Avenue in Downey and Santa Fe Springs.
I-10 (San Bernardino Freeway), I-710 (Long Beach Freeway), and local streets in East Los Angeles.
I-5 (Golden State Freeway), CA 134 (Ventura Freeway), San Fernando Road, and Zoo Drive in Glendale and Los Angeles.
CA 2 (Glendale Freeway), CA 134, Colorado Boulevard, and Harvey Drive in Glendale and Eagle Rock.
I-405 (San Diego Freeway), I-710, Pacific Place, and Wardlow Road in Long Beach.
I-5, I-10, US 101, and CA 60 (Pomona Freeway) at the East Los Angeles Interchange in Los Angeles.
I-10 (Santa Monica Freeway), I-110 (Harbor Freeway), and local streets in Downtown Los Angeles.
I-5, CA 2, Newell Street, and Riverside Drive in Los Angeles. The
Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange with I-105, I-110, Broadway, Grand Avenue, and Vermont Avenue in Los Angeles.
I-110, US 101 (Hollywood Freeway), Grand Avenue, and Temple Street in Los Angeles.
I-5, CA 118 (Ronald Reagan Freeway), Laurel Canyon Boulevard, and Paxton Street in Los Angeles.
I-405 (San Diego Freeway), CA 118, and Sepulveda Boulevard in Los Angeles. A mammoth interchange with
I-105, I-405, Imperial Highway, Century Boulevard, El Segundo Boulevard, and La Cienega Boulevard just east of Los Angeles International Airport.
CA 1 ( Sepulveda Boulevard), Sky Way, and World Way at Los Angeles International Airport.
I-210 (Foothill Freeway), CA 134, Fair Oaks Avenue, and Orange Grove Boulevard in Pasadena.
I-10, CA 57, CA 71 (Chino Valley Freeway), and Campus Drive in Pomona and San Dimas.
I-5, CA 14 (Antelope Valley Freeway), and local roads in Los Angeles and Santa Clarita.
Northern California [ edit ]
Sierra Freeway (
CA 168), Sequoia-Kings Canyon Freeway ( CA 180), Cedar Avenue, and Chestnut Avenue in Fresno.
I-880, CA 237 (Southbay Freeway), and McCarthy Boulevard in Milpitas.
US 101, CA 37, and Novato Boulevard in Novato.
MacArthur Maze, where I-80, I-580, and I-880 intersect at the east end of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in Oakland.
US 101, Embarcadero Road, and Oregon Expressway in Palo Alto.
I-5, I-80 Business/ US 50, Broadway, W Street, and X Street in Sacramento.
I-80, I-80 Business, CA 244, and Watt Avenue just NE of Sacramento.
I-280 (Junipero Serra Freeway), I=380, San Bruno Avenue, and Sneath Lane in San Bruno.
US 101 (Bayshore Freeway), I-280 (John Foran Freeway), Alemany Boulevard/Industrial Street, and Bayshore Boulevard in San Francisco (Alemany Maze). A pair of interchanges on
US 101 at the west edge of San Francisco International Airport. One is with I-380, San Bruno Avenue, and North Access Road and the other is with the passenger access roads of the airport.
I-280 (Sinclair Freeway), I-880 (Nimitz Freeway), and Stevens Creek Boulevard in San Jose.
I-280, CA 87 (Guadalupe Parkway), Almaden Boulevard/Vine Street, and Bird Avenue in San Jose.
I-280 (Junipero Serra Freeway), I-680 and the US 101 (Bayshore Freeway), in San Jose, otherwise known as the Joe Colla Interchange after the San Jose City Councilman was photographed in 1976 on top of the long incomplete interchange.
CA 1 (Cabrillo Highway), CA 17 (Santa Cruz Highway), and Ocean Street in Santa Cruz.
Orange County [ edit ]
I-5, CA 91, and Magnolia Avenue in Anaheim, Fullerton, and Buena Park.
I-5, I-405, Bake Parkway, and Irvine Center Drive in Irvine ( El Toro Y).
Orange Crush interchange, with I-5 (Santa Ana Freeway), CA 22 (Garden Grove Freeway), and CA 57 (Orange Freeway), and Bristol Street/La Veta Avenue in Garden Grove and Orange.
I-405, I-605, and CA 22 in Rossmoor and Seal Beach.
San Diego County [ edit ]
I-5, CA 94, CA 163 (Cabrillo Freeway), and local roads in Downtown San Diego.
I-5, I-8, Camino Del Rio, and Morena Boulevard in northern San Diego.
I-8 (Mission Valley Freeway), CA 163, and Mission Center Road in northern San Diego.
I-8, I-805 (Jacob Dekema Freeway), and Qualcomm Way in northern San Diego.
I-8, I-15, Camino Del Rio, and Fairmount Avenue/Mission Gorge Road in northern San Diego.
I-15, CA 52 (San Clemente Canyon Freeway), CA 163, and Kearney Villa Road in northern San Diego.
Ventura County [ edit ]
Colorado [ edit ]
Connecticut [ edit ]
I-84/ US 6, US 44, CT-2, Governor Street, Pitkin Street, and the Founders Bridge in East Hartford.
I-84, I-691, and CT-322 in Milldale (Southington). The
I-95, I-91, and CT-34 interchange in New Haven. The interchange is being rebuilt to increase roadway capacity and remove left-hand exits from the I-95 mainline.
Merritt Parkway ( CT-15), Henry Mucci Highway ( CT-25), and Church Hill Road ( CT-127) in Trumbull.
Merritt Parkway (CT-15), CT-8, and CT-108 in Trumbull.
I-84 and CT-8 interchange in Waterbury, locally known as the "Mixmaster Interchange". The two highways intersect one another on double-decked viaducts. A multitude of ramps at several different levels connect the two highways and provide access to and from local streets.
I-84, US-6, and CT-9 interchange, locally known as "The Stack", in Farmington
Delaware [ edit ]
District of Columbia [ edit ]
I-66, Constitution Avenue ( US 50), E Street, and Ohio Drive.
I-395, 7th Street, 9th Street Expressway, 12th Street Expressway, and Maine Avenue.
I-395, I-695, South Capitol Street, C Street, D Street, and Washington Avenue.
Florida [ edit ]
I-595, USe 441, SR 84, and Florida's Turnpike just SW of Fort Lauderdale.
I-10, I-95, Forest Street, and Stockton Street in Jacksonville.
Golden Glades Interchange, the intersection of I-95 with Florida's Turnpike, US 441, SR 9 and the Palmetto Expressway in Miami Gardens, is also sometimes called the "Spaghetti Bowl".
Florida's Turnpike, SR 528 (Beachline Expressway), and Orange Blossom Trail (U.S. Routes 17/ 92/ 441) just south of Orlando.
I-275, US 19, and 54th Avenue South in St. Petersburg.
I-4 and I-275 in Tampa, known as "Malfunction Junction".
SR 60, SR 589, Bessie Coleman Boulevard, and Spruce Street in Tampa.
Georgia [ edit ]
A massive interchange in
Halawa of I-H-1, I-H-3, I-H-201, Kahuapani Street, Kamehameha Highway ( HI 99), and Ulune Street.
I-H-1, Kamehameha Highway, and Nimitz Highway ( HI 92) at two different interchanges in Honolulu.
Interstate H-1, Interstate H-2, Farrington Highway, Kamehameha Highway, and Waipahu Street in Pearl City and Waipahu.
Illinois [ edit ]
Aerial photo of the Circle Interchange, looking southwest,
Jane Byrne Interchange, the intersection of the Kennedy Expressway, the Dan Ryan Expressway, the Eisenhower Expressway, and Congress Parkway just west of Downtown Chicago. Interstates
55/ 64, Mississippi Avenue ( IL 3), IL 15, Piggott Avenue, and Tudor Avenue in East St. Louis.
I-70, I-55, I-64, S 40, and St. Clair Avenue ( IL 3) in East St. Louis.
I-90, I-190, I-294, and River Road in Rosemont, outside of O'Hare International Airport.
Indiana [ edit ]
I-70, Fairfax Trafficway, Minnesota Avenue, and Washington Boulevard in Kansas City.
I-235, KS 96, and Meridian Avenue/Womer Street in Sherwood Glen, Wichita.
I-435 and US 69 in Overland Park.
I-35, I-435, and KS 10 in Lenexa.
I-435, I-70, and State Avenue in Kansas City.
Kentucky [ edit ]
Louisiana [ edit ]
I-110, Airline Highway (U.S. Routes 61/ 190), and Harding Boulevard ( LA 408) in Baton Rouge.
Interstate 10, US 90, Ponchartrain Expressway ( US 90 Business), Poydras Street, and Stadium Drive in New Orleans.
I-20, I-49, Lakeshore Drive, Linwood Avenue/Pierre Avenue, and Murphy Street in Shreveport.
Maryland [ edit ]
I-95/ I-495, US 50, Corporate Drive, and Garden City Drive ( MD 950) in Ardmore.
I- 95, MD 295/Russell Street, I-395, and Monroe Street in Baltimore.
I-395/Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, Russell Street, and Lee Street in Baltimore.
Interstate 70, Interstate 270, US 15, MD 180, and Ballenger Creek Pike in Frederick.
I-95/ I-495, Interstate 295, National Harbor Boulevard, MD 210 (Indian Head Highway), and MD 414 (St. Barnabas Road) in Oxon Hill.
I-95/ I-495, Branch Avenue ( Maryland Route 5), and Auth Road just west of Temple Hills.
I-695, I-70, and MD 122/Security Boulevard in Woodlawn, west of Baltimore.
Massachusetts [ edit ]
I-90 ( Massachusetts Turnpike), I-290, I-395, US 20, and MA 12 in Auburn. The
South Bay Interchange between I-90 ( Massachusetts Turnpike) and I-93/ US 1/ MA 3 in Boston.
I-90, MA 1A (William McClellan Highway), and airport access roads at the western edge of Logan International Airport in Boston.
I-90, I-95/ MA 128 ( Yankee Division Highway), Commonwealth Avenue ( MA 30), Grove Street, and Park Road in Newton.
I-95, MA 128, US 1, and MA 129 in Peabody.
I-91, I-291, US 20, Chestnut Street, and Dwight Street in Springfield.
I-190, I-290, and Burncoat Street in Worcester.
Michigan [ edit ]
Minnesota [ edit ]
Mississippi [ edit ]
Missouri [ edit ]
I-270, I-255, I-55, and Lindbergh Boulevard in Mehlville.
I-70, I-270, and St. Charles Rock Road ( MO 180) in Bridgeton.
I-70 and I-170 in Berkeley.
I-64 and I-270 in Town and Country.
I-44, I-270, U.S. Route 50, and Missouri Route 366 in Sunset Hills.
I-270, MO 370, and Missouri Bottom Road in Bridgeton.
I-29, I-35, I-70, Independence Avenue ( US 24), and Admiral Boulevard in Kansas City.
I-35, I-670, and Broadway Boulevard in Kansas City.
Interstate 70, I-670, US 71, and local roads in Kansas City.
I-44, I-55, Gravois Avenue ( MO 30), Lafayette Avenue, Truman Parkway, and Tucker Boulevard in St. Louis.
Grandview Triangle in south Kansas City ( I-49, I-470, I-470, US 50, US 71).
I-35, I-435, US 69 in Claycomo.
Nebraska [ edit ]
New Hampshire [ edit ]
New Jersey [ edit ]
Route 3, Route 21, and River Road in Clifton.
I-95 (the New Jersey Turnpike at exit 10), I-287, NJ 440, and Woodbridge Avenue in Edison.
Interstate 95 (the New Jersey Turnpike at exit 13), I-278, NJ 439 (Bayway), Brunswick Avenue, and Cole Place in Elizabeth.
I-95, U.S. Routes 1/ 9/ 46, New Jersey Route 4, and Fletcher Avenue ( U.S. Route 9W) in Fort Lee.
I-76, I-676, Collings Road, and an access highway to US 130 and US 168 in Gloucester City.
Newark Airport Interchange, a massive interchange of I-78, US 1/9, US 22, Route 21, and I-95 (the New Jersey Turnpike) at the northern edge of Newark Airport in Newark, just outside New York City.
I-80, US 202, and Cherry Hill Road in Parsippany.
I-80, I-280, and US 46 in Parsippany.
I-80, I-287, and (signed for US 46) Littleton Road and Smith Road in Parsippany.
I-80, Route 20, Lakeview Avenue, and Market Street in Paterson.
US 130, Route 90, and Union Avenue in Pennsauken.
Route 3, Route 17, and Edwin Ward Memorial Parkway in Rutherford.
New Jersey Turnpike Eastern Spur exit 17 with Route 3 and Route 495 in Secaucus. Spaghetti Bowl, the intersection of
I-80 with Route 23 and US 46 in Wayne.
Garden State Parkway, US 9, Route 440, New Brunswick Avenue, Riverside Drive, and Smith Street in Woodbridge.
New Mexico [ edit ]
New York [ edit ]
Bruckner Interchange, a complex interchange at the intersection of the Bruckner Expressway, Cross Bronx Expressway, Whitestone Expressway, and Hutchinson River Parkway in the New York City borough of The Bronx.
Kew Gardens Interchange, an intersection of Grand Central Parkway, Van Wyck Expressway ( I-678), Jackie Robinson Parkway, Queens Boulevard ( NY-25), and Union Turnpike, in Kew Gardens, in the center of the New York City borough of Queens.
Belt Parkway ( NY-27), Interstate 678, Nassau Expressway ( NY-878), and JFK Expressway at the edge of John F. Kennedy International Airport, Queens.
Long Island Expressway ( I-495), I-678 (Van Wyck Expressway), Grand Central Parkway, and collector-distributor roads in Flushing Meadows Park, Queens.
Interstate 787, South Mall Arterial ( U.S. Route 20), U.S. Route 9, Madison Avenue, and Pearl Street ( NY-32) in center city Albany.
Interstate 287, Saw Mill River Parkway, and NY-119 in Elmsford.
I-690, NY-695, and State Fair Boulevard in Lakeland.
Can of Worms (interchange), the name given to the complex interchange connecting I-490, I-590, NY-590, and NY-96 in Rochester.
Interstate 490, Inner Loop, Clinton Avenue ( NY-15), and South Avenue in Rochester.
Interstate 81, I-690, and local roads in Syracuse.
North Carolina [ edit ]
I-71, I-75, US 42, US 50, 6th Street, and 9th Street in Cincinnati.
I-71, I-471, US 50, and Columbia Parkway in Cincinnati.
I-71, I-670, US 23 (3rd/4th Street), Broad Street ( US 40/ US 62), OH 3 (Cleveland Avenue), 5th Avenue, and Long Street in Columbus. The former configuration of
I-75, OH 4, OH 48 (Main Street), Keowee Street, and Webster Street in Dayton, known locally as Malfunction Junction. 
Oklahoma [ edit ]
I-244, I-444, US 75, US 412, 1st Street, and 2nd Street in Tulsa. Interstate 444,
U.S. Route 64, US 75, and OK 51 in Tulsa.
I-35, I-44, and Sooner Road in Oklahoma City.
I-44, Cache Road, and 2nd Street in Lawton
I-240, I-44, and Southwest 59th Street in Oklahoma City.
I-235, I-44, I-35, I-40, US 270, and the Crosstown Boulevard in downtown Oklahoma City.
Pennsylvania [ edit ]
I-76 ( Pennsylvania Turnpike), Interstate 79, and US 19 in Cranberry Township, Butler County. Pennsylvania Turnpike Exit 30, Cranberry Interchange. The
Dwight D. Eisenhower Interchange, the interchange of I-83, I-283, and US 322 just east of Harrisburg. US US 322 (Eisenhower Boulevard) interchanges with Derry Street and Paxton Street.
I-376, PA-576 (Southern Beltway) and Airport Boulevard in Findlay Township just SW of Pittsburgh International Airport.
U.S. Route 30, US 202, and Lincoln Highway ( US 30 Business) in Glenloch. The
I-279 Interchange, the interchange of I-279, US 19 Truck, I-579, and PA-28 near the North Shore of Pittsburgh. The
King of Prussia Interchange, the interchange of I-76, US 202, and US 422 in King of Prussia.
US 22, US 322, USe 522, and Ort Valley Road just north of Lewistown.
I-76 ( Pennsylvania Turnpike), I-376, US 22, William Penn Highway ( Business US 22), and PA-48 (Mosside Boulevard) in Monroeville. Pennsylvania Turnpike Exit 57, Pittsburgh Interchange.
I-76 ( Schuylkill Expressway), US 1, Lincoln Drive, Ridge Avenue, and Kelly Drive in NW Philadelphia and Bala Cynwyd.
I-95, I-676/ US 30, and local roads in Penn's Landing, Philadelphia.
I-95, the Betsy Ross Bridge Expressway, and Aramingo Avenue in NE Philadelphia.
I-95, Bartram Avenue ( PA-291), and airport access roads at Philadelphia International Airport.
I-95, I-476, and MacDade Boulevard in Ridley Township.
I-376, Braddock Avenue, Greendale Avenue, Monongahela Avenue, and Swissvale Avenue in Swissvale. The
Throop-Dunmore Interchange, the interchange of I-81, I-84/ I-380, and US 6 in Dunmore.
I-76, I-476, and Matsonford Road (signed for PA-23) in West Conshohocken.
I-476, I-276 ( Pennsylvania Turnpike), and Germantown Pike in Plymouth Meeting.
Rhode Island [ edit ]
South Carolina [ edit ]
Tennessee [ edit ]
US 183, TX 111, 7th Street, César Chávez Street, and Montopolis Drive in Austin.
US 290, TX Loop 1 (Mo-Pac Expressway), Southwest Boulevard, and collector-distributor roads in Austin.
I-30, I-45, and César Chávez Boulevard in Dallas.
I-35E, Interstate 30, and local streets in Dallas, known locally as the "Mixmaster".
I-635, TX 114, TX 121, and International Parkway at the northern edge of DFW Airport. Known locally as the "DFW Connector" or the "Grapevine Funnel", this interchange connects seven area highways and is up to 23 lanes wide.  The three level interchange between
I-10, USU.S. Route 54, and I-110 in East Central El Paso.
I-20, I-35W, and collector-distributor roads in Fort Worth.
I-30, I-35W, US 287, TX 180, and TX 280 in Fort Worth.
Interstate 10/ U.S. Route 90, US 59, and Navigation Boulevard in Center City Houston.
I-45, Allen Parkway, and Houston Avenue in Center City Houston.
US 59, TX 288, Chenevert Street, and Elgin Drive in Houston.
US 290, I-10, I-610, and Old Katy Road in Houston.
Virginia [ edit ]
I-66, US 50, VA 110, and George Washington Memorial Parkway in Arlington.
I-64, I-664, US 13, US 58, and US 460 in Chesapeake.
I-495, VA 267 (Dulles Toll Road), and Jones Branch Drive in McLean and Tysons Corner.
I-664, 25th and 26th Streets ( US 60), 27th Street, and 28th Street in Newport News.
Interstate 85, I-95, US 460, and VA 36 in Petersburg.
I-64, I-95, and I-195 in Richmond.
I-95, I-395, and I-495 interchange in Springfield. This is locally known as the  Springfield Interchange and the "Mixing Bowl".
I-95 and SR 644 just south of the Mixing Bowl in Springfield.
I-664, US 17, and Western Freeway ( Virginia Route 164) in Suffolk.
VA 28, VA 267, Dulles Access Road, Innovation Avenue, and Rudder Road at the eastern edge of Dulles Airport.
Washington [ edit ]
I-90, I-405, and Bellevue Way in Bellevue.
I-5, I-90, Airport Way, Dearborn Street, and WA 519 in Seattle.
I-90, WA 290, and Business Interstate 90 (Sprague Avenue) in Spokane.
I-5, I-705, WA 16, and 38th Street in Tacoma.
Wisconsin [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b "Spaghetti junction". English Collins Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers LLC . Retrieved . 13 May 2013
^ Addison, Paul (2010). . No Turning Back Oxford: OUP Oxford. p. 139. ISBN 0192192671 . Retrieved . 31 July 2014
^ "Spaghetti Junction myth is untangled". Birmingham Mail . Retrieved . 31 July 2014
^ Moran, Joe (2010). . On Roads London: Profile Books. p. 45. ISBN 1846680603 . Retrieved . 23 June 2012
^ (Map). Interchange of Hwys 401, 427 and 27, Ontario Google . Retrieved . 13 May 2013
^ (Map). Six Points Interchange, Etobicoke, Ontario Google . Retrieved . 13 May 2013
^ Byers, Jim (7 January 2008). "Untangling Etobicoke's messy Six Points interchange If the late Jane Jacobs had nightmares, they looked like this". . Toronto Star Star Media Group . Retrieved . 13 May 2013
^ (Map). Map of interchange on Google Maps Google . Retrieved . 13 May 2013
^ Chartres, John (18 December 1970). ". 'Spaghetti Junction' opens, without warning signs" . The Times London: News Corporation . Retrieved . 21 June 2012 (subscription required)
^ J Johnson, W.M. "A627(M) Rochdale–Oldham Motorway". Lancashire County Council . Retrieved . 28 June 2011
^ Larsen, Dave (September 6, 2012). "Malfunction Junction crashes down 90%". Dayton Daily News . Retrieved . April 21, 2014
^ Cassie Cope. "Malfunction Junction a ‘Poster Child’ for Road Needs". The State. 31 October 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
^ , End of the road in sight for $1 billion Grapevine project Fort Worth Star-Telegram , retrieved 21 Jan 2014
^ (Map). I-95?395/495 Interchage Google . Retrieved . 13 May 2013