Spaghetti code is a pejorative phrase for unstructured and difficult-to-maintain source code. Spaghetti code can be caused by several factors, such as volatile project requirements, lack of programming style rules, and insufficient ability or experience.
Code that overuses GOTO statements rather than structured programming constructs, resulting in convoluted and unmaintainable programs, is often called spaghetti code. Such code has a complex and tangled control structure, resulting in a program flow that is conceptually like a bowl of spaghetti, twisted and tangled. In a 1980 publication by the United States National Bureau of Standards, the phrase spaghetti program was used to describe older programs having "fragmented and scattered files". Spaghetti code can also describe an anti-pattern in which object-oriented code is written in a procedural style, such as by creating classes whose methods are overly long and messy, or forsaking object oriented concepts like polymorphism. The presence of this form of spaghetti code can significantly reduce the comprehensibility of a system.
It is not clear when the phrase spaghetti code came into common usage; however, several references appeared in 1977 including Macaroni is Better Than Spaghetti by Steele published in Proceedings of the 1977 symposium on artificial intelligence and programming languages. In the 1978 book A primer on disciplined programming using PL/I, PL/CS, and PL/CT, Richard Conway used the term to describe types of programs that "have the same clean logical structure as a plate of spaghetti", a phrase repeated in the 1979 book An Introduction to Programming he co-authored with David Gries. In the 1988 paper A spiral model of software development and enhancement, the term is used to describe the older practice of the code and fix model, which lacked planning and eventually led to the development of the waterfall model. In the 1979 book Structured programming for the COBOL programmer, author Paul Noll uses the phrases spaghetti code and rat's nest as synonyms to describe poorly structured source code.
In a 1981 computer languages spoof in The Michigan Technic titled "BASICally speaking...FORTRAN bytes!!", the author described FORTRAN as "proof positive that the cofounders of IBM were Italian, for it consists entirely of spaghetti code".
Ravioli code is a term specific to object-oriented programming. It describes code that comprises well-structured classes that are easy to understand in isolation, but difficult to understand as a whole.
Pizza code refers to code which has very flat architecture.
Here follows what would be considered a trivial example of spaghetti code in BASIC. The program prints each of the numbers 1 to 100 to the screen along with its square. Indentation is not used to differentiate the various actions performed by the code, and that the program's
GOTO statements create a reliance on line numbers. The flow of execution from one area to another is harder to predict. Real-world occurrences of spaghetti code are more complex and can add greatly to a program's maintenance costs.
1 i=0 2 i=i+1 3 PRINT i; "squared=";i*i 4 IF i>=100 THEN GOTO 6 5 GOTO 2 6 PRINT "Program Completed." 7 END
Here is the same code written in a structured programming style:
1 FOR i=1 TO 100 2 PRINT i;"squared=";i*i 3 NEXT i 4 PRINT "Program Completed." 5 END
The program jumps from one area to another, but this jumping is formal and more easily predictable, because for loops and functions provide flow control whereas the goto statement encourages arbitrary flow control. Though this example is small, real world programs are composed of many lines of code and are difficult to maintain when written in a spaghetti code fashion.
Here is another example of Spaghetti code with embedded GOTO statements.
SCREEN 0 INPUT "How many numbers to sort? "; T DIM n(T) FOR i = 1 TO T PRINT "NUMBER:"; i INPUT n(i) NEXT i 'Calculations: C = T E180: C = INT(C / 2) IF C = 0 THEN GOTO C330 D = T - C E = 1 I220: f = E F230: g = f + C SWAP n(f), n(g) f = f - C IF f > 0 THEN GOTO F230 E = E + 1 IF E > D THEN GOTO E180 GOTO I220 C330: PRINT "The sorted list is" FOR i = 1 TO T PRINT n(i) NEXT i
- Big ball of mud, a piece of software with no perceivable architecture
- International Obfuscated C Code Contest, a competition to produce pleasingly obscure C code
- Write-only language, a language with such bizarre syntax that resulting code is incomprehensible
- Technical debt
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- United States National Bureau of Standards (1980). ASTM special technical publication. United States Government Printing Office.
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- Conway, Richard (1978). A primer on disciplined programming using PL/I, PL/CS, and PL/CT. Winthrop Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87626-712-7.
- Conway, Richard; Gries, David (1979). An Introduction to Programming (3rd ed.). Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-15414-7.
- Boehm, Barry W. (May 1988). "A spiral model of software development and enhancement". IEEE Computer. 21 (2): 61–72. doi:10.1109/2.59.
- Noll, Paul (1977). Structured programming for the COBOL programmer: design, documentation, coding, testing. M. Murach & Associates.
- Schwille, Jürgen (1993). "Use and abuse of exceptions — 12 guidelines for proper exception handling". Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Ada – Europe '93 (Proceedings). 688. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 142–152. doi:10.1007/3-540-56802-6_12.
- MTSBS[clarification needed] (March–April 1981). "BASICally speaking...FORTRAN bytes!!". The Michigan Technic. 99 (4).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
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- This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later.
- Go To Statement Considered Harmful. The classic repudiation of spaghetti code by Edsger Dijkstra
- We don't know where to GOTO if we don't know where we've COME FROM by R. Lawrence Clark from DATAMATION, December, 1973
- Refactoring Java spaghetti code into Java bento code separating out a bowl full of code from one class into seven classes
- Objects and Frameworks – Taking a Step Back by Brian Rinaldi
- Programming Pasta - Spaghetti, Lasagna, Ravioli and Macaroni Code
- Pasta Theory of Programming
- Spaghetti Code: Detangling Life and Work with Programmer Wisdom (English Edition)