International aid to combatants in the Iran–Iraq War
Iran was backed by the Kurdish militias of KDP and PUK in North Iraq, both organizations in fact rebelling against Iraqi Ba'athist government with Iranian support.
Iran's foreign supporters gradually came to include Syria and Libya, through which it obtained Scud missiles. It purchased weaponry from North Korea and the People's Republic of China, notably the Silkworm anti-ship missile. It also acquired arms from Portugal, notably after 1984. It also acquired propellants and other weapons related components from Spain and Portugal. The United States also provided covert support for Iran through Israel, although it is debated as to whether U.S. President Ronald Reagan actually ordered the sale of weapons to Iran. Most of this support included TOW missiles.
Iraq was supported by an Iranian outcast-armed party of Mujaheedin-e-khalgh, mainly engaging the pro-Iranian Kurdish forces in the North of Iraq, close to Iranian borders.
Iraq's army was primarily equipped with weaponry it had previously purchased from the Soviet Union and its satellites in the preceding decade. During the war, it also purchased billions of dollars' worth of advanced equipment from France, the People's Republic of China, Egypt, Germany and other sources.[better source needed] Iraq's three main suppliers of weaponry during the war were the Soviet Union followed by China and then France.[dead link] It also acquired substantial arms from Portugal.
The United States sold Iraq over $200 million in helicopters, which were used by the Iraqi military in the war. These were the only direct U.S.-Iraqi military sales. At the same time, the U.S. provided substantial covert support for Saddam Hussien. The CIA directed non-U.S. origin hardware to Saddam Hussein's armed forces, "to ensure that Iraq had sufficient military weapons, ammunition and vehicles to avoid losing the Iran-Iraq war." And "dual use" technology was transferred from the U.S. to Iraq.
Germany and United Kingdom also provided dual use technology that allowed Iraq to expand its missile program and radar defenses.
According to an uncensored copy of Iraq's 11,000-page declaration to the U.N., leaked to Die Tageszeitung and reported by The Independent, the know-how and material for developing unconventional weapons were obtained from 150 foreign companies, from countries such as West Germany, the U.S., France, UK, and the People's Republic of China.
The Iraqgate scandal revealed that an Atlanta branch of Italy's largest bank, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, relying largely on U.S. taxpayer-guaranteed loans, funneled $5 billion to Iraq from 1985 to 1989.
Countries which supported either combatant
|Country||Support to Iraq||Support to Iran|
|Argentina||Sales of uranium and arms|
|Austria||Sales of self-propelled artillery pieces|
|Brazil||Sale of ammunition, armoured cars, and tactical multiple rocket launcher||Major supplier:9|
|Canada||Sales of war materiel|
|People's Republic of China||Some financial support and military exports||Sale of military equipment, including fighter aircraft, surface-to-air missiles, rocket launchers, tanks, and artillery|
|Denmark||Sales of military equipment|
|France||Sale of high-tech military equipment and uranium|
|East Germany||Sale of high-tech military equipment |
|West Germany||Sale of high-tech military equipment||Chemical warfare equipment|
|Hungary||Sales of war materiel|
|Italy||Several billion dollars in funding; sale of land and sea mines as well as uranium||Sale of land and sea mines|
|Japan||Engineering equipment such as trucks, caterpillars and bulldozers etc.||Engineering equipment such as trucks, caterpillars and bulldozers etc.|
|Jordan||Acted as main supply line|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||Sold domestically-produced arms; acted as an intermediate for covert sales by the Soviet Union, Soviet satellites, and China|
|Netherlands||Funded Iran with a total of $5 billion.|
|Republic of Korea||Sales of F-4 Phantom II parts, artilleries such as KH-179, and other heavy weapons|
|Kuwait||Financial support and conduit for arms sales|
|Libya||Armaments, munitions and ballistic missiles.|
|Pakistan||Sold shoulder-launched surface-to-air missile; unaccountable and covert financial support for Iran by Pakistan|
|Poland||Sales of military materiel|
|Portugal||Sale of uranium and arms||Sale of ammunition and explosives:8|
|Qatar||Initial support, though not openly|
|Romania||Sales of military materiel|
|Saudi Arabia||$20 billion in funding|
|Singapore||Provided chemical warfare precursors; acted as a transshipment point for weapons; was manufacturing site of foreign-designed weapons|
|South Africa||Sale of military armament (200 G5 155mm Artillery systems)|
|Soviet Union||Military equipment and advisors||Covert military equipment sales|
|Spain||Sale of conventional and chemical weapons, especially ammunition and explosives||Sale of weapons, especially ammunition and explosives:8|
|Syria||Armaments, munitions and ballistic missiles.|
|Sweden||Covert sales of RBS-70 surface-to-air missile system, explosives and fast-attack boats.|
|Switzerland||Sales of war material and Sales of chemical warfare equipment|||
|Turkey||Sales of arms.||Sales of arms.|
|United Arab Emirates||Financial aid|
|United Kingdom||Weapons-related equipment and ‘Sodium cyanide for chemical weapons and plutonium and gas spectrometers’|
|United States||Several billion dollars worth of economic aid; the sale of dual-use technology and non-U.S. origin weaponry; military intelligence; Special Operations training||Secret arms sales (Iran-Contra affair)|
|Yugoslavia||Weapons sales (more than $2 billion worth)|
- Timmerman, Kenneth R. The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.
- "Sources used in compiling the database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
- "Statement by former NSC official Howard Teicher] to the U.S. District Court, Southern District of Florida. [https://www.webcitation.org/5flvP0UgC?url=http://www.overcast.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/print/spidersweb/teicher.htm Plain text version" (PDF). Retrieved 16 July 2017. External link in
- Paterson, Tony. Leaked Report Says German and US Firms Supplied Arms to Saddam The Independent. December 18, 2002.
- "Iraq debt: non-Paris Club creditors". Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 1 June 2004. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Schmidt, Rachel (1991). "Global Arms Exports to Iraq, 1960–1990" (PDF). Santa Monica, CA: RAND's National Defense Research Institute.
- "Astros II Artillery Saturation Rocket System". Army Technology. Net Resources International.
- "The Combination of Iraqi offensives and Western intervention force Iran to accept a cease-fire: September 1987 to March 1989". The Lessons of Modern War – Volume II: Iran-Iraq War (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies.
- Bahadori, Mazi (2 May 2005). "The History and Politics of the Iran-Iraq War" (DOC): 25. University of California, Berkeley Department of History
- Garver, John W. (2006). China and Iran: Ancient Partners In A Post-Imperial World. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 72, 80–81. ISBN 9780295986319.
- Hendelman-Baavur, Liora (20 May 2009). "Iran-Egypt Relations". Iran Almanac. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- The Research Unit for Political Economy. "The Iran-Iraq War: Serving American Interests". History of Iran. Iran Chamber Society. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Timmerman, Kenneth R. (1992). The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-1857020311.
- "Italy". Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. International Campaign to Ban Mines. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Pike, John (ed.). "Iraq debt: Non-Paris Club Creditors".
- Anthony, John Duke; Ochsenwald, William L.; Crystal, Jill Ann. "Kuwait". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Brief History of Qatar". Heritage of Qatar. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Vatanka, Alex (22 March 2012). "The Odd Couple". The Majalla. Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Rajaee, Farhang (1997). Iranian perspectives on the Iran-Iraq war. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 9780813014760.
- El camino de la libertad: la democracia año a año (1986) [The Path of Liberty: Democracy Year to Year] (in Spanish). El Mundo. pp. 27–32.
- "United Arab Emirates". Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Yugoslavia Arms Sales". Environmental News and Information. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Select "Iran" or "Iraq" as recipient(s))