Spanish Americans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Spanish American)
Jump to: navigation, search
For the regions of the Americas formerly subject to the Spanish Empire, see Hispanic America.
Spanish Americans
Admiral Farragut2.jpg
George Santayana.jpg
Leo Carillo Pancho Cisco Kid.jpg
Al Lopez - WJROneOfAKind.jpg
Adele Mara (The Tiger Women-1945).jpg
Luis Walter Alvarez 1961.jpg
Rita Hayworth - 1940.JPG
Frankie Muniz 2011.jpg
Carlos Bernard cropped.jpg
Linda Chavez by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Sheen, Martin (2008).jpg
Kenny ortega.jpg
Charlie Sheen 2012.jpg
Mary Joe Fernández at the 2010 US Open 01.jpg
Marco Rubio, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Charisma Carpenter at Toronto Comicon adjust.jpg
Lea Michele Comic Con by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Julian Casablancas - Lollapalooza Chile 2014 (13672461964).jpg
Dominik Garcia-Lorido 2009 portrait.jpg
Borrajo GMU.jpg
Total population
Self-identified as Spaniard 10.017.244 (Direct descendants)
759,781 (2013 ACS)[1] and 635,253 (2010 census)[2]
26,735,713 (Latin American descent 2010)[3]
Regions with significant populations
California · Texas · New Mexico · Florida · New York
English (American English dialects)
Spanish(American Spanish dialect, Peninsular Spanish dialects)
Predominantly Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
Spaniards · Hispanic and Latino Americans · Portuguese Americans · Italian Americans · other European Americans

Spanish Americans (Spanish: español-americanos, hispano-americanos or estadounidenses de origen español) are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly from Spain.[4]

Spanish Americans are the longest-established European-American group with a continuous presence in Florida since 1565[5] and are the eighth-largest (choosing the term "Spaniard") Hispanic group in the United States of America. About 50.5 million Americans are of Latin American descent and therefore many having Spanish ancestry due to Spanish colonialism, although the term "Spanish-American" is used only to refer to Americans whose ancestry originates entirely or partially from Spain.

Immigration waves[edit]

In colonial times, there were a number of white settlements of Spanish populations in the present–day United States of America with governments answerable to Madrid. The first settlement was at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565, followed by others in New Mexico, California, Arizona, Texas, and Louisiana. In 1598, San Juan de los Caballeros was established, near present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Juan de Oñate and about 1,000 other Spaniards. Spanish immigrants also established settlements in San Diego, California (1602), San Antonio, Texas (1691) and Tucson, Arizona (1699). By the mid-1600s the Spanish in America numbered more than 400,000.[6]

After the establishment of the American colonies, an additional 250,000 immigrants arrived either directly from Spain, the Canary Islands or, after a relatively short sojourn, from present-day central Mexico. These Spanish settlers expanded European influence in the New World. The Canary Islanders settled in bayou areas surrounding New Orleans in Louisiana from 1778 to 1783 and in San Antonio de Bejar, San Antonio, Texas, in 1731.[7]

Most of the Spanish settler descendants in present-day Texas, California, New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona self-identified as Spanish-Americans to differentiate themselves nominally from the population of Mexican-Americans who came after the Mexican Revolution and more often identified as Mestizo, that is mixed native and European ancestry; others only self-identified as of European origin.[8][9]

The earliest Spanish settlements in then northern Mexico were the result of the same forces that later led the English to come to North America. Exploration had been fueled in part by imperial hopes for the discovery of wealthy civilizations. In addition, like those aboard the Mayflower, most Spaniards came to the New World seeking land to farm, or occasionally, as historians have recently established, freedom from religious persecution. A smaller percentage of new Spanish settlers were descendants of Spanish Jewish converts and Spanish Muslim converts.

Basques stood out in the exploration of the Americas, both as soldiers and members of the crews that sailed for the Spanish.[10] Prominent in the civil service and colonial administration, they were accustomed to overseas travel and residence. Another reason for their emigration besides the restrictive inheritance laws in the Basque Country, was the devastation from the Napoleonic Wars in the first half of the nineteenth century, which was followed by defeats in the two Carlist civil wars. (For more information about the Basque, and immigrants to the United States from this region, please see the article Basque Americans.)

19th and 20th centuries[edit]

Spanish immigration to the United States[11]
Years Arrivals Years Arrivals Years Arrivals
1820–1830 2,616 1891–1900 8,731 1961–1970 44,659
1831–1840 2,125 1901–1910 27,935 1971–1980 39,141
1841–1850 2,209 1911–1920 68,611 1981–1990 20,433
1851–1860 9,298 1921–1930 28,958 1991–2000 17,157
1861–1870 6,697 1931–1940 3,258 2001–2005 6,052
1871–1880 5,266 1941–1950 2,898
1881–1890 4,419 1951–1960 7,894
(1820 - 2002) Total number of arrivals over 183 years: 305,797

Immigration to the United States from Spain was minimal but steady during the first half of the nineteenth century, with an increase during the 1850s and 1860s resulting from the social disruption of the Carlist civil wars. Much larger numbers of Spanish immigrants entered the country in the first quarter of the twentieth century—27,000 in the first decade and 68,000 in the second—due to the same circumstances of rural poverty and urban congestion that led other Europeans to emigrate in that period, as well as unpopular wars. The Spanish presence in the United States declined sharply between 1930 and 1940 from a total of 110,000 to 85,000. Many immigrants moved either back to Spain or to another country.

Beginning with the Fascist revolt against the Second Spanish Republic in 1936 and the devastating civil war that ensued, General Francisco Franco established a reactionary dictatorship for 40 years. At the time of the Fascist takeover, a small but prominent group of liberal intellectuals fled to the United States. After the civil war the country endured 20 years of Autarky, as Franco believed that post World War II Spain could survive or continue its activities without any European assistance.

As a result, in the mid-1960s, 44,000 Spaniards immigrated to the United States. In the 1970s, when Franco abandoned Spain's autarkic economic system, prosperity began to emerge in Spain, and Spanish immigration to the United States declined to about 3,000 per year. In the 1980s, as Europe enjoyed an economic boom, Spanish immigrants to the United States dropped to only 15,000. The 1990 U.S. census recorded 76,000 foreign-born Spaniards in the country, representing only four-tenths of a percent of the total populace.

Much as with French Americans, who are of French descent but mostly by way of Canada, the majority of the 41 million massively strong Spanish speaking population have come by way of Latin America, especially Mexico, but also Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and other areas which were places that the Spanish themselves colonized. Many of the Hispanic and Latino Americans bring their Spanish-speaking culture into the country. A lot of the Americans who are descended from Mexico, Puerto Rico or other places from Latin America has Spanish ancestry from Spain but it's mixed with a different race, for example, Mexican-Americans who are identified as Mestizo that is mixed Native and European ancestry while others like Puerto Ricans in the United States are identified as Mulatto that is mixed African and European ancestry. However, some Spanish Americans are descendants of colonial settlers in the southwestern states, especially New Mexico, before they became part of the United States.

Principal areas of settlement[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1850 3,113 —    
1860 4,244 +36.3%
1870 3,764 −11.3%
1880 5,121 +36.1%
1890 6,185 +20.8%
1900 7,050 +14.0%
1910 22,108 +213.6%
1920 49,535 +124.1%
1950 59,362 +19.8%
1960 44,999 −24.2%
1970 57,488 +27.8%
1980 73,735 +28.3%
1990 76,415 +3.6%
2000 82,858 +8.4%
2010 83,242 +0.5%
Source: United States Census (Foreign-born in Spain) pop.[12]

Spanish-Americans in the United States are found in large concentrations in five major states from 1940 through the early twenty-first century. In 1940, the highest concentration of Spaniards were in New York (primarily New York City), followed by California, Florida, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The 1950 US Census indicated little change - New York with 14,705 residents from Spain and California with 10,890 topped the list. Spaniards spilled into New Jersey with 3,382, followed by Florida (3,382) and Pennsylvania (1,790).[13] By 1990 and 2000, there was relatively little change except in the order of the states and the addition of Texas. In 1990 Florida ranked first with 78,656 Spanish immigrants followed by:[13] California 74,784, New York (42,309), Texas (32,226), New Jersey (28,666). The 2000 Census was a significant decline in Spanish-origin immigrants.[13] California now ranked highest (22,459), followed by, Florida (14,110 arriving from Spain), New York (13,017), New Jersey (9,183), Texas (7,202).

Communities in the United States, in keeping with their strong regional identification in Spain, have established ethnic organisations for Basques, Galicians, Asturians, Andalusians, and other such communities.

These figures show that there was never the mass emigration from Iberia that there was from Latin America. It is evident in the figures that Spanish immigration peaked in the 1910s and 1920s. The majority settled in Florida and New York, although there was also a sizable Spanish influx to West Virginia at the turn of the 20th century, mostly from Asturias.

Some of the first ancestors of Spanish Americans were Spanish Jews who spoke Ladino, a language derived from Castilian Spanish and Hebrew. In the 1930s and 1940s, Spanish immigration mostly consisted of refugees fleeing from the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and from the Franco military regime in Spain, which lasted until his death in 1975. The majority of these refugees were businessmen and intellectuals, as well as union activists, and held strong liberal anti-authoritarian feelings.


Main articles: Californio and Hispanos

Children of those few early settlers and retired soldiers became the first true Californios. One genealogist estimated that, in 2004, between 300,000 and 500,000 Californians were descendants of Californios.[14]


El Centro Español de Tampa is a cultural house built in 1912 in the Ybor City neighborhood of Tampa, Florida.

Juan Ponce de León, a Spanish conquistador, named Florida in honor of his discovery of the land on April 2, 1513, during Pascua Florida, a Spanish term for the Easter season. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded the city of St Augustine in 1565; the first European-founded city in what is now the continental United States.

In the early 1880s, Tampa was an isolated village with a population of less than 1000 and a struggling economy.[15] However, its combination of a good port, Henry Plant’s new railroad line, and humid climate attracted the attention of Vicente Martinez Ybor, a prominent Spanish-born cigar manufacturer; the neighborhood of Ybor City was named after him.[16] The El Centro Español de Tampa remains one of the few surviving structures specific to Spanish immigration to the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries,[17] a legacy which garnered the Centro Español building recognition as a U.S. National Historic Landmark (NHL) on June 3, 1988.[18]


Spanish children from the SS Heliopolis after arriving in Hawaii.

Spanish immigration to Hawaii began when the Hawaiian government and the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association (HSPA) decided to supplement their ongoing importation of Portuguese workers to Hawaii with workers recruited from Spain. Importation of Spanish laborers, along with their families, continued until 1913, at which time more than 9,000 Spanish immigrants had been brought in, most recruited to work primarily on the Hawaiian sugar plantations.

The importation of Spanish laborers to Hawaii began in 1907, when the British steamship SS Heliopolis arrived in Honolulu Harbor with 2,246 immigrants from the Malaga province of Spain.[19] However, rumored poor accommodations and food on the voyage created political complications that delayed the next Spanish importation until 1911, when the SS Orteric arrived with a mixed contingent of 960 Spanish and 565 Portuguese immigrants, the Spanish having boarded at Gibraltar, and the Portuguese at Oporto and Lisbon. Although Portuguese immigration to Hawaii effectively ended after the arrival of the Orteric, the importation of Spanish laborers and their families continued until 1913, ultimately bringing to Hawaii a total of 9,262 Spanish immigrants.[19]

Six ships between 1907 and 1913 brought over 9,000 Spanish immigrants from the Spanish mainland to Hawaii. Although many of the Portuguese immigrants who preceded them to Hawaii arrived on small wooden sailing ships of less than a thousand gross tonnage capacity, all of the ships involved in the Spanish immigration were large, steel-hulled, passenger steamships.

New Mexico[edit]

Main article: Nuevomexicano

The Nuevomexicanos are the descendants of the Spanish and Mexican colonists who settled the area of New Mexico and Southern Colorado. From 1598 to 1848, most settlers in New Mexico were of Spanish ancestry (either directly or through Mexico).

New Mexico belonged to Spain for most of its modern history (16th century – 1821) and later to Mexico (1821–1848). The original name of the region was Santa Fé de Nuevo Mexico. The descendants of the settlers still retain a community of thousands of people in this state. Also, there is a community of Nuevomexicanos in Southern Colorado, due to shared colonial history. Currently, the majority of the Nuevomexicano population is distributed between New Mexico and Southern Colorado. Most of the Nuevomexicanos that live in New Mexico live in the northern half of the state. There are hundreds of thousands of Nuevomexicanos living in New Mexico. Those who claim to be descendants of Spanish settlers in this state currently account as the first predominant ancestry in the state.

There is also a community of people in Southern Colorado descended from Nuevomexicanos that migrated there in the 19th century. The stories and language of the Nuevomexicanos from Northern New Mexico and Southern Colorado were studied by Nuevomexicano ethnographer, linguist, and folklorist Juan Bautista Rael and Aurelio Espinosa.

New York[edit]

Anita Page was a New York-born actress of paternal Spanish descent.
See also: Little Spain

"Little Spain" was a Spanish-American neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan during the 20th century.[20][21]

Little Spain was on 14th Street, between Seventh and Eighth Avenues.[22] A very different section of Chelsea existed on a stretch of 14th Street often referred to by residents as "Calle Catorce," or "Little Spain".[23] The Church of Our Lady of Guadelupe (No. 299) was founded in 1902, when Spaniards started to settle in the area.[24] Although the Spanish business have given way to such nightclubs as Nell's and Oh Johnny on the block between Seventh and Eighth Avenues, the Spanish food and gift emporium known as Casa Moneo has been at 210 West 14th since 1929. In 2010 the documentary Little Spain, directed and written by Artur Balder, was filmed in New York City. The documentary pulled together for first time an archive that reveals the untold history of the Spanish-American presence in Manhattan. They present the history of the streets of Little Spain in New York City throughout the 20th Century.[25] The archive contains more than 450 photographs and 150 documents that have never been publicly displayed.[26][27][28][29][30][31][32]

Other important commerces and Spanish business of Little Spain were restaurants like La Bilbaína, Trocadero Valencia, Bar Coruña, Little Spain Bar, Café Madrid, Mesón Flamenco, or El Faro Restaurant, established 1927, and still today open at 823 Greenwich St. The Iberia was a famous Spanish dress shop.

The heart of the Spanish American community in that area were the two landmarks: the Spanish Benevolent Society and the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe, founded at the turn of the 19th century, being the first parish in Manhattan with mass in Latin and Spanish. Just like with other immigrant neighborhoods of Manhattan, such as Little Italy, Little Spain celebrated a feast day; that of St. James. It was held in June, and was held until the mid-1990s. During this festival, the saint's image was the symbol of the feeling of the Spanish community and paraded down the street 14, which was cut to traffic for a week. In this time, food festivals were taking place shows of typical Spanish folklore.


Santa Barbara, California’s annual Old Spanish Days Fiesta celebration.

Spanish Americans are readily accepted into American society.[33] The Spanish work ethic is compatible with the values of both pre– and post–industrial Europe. Leisure time is used to maintain essential social contacts and is identified with upward social movement.

Many Spanish Americans still retain aspects of their culture. This includes Spanish food, drink, art, annual fiestas.[citation needed] Spaniards have contributed to a vast number of areas in the United States of America. The influence of Spanish cuisine is seen in the cuisine of the United States throughout the country.

Spanish language in the United States[edit]

Spanish was the first European language spoken in North America. It was brought to the territory of what is the contemporary United States of America in 1513 by Juan Ponce de León. In 1565, the Spaniards founded St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest, continuously occupied European settlement in the modern U.S. territory.[34]

Like other descendants of European immigrants, Spaniards have adopted English as their primary language, as opposed to immigrants from Latin America, who continue to use Spanish as their primary language.[35]

Language spoken at home and ability to speak English (2013 ACS)[36]
Spaniard - Language spoken and ability Percent
Population 5 years and over 703,504
English only 68.5%
Language other than English 31.5%
Speak English less than "very well" 7.1%


Mission Santa Barbara was founded in 1786.

Main articles: Spanish missions in Arizona, California, Carolinas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, New Mexico, Texas, Ajacán Mission

Many Spanish Americans are more active in Catholic church activities than was common in past generations in Spain; they rarely change their religious affiliation and participate frequently in family–centered ecclesiastical rituals. In both Spain and the United States events such as first communions and baptisms are felt to be important social obligations that strengthen clan identity.


Since Spanish American entrance into the middle class has been widespread, the employment patterns described above have largely disappeared. This social mobility has followed logically from the fact that throughout the history of Spanish immigration to the United States, the percentage of skilled workers remained uniformly high. In the first quarter of the twentieth century, for example, 85 percent of Spanish immigrants were literate, and 36 percent were either professionals or skilled craftsmen. A combination of aptitude, motivation, and high expectations led to successful entry into a variety of fields.[citation needed]

Number of Spanish Americans[edit]

Top 10 states with the largest "Spaniard" ancestry
2013 American Community Survey[36]
U.S. state Population

California California 155,320
Texas Texas 84,923
New Mexico New Mexico 81,279
Florida Florida 58,525
New York New York 45,561
Colorado Colorado 43,313
New Jersey New Jersey 32,266
Arizona Arizona 20,565
Virginia Virginia 13,974
Nevada Nevada 13,185

Native (USA)[37] 652,884
Foreign born[37] 106,897
United States United States of America 759,781
Year Population

American Community Survey[edit]

Of the 759,781 people that reported Spaniard, 652,884 were native-born and 106,897 were foreign-born. 65.3% of the foreign-born were born in Europe, 25.1% were born in Latin america, 8.3% from Asia, 0.6% in Northern America, 0.5% in Africa and 0.1% in Oceania.[37]

  • Spanish - 505,254[1]
  • Spanish American - 21,540[1]

2010 Census[edit]

The 2010 Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010.[40]

  • Spaniard - 635,253[2]

Statistics for those who self-identify as ethnic Spaniard, Spanish, Spanish American in the 2010 American Community Survey.

2000 Census[edit]

  • Spaniard - 299,948
  • Spanish - 2,187,144
  • Spanish American - 111,781

In the 2000 Census, 299,948 Americans specifically reported their ancestry as "Spaniard," which was a significant decrease from the 1990 Census, wherein those who reported "Spaniard" numbered 360,858. Another 2,187,144 reported "Spanish" [43] and 111,781 people, reported "Spanish American." To this figures we must adhere some groups of Spanish origin or descent that specify their origin, instead of in Spain, in some of the Autonomous communities of Spain, specially Spanish Basques (9,296 people), Castillians (4,744 people), Canarians (3,096 people), Balearics (2,554 people) and Catalans (1,738 people). Less of 300 people indicated be of Asturian, Andalusian, "Gallego" and Valencian origin.[44]

1980 and 1990 Census[edit]

The Twentieth 1980 and the Twenty-first 1990 Census. 1980 was the first U.S. census that asked someones ancestry.

Spanish Americans are found in relative numbers throughout United States, particularly in the Southwestern and Gulf Coast. According to the 1980 U.S. census, 62.7% reported Spanish as their main ancestry, and 66.4% reported Spaniard as their main ancestry.[38][39][45]

1990 Census[13][39]
State Spanish % of State Spaniard % of State
California 434,759 1.5% 74,784
Florida 201,059 1.6% 78,656 0.6%
New Mexico 190,700 12.6% 24,861
Texas 186,758 1.1% 32,226
New York 156,310 0.9% 42,309
Colorado 121,029 3.7%
New Jersey 71,596 0.9% 28,666
Louisiana 65,125 1.5%
Country Spanish Spaniard Total % of Total
United States United States of America 2,024,004 360,935 2,384,939 0.9%
1980 Census[38]
State Spanish  % of State Spaniard
California 539,285 2.3 14,357
Texas 221,568 1.6 6,883
Florida 249,196 2.6 23,698
New York 359,574 2.0 21,860
New Jersey 126,983 1.7 8,122
Colorado 154,396 5.3 1,985
New Mexico 281,189 21.6 1,971
Louisiana 79,847 1.9 616
Country Spanish Spaniard Total % of Total
United States United States of America 2,686,680 94,528 2,781,208 1.48%

Political participation[edit]

With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 a number of intellectual political refugees found asylum in the United States. Supporters of the overthrown Spanish Republic, which had received aid from the Soviet Union while under attack from National rebel forces, were sometimes incorrectly identified with communism, but their arrival in the United States well before the "red scare" of the early 1950s spared them the worst excesses of McCarthyism. Until the end of the dictatorship in Spain in 1975 political exiles in the United States actively campaigned against the abuses of the Franco regime.

Cities and place names of Spanish origin[edit]

St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District: Aviles Street. The City of St. Augustine was founded by Pedro Menéndez de Aviles.
Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
Albuquerque was founded by Don Francisco Cuervo y Valdez, Governor of New Mexico in 1706.

Some Spanish placenames in the USA include:


See: List of Spanish Americans

See also[edit]

About Spanish Americans[edit]

About Hispanic Americans and Spanish Canadians[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN - Universe: Total population more information 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates
  2. ^ a b c d Hispanic Amerian population 2010 census.
  3. ^ Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2011
  4. ^ Most dictionaries give this definition as the first or only definition for "Spanish American". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.) (1992). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-44895-6. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) (2003). Springfield: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-807-9. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (2nd ed.) (1987). New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50050-4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (2007). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. Webster's New Dictionary and Thesaurus (2002). Cleveland: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-471-79932-0
  5. ^ "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  6. ^ Immigration and Migration By Rayna Bailey
  7. ^ Hernández González, Manuel. La emigración canaria a América (Canarian Emigration to the Americas). Pages 15 and 43 - 44 (about the expeditions and Canarian emigration in Texas), page 51 (about of the Canarian emigration to Louisiana). First Edition January, 2007
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ New Mexico CultureNet - Cuartocentenario
  10. ^ Kurlansky, Mark (1999). The Basque History of the World. New York: Walker. ISBN 0-14-029851-7. 
  11. ^ Encyclopedia of North American Immigration By John Powell
  12. ^ Historical census statisics of the foreign-born (Born in Spain) population 1850-2000.
  13. ^ a b c d Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration: Spanish and Spanish-Americans.
  14. ^ King, Alexander V. (January 2004). "Californio Families, A Brief Overview". San Francisco Genealogy (Society of Hispanic Historical & Ancestral Research). 
  15. ^ Mormino&Pizzo, Ch. 9
  16. ^ "Ybor City: Cigars in Ybor". Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  17. ^ "El Centro Español de Tampa". National Park Service. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  18. ^ "El Centro Español De Tampa". National Historic Landmarks Program. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  19. ^ a b Fernández, James D. and Argeo, Luis. "Archive / Archivo: Heliópolis". Spanish Immigrants in the United States (website). Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  20. ^ Thero, Xavier (20 June 2014). "Rostros familiares en Nueva York.". El País. Retrieved 2014-06-21. 
  21. ^ Thero, Xavier (June 20, 2014). "Rostros familiares en Nueva York PDF" (PDF). El País / Meatpacking Productions. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  22. ^ Aguilar, Andrea (November 18, 2010). "Un documental repasa la historia de Little Spain en la calle 14". El País USA. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  23. ^ "Un documental repasa la historia de Little Spain en la calle 14". Hartford Courant. November 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 
  24. ^ Valenzuela, David (November 20, 2010). "Documentary Brings Manhattan's Little Spain to big screen.". THE HERALD TRIBUNE. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  25. ^ Remeseira, Claudio Iván (November 18, 2010). "Hispanic New York Project". Hispanic New York Project. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  26. ^ "Un documental descubre la historia de Little Spain". EFE America. November 19, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  27. ^ Abad, José Ángel (November 18, 2010). "Little Spain, el barrio español de Nueva York". Antena 3 TV. Retrieved 2015-01-28. 
  28. ^ "Nueva York descubre su Little Spain". Informativos Telecinco. November 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  29. ^ "Little Spain". RTVE. November 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  30. ^ "Little Spain, el barrio español de Nueva York donde sólo se hablaba español.". Onda Cero Radio. November 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  31. ^ Conde, Arturo (November 18, 2010). "Saga Gallega en Manhattan. Robert De Niro, Taxi Driver y la energía del pasado.". La Opinion de A Coruna. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  32. ^ Payá, Juan José (December 18, 2010). "Artur Balder rescata en su documental la memoria española de Manhattan". Diario Informacion, Editorial Prensa Ibérica S.A. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  33. ^ "438 F.3d 195". Retrieved 2015-09-11. 
  34. ^ "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". Retrieved 2015-09-11. 
  35. ^ Chavez, Linda (March 25, 2011). "Hispanic population booms". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 9A. 
  36. ^ a b HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN Universe: Spaniard (Population).
  37. ^ a b c Spaniard: POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES - 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates
  38. ^ a b c 1980 Census of Total U.S Population
  39. ^ a b c 1990 & 1980 State population comparisons
  40. ^ "Interactive Timeline". About the 2010 Census. U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  41. ^ a b c An Historical Introduction to American Education: Third Edition By Gerald L. Gutek
  42. ^ a b c Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 American Community Survey
  43. ^ Angela, Brittingham; G. Patricia de la Cruz. "Ancestry: 2000; Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  44. ^ "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-10-28. 
  45. ^ 1980,U.S Census by State
  46. ^ "Nevada". Retrieved February 24, 2007. 

External links[edit]