Spanish Mastiff

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Mastín Español
Mastif hiszpański 751.jpg
Other namesSpanish mastiff
Mastín español de campo y trabajo
Mastín ganadero
Mastín Leonés
Mastín Extremeño
Weight 40–80 kg (88–176 lb)
Height Male 80 cm
Female 75 cm
Classification / standards
FCI Group 2, Section 2.2 Molossian: Mountain type #91 standard
The AKC Foundation Stock Service (FSS) is an optional recording service for purebred dogs that are not yet eligible for AKC registration.
UKC Guardian Dog standard
Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

The mastín Español or Spanish mastiff, is a giant breed of dog, originating in Spain, originally bred to be a guard dog whose specialized purpose is to be a livestock guardian dog protecting flocks (and occasionally herds) from wolves and other predators. The mountain dog type has a heavier coat.

Historical context[edit]

Brindle colored Spanish mastiff.

Transhumance in Spain is very ancient, like the primitive populations of those lands and, consequently, the mastiff-transhumance binomial. In the Iron Age of the Castilian Plateau it found skeletons of dogs of enormous dimensions. Also, it is assumed that already in the Neolithic there existed molossers in Central Europe.[citation needed]

In different parts of the globe, appeared simultaneously various types of cattle dogs of molosser type, one of these places was Spain considering the natural characteristics of the peninsula. Specifically the Spanish Mastiff was originated in the territories of Asturias, Cantabria, Province of León and Province of Zamora.[1]

Th Indo-Europeans, some groups composed of warriors herders and nomadic transhumans, led to large herd molossers dogs the valleys and areas conducive to grass. In the seasons of transhumance it had to walk about thirty kilometers or more per day, which gathered other nine for grazing; without the ebb and continued during monitoring.[2]

With the birth of the farming system, the dogs became indispensable. There was probably external influences acting on the base structure of the native dogs. Through centuries of selection and specialization, and thanks to this ecological ring present in many countries of the world (man, sheep, dog and wolf), it gave life to a specimen of a physical and a useful dog.

After, in Medieval times, during centuries, the mastín español has accompanied the herds of transhumans sheeps that ran cañadas reales crossing from north to south Spain, defending the cattle of attack of wolves and other vermin; the mastín had the protection of carlancas or carrancas, chunky metal necklaces with skewers. Its function was primarily protective, unlike its fellow Carea dogs, whose function is grazing, driving the herds in response to indications of the shepherd [3] In some places it is known as perro merinero by accompany the Merino sheep breed.

The first breed standard of the mastín was made by the FCI in 1946. In 1981 was created the Asociación Española del Perro Mastín Español, who organized a breeding program looking for the kind of large and strong mastiff of the past times, and drafted a new breed standard focused on recovering the old cattle dogs, fit as pets, and as guard dog and defense.[4]


The Spanish mastiff is a very large and powerful dog, similar in appearance to the other mastiff breeds. They have a large powerful head and serious and vigilant expression

Males in this breed are 70 to 85 centimetres (28 to 33 in) tall at the withers, and range from 50 to 70 kilograms (110 to 150 lb). Females are at least 65 centimetres (26 in), and weigh 40 to 60 kilograms (88 to 132 lb).[5]

It has small eyes and drop ears resembling triangles. This dog's coat is most often fawn-colored, but can also be brindle, black or 'wolf' colored. Reddish tones indicate miscegenation


A couple of Spanish mastiffs

This noble giant is aloof, dignified, calm and intelligent.[citation needed] It is devoted to its family and may politely accept strangers if it has been socialized properly, although it will be wary of them. It can be aggressive toward other dogs.[citation needed] The Spanish mastiff may be a less-than-ideal pet in urban situations, where its booming voice and massive size could be problematic. It is a wonderful protector of its home and family.

Socialization and training should begin early to ensure this dog a stable and reliable pet. Supervised exposure in puppy-hood to a variety of unfamiliar but non-threatening dogs will help dampen a tendency to aggression toward other dogs.[citation needed] The breed is quite alert and food motivated but can bore easily; training must be consistent and firm but gentle. Once the trainer has established the dog's respect as leader, the Spanish mastiff will be an extremely loyal pet.[citation needed]


This dog is more inclined to lumber than gallop, but it can move quite rapidly when necessary. A long daily walk will be sufficient, although it will appreciate a fenced area where it can exercise at its own rate.[citation needed]


Its more primitive variety: "Leonese Mastiff".

In addition to its considered "official" variety, which is the current and modern Spanish Mastiff framed in a rigid aesthetic pattern and recognized by the largest canine entities, there is also its more primitive, traditional slope, considered unofficial, and that does not meet any aesthetic standards and has as its objective, still today, to serve its owners acting in the protection of flocks against predators. These unofficial strands, for the purpose of differentiation, are termed traditional Spanish Mastiff, working Spanish Mastiff, Leonese Mastiff, and Wolf Dog. These unofficial strands continue to act actively in their original and primitive function.

Representatives dogs[edit]

  • Las Meninas by Diego Velázquez features an impressive example of the breed.
  • Actor Viggo Mortensen has, by a gift when he was in León, both a Carea Leonés and a Spanish Mastiff, named "Aragorn" and "Alatriste", named of characters he played in his movies.[6]


  1. ^ [http: // "Raza de Perro Mastín Español (Spanish Mastiff)" listadoderazasdeperrosygatos]
  2. ^ The breed - History", mastinespañ
  3. ^ Antón Burgos, Francisco Javier (2014). "Herding dogs in Spain. Origins and functionality". Spanish Association of Mastín Español Dog (AEPME). Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ The Spanish Mastiff
  6. ^ "Viggo Mortensen"