Spanish Republican government in exile

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Government of the Spanish Republic in exile
Gobierno de la República Española
en el exilio
Government in exile
1939–1977
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Plus Ultra
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
Himno de Riego
"Anthem of Riego"
Capital Madrid
Capital-in-exile Mexico City
(1940–46)
Paris
(1939–1940 / 1946–1977)
Languages Spanish
Government Multi-party Republic
President
 •  1939–1940 (first) Diego Martínez Barrio
 •  1970–1977 (last) José Maldonado Gonzalez
Prime Minister
 •  1939–1945 (first) Juan Negrín
 •  1971–1977 (last) Fernando Valera Aparicio
Historical era Interwar period / Cold War
 •  Established 4 April 1939
 •  Disestablished 1 July 1977
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Second Spanish Republic
Spain

The Government of the Spanish Republic in exile (Spanish: Gobierno de la República Española en el exilio) was a continuation in exile of the government of the Second Spanish Republic following the victory of Francisco Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War. It continued to exist until the restoration of parliamentary democracy in 1977.

History[edit]

On the fall of the Republic in April 1939, the President (Manuel Azaña) and Prime Minister (Juan Negrín) went into exile in France. Azaña resigned his post and died in November 1940. He was succeeded as President by Diego Martínez Barrio, who had been Prime Minister in 1936. When Nazi Germany occupied France in 1940, the government was reconstituted in Mexico, which under the left-wing President Lázaro Cárdenas continued to recognise the Republic as the legal government of Spain, although Negrín spent the war years in London. Negrín resigned as Prime Minister in 1945 and was succeeded by José Giral.

Until 1945, the exiled Republicans had high hopes that at the end of World War II in Europe, Franco's regime would be removed from power by the victorious Allies and that they would be able to return to Spain. When these hopes were disappointed, the government-in-exile faded away to a purely symbolic role. The government moved back to Paris in 1946. There was also a Basque government in exile and a Catalan government in exile.

In the immediate postwar period it had diplomatic relations with Mexico, Panama, Guatemala, Venezuela, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, and Albania.[1] By contrast the United States, the United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union did not recognise it.[2]

After Franco's death in 1975, King Juan Carlos restored democratic government. In 1977 the exiled Republicans decided to accept the re-establishment of the monarchy and recognise the new government. On 1 July 1977 the Government of the Spanish Republic was formally dissolved. In a gesture of reconciliation, Juan Carlos I received the exile leaders at a ceremony in Madrid.

Presidents in exile[edit]

# Portrait Coat of arms Name President From President Until Political Party
Martínez Barrio.JPG Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939)-Flag Variant.svg Diego Martínez Barrio
Interim
March 3, 1939 May 11, 1940 Republican Union
No image.png Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939)-Flag Variant.svg Álvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana
Interim
May 11, 1940 August 17, 1945 Independent
1 Martínez Barrio.JPG Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939)-Flag Variant.svg Diego Martínez Barrio August 17, 1945 January 1, 1962 Republican Union
2 No image.png Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939)-Flag Variant.svg Luis Jiménez de Asúa January 1, 1962 November 16, 1970 Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
3 No image.png Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939)-Flag Variant.svg José Maldonado Gonzalez November 16, 1970 July 1, 1977 Republican Left

Prime Ministers in exile[edit]

Spanish Republican government in exile (1939–1977)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party President
(Term)
Took office Left office Days
Juan negrin.gif Juan Negrín
(1892–1956)
31 March 1939 17 August 1945 682 Spanish Socialist Workers' Party Álvaro de Albornoz
Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939).svg
(1939–1945)
D. José Giral.jpg José Giral
(1879–1962)
17 August 1945 9 February 1947 682 Republican Left Diego Martínez Barrio
Martínez Barrio.JPG
(1945–1962)
Rodolfo Llopis 1963 (cropped).jpg Rodolfo Llopis
(1895–1983)
9 February 1947 8 August 1947 682 Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939).svg Álvaro de Albornoz
(1879–1954)
8 August 1947 13 August 1951 682 Republican Union
Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939).svg Felix Gordón
(1885–1973)
13 August 1951 17 April 1960 682 Republican Union
Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939).svg Emilio Herrera
(1879–1967)
17 April 1960 28 February 1962 682 Independent
Busto Claudio.JPG Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz
(1893–1984)
28 February 1962 28 February 1971 682 Republican Union Luis Jiménez de Asúa
Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939).svg
(1962–1970)
Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939).svg Fernando Valera
(1899–1982)
28 February 1971 21 June 1977 682 Republican Union José Maldonado Gonzalez
Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939).svg
(1970–1977)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yossi Shain (ed). Governments-in-Exile in Contemporary World Politics. New York: Routledge. 1991. p. 152.
  2. ^ Martin Ebon. World Communism Today. New York: Whittlesey House. 1948. p. 252.

External links[edit]