List of papal tiaras in existence

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The papal tiara is the crown worn by popes of the Catholic Church for centuries, until 1978 when Pope John Paul I declined a coronation, opting instead for an inauguration. The tiara is still used as a symbol of the papacy. It features on the coat of arms of the Holy See and of the Vatican City State, though not on the pope's personal coat of arms since Pope Benedict XVI replaced the tiara on his official coat of arms with a traditional bishop's mitre. A tiara is used to crown a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica every year on his feast day.[1]

Popes commissioned tiaras from jewelers or received them as gifts, with a number remaining in the possession of the Holy See. In 1798, French troops occupied Rome and stole or destroyed all but one of the papal tiaras held by the Holy See. Since then popes have used or received as gifts more than twenty tiaras. Several were never worn by a pope, notably those presented as gifts since the last papal coronation in 1963.

List of papal tiaras still in existence[edit]

List of papal tiaras
Name Year Notes
1 Tiara of Pope Gregory XIII 1572-1585 The oldest surviving, made by Cristoforo Foppa.[citation needed] Decoration originally included an emerald (404.5 carats) later incorporated in the Napoleon Tiara.[2]
2 Papier-mâché Tiara 1800 Made for the coronation of Pope Pius VII in exile in Venice following the seizure or destruction of papal tiaras by the French troops that invaded Rome in 1798. Decorated with jewels donated by local families. Worn as a lightweight alternative for decades.[3]
3 Napoleon tiara - original.jpg Napoleon Tiara 1804 Napoleon I gifted a tiara to Pope Pius VII, who presided at his coronation as emperor in December 1804. Manufactured by Henri Auguste and Marie-Etienne Nitot of the House of Chaumet, its decoration celebrated that coronation and the Concordat of 1801. Some of its jewels and decoration came from tiaras taken by the troops of the French Directory in 1798. It was purposely made too small and too heavy to be worn. It was later modified and worn by Pius IX at his coronation in 1846[4] and to open the First Vatican Council in 1868. It appears in Jacques-Louis David's 1807 painting The Coronation of Napoleon.[a]
4 Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI 1834 One of the most worn in the papal collection. Worn at times by Pius IX, Pius X and Pius XII.[citation needed]
5 Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI 1845
6 Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI date unknown Lightweight version.
7 Tiara of Pope Pius IX 1846 Coronation tiara.
8 Isabellatiara.jpg Spanish Tiara 1855 A gift from Queen Isabella II of Spain, weighing three pounds and topped with a single sapphire.[6][7]
9 Tiara of Pope Pius IX late 1850s A gift from the Congregation of Holy Cross. On permanent display in the Basilica of the Sacred Heart at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana.
10 Belgian Tiara 1871 A gift to Pope Pius IX from the women of the Royal Court of the King of the Belgians made by Jean-Baptiste Bethune of Ghent.[8][9]
11 Tiara of Pope Pius IX 1870s Lightweight tiara.
12 Pio Nono Tiara.JPG Palatine Tiara 1877 A gift from the Palatine Guard to Pope Pius IX to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his consecration as a bishop. Relatively lightweight at two pounds, it was used at all later papal coronations.[10][11]
13 German Tiara 1887 A gift from Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany in commemoration of Pope Leo XIII's Golden Jubilee as a priest.[citation needed]
14 LeoXIIIcrown.jpg Paris Tiara 1888 A gift from the Catholics of Paris to celebrate the golden jubilee of Pope Leo XIII's ordination as a priest. By Émile Froment-Meurice.[12] He had squelched a proposal by Lyon Catholics to raise funds for a tiara in 1878.[13]
15 Austrian Tiara 1894 A gift from Kaiser Franz Joseph I of Austria.[citation needed]
16 Golden Tiara 1903 Presented by Cardinal Pietro Respighi on behalf of the world's Catholics to commemorate the Pope Leo XIII's silver jubilee as pope.[14][15]
17 Tiara of Pope Pius X 1908 By papal jewelers Tatani to commemorate the golden jubilee of the ordination of Pope Pius X as a priest. Made because the pope found other tiaras too heavy.
18 Tiara Pius XI.JPG Tiara of Pope Pius XI 1922 A gift from the Archdiocese of Milan.[16]
19 788BergamoTiaraGiovanniXXIII.jpg 1959 A gift to Pope John XXIII from the people of Bergamo, his home region, in honour of his election. Worn on occasion.[17]
20 Pope Paul VI Tiara 2.jpg Tiara of Pope Paul VI 1963 The last tiara worn at a papal coronation. Made by Milanese artisans in a modern style with minimal ornament. Half the weight of the Palatine tiara of Pius IX used at coronations from 1877 to 1958. On permanent display in the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception.[18]
21 Gedenkprägung-tiara-johannes-paul-II-.jpg 1981 Presented to Pope John Paul II by Catholics in Hungary.[citation needed] Never worn. Location unknown. Appears in a photograph of a medal said to be held in the Bayerisches Münzkontor.[19]
22 Tiara Benedict XVI.JPG 2011 Presented to Benedict XVI on 25 May 2011 by a group of German Roman Catholics; created by Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Christians.[20] Never worn.
23 2016 Presented to Pope Francis on 16 May 2016 by the President of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, Trajko Veljanovski. Made by the nuns of the monastery of Rajcica, with Ohrid pearl.[21] Never worn.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The tiara is held by someone standing just behind the pope. A sketch for the painting shows Count Rogari holding tiara.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tiara papal" (in Spanish). Holy See Press Office. 3 April 2001. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  2. ^ de la Garde Grissell, Hartwell (January–June 1896). "Replies: Vatican Eemerald". A Medium of Intercommunication for Literary Men, General Readers, Etc. Eighth Series. London. 9: 9–10. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  3. ^ Marsden, Rhodri (21 March 2015). "Rhodri Marsden's Interesting Objects: Pope Pius VII's paper crown". The Independent. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  4. ^ "Intelligence". The United States Catholic Magazine and Monthly Review. 5 (8): 454. August 1846. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  5. ^ "Count Rogari Holding the Papal Tiara". Harvard Art Museums. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  6. ^ "Ecclesiastical Immunities". New York Times. 9 February 1855. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  7. ^ "The Pope's Tiara". The Ladies' Repository. 24: 568. September 1864. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  8. ^ William, Arthur (1873). The modern Jove; a review of the collected speeches of Pio Nono. Hamilton, Adams & Co. p. 22. 
  9. ^ image
  10. ^ Chico, Beverly (2013). Hats and Headwear around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia: A Cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 446. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  11. ^ Keller, Joseph Edward (1882). The Life and Acts of Pope Leo XIII. Benziger Brothers. p. 274. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  12. ^ "The Jubilee of Pope Leo XIII". The Tablet. 69 (No. 2455): 859. 28 May 1887. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  13. ^ "Leo XIII and Peter's Pence". New York Times. 1 December 1878. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  14. ^ "Pope Lei XIII's Jubilee". New York Times. 21 February 1903. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  15. ^ image
  16. ^ Collins, Michael (2008). The Vatican: Secrets and Treasures of the Holy City. Dorling Kindersley. p. 267. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  17. ^ "La Tiara di Papa Giovanni XXIII" (in Italian). Cattedrale di Bergamo. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  18. ^ Dugan, George (1 December 1964). "Spellman's Surprise: Pope's Tiara Is Here". New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2017. 
  19. ^ Gedenkprägung Tiara Johannes Paul II
  20. ^ Kerr, David (May 25, 2011). "Germans present Pope Benedict with his own papal crown". Catholic News Agency. 
  21. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (17 May 2016). "A Tiara for Every Pope". La Stampa. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
Additional sources
  • Edward Twining (Lord Twining), A History of the Crown Jewels of Europe, London: B.T. Batsford, 1960.
  • Edward Twining (Lord Twining), European Regalia, London: B.T. Batsford, 1967.