Spanish animation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Spanish animation refers to animation made in Spain.

Short films[edit]

Silent era[edit]

Segundo de Chomón is considered the pioneer of Spanish animation, with the stop-motion shorts he made in France for Pathé starting with La maison hantée (1907). El toro fenómeno (Fernando Marco, 1917), which was lost, is considered the first Spanish animated film. It was immediately followed by other shorts, including political satires.[1] Joaquín Xaudaró is the best known animator from the interwar period.

Feature films[edit]

Classic era[edit]

Spain's first animated feature, Garbancito of La Mancha (1945), was the first European cel-animated and non-American color one, using Dufaycolor.[2] It was a fairy tail where an orphan child loosely based in Don Quixote has to save his friends from a giant with the help of his fairy godmother and goat. Its production company, Balet y Blay, made two more features: Happy Vacations (1948) and The Dreams of Tay-Pi (1952).

Through the 1950 new companies were created. Estudios Moro and Estudios Vara produced the main features in subsequent stages of the Francoist era: The Wizard of Dreams (1966) and The Wardrobe of Time (1971). Cruz Delgado, a Moro animator, created his own studio and directed Magical Adventure (1973), while Manuel García Ferré, who had moved to Argentina, created there features such as The Adventures of Hijitus (1973) and Trapito (1975).

At the later stages of this period underground animation took shape, including the first abstract direct cameraless feature ever, José Antonio Sistiaga's Ere erera baleibu icik subua aruaren (1970), and during the transition to democracy the first Spanish feature restricted for adults was released: Stories of Love and Massacre (1979).

Modern era[edit]

In the 1980s the feature production was diversified under the new autonomous system and films based in the local traditions were produced, such as The Magic Pumpkin (Juan Bautista Berasategi, 1985) in Euskadi and Despertaferro (Jordi Amorós, 1990) in Catalonia. The Town Musicians of Bremen (Cruz Delgado, 1988), which spun a popular series, Los Trotamúsicos (1989), was the first animation film prized at the Goya Awards.[3]

Feature production didn't make an impact for most of the 1990s, and only one Goya award was granted in the first half of the decade, for The Return of the North Wind (Maite Ruiz de Austri, 1993). It was however a period of experimentation: Megasónicos (1997) was the first European CGI animation feature,[4] and A Child's Play (Pablo Lloréns, 1999) was the first Spanish stop-motion feature.

Production rose in the following years, and in 2000 four films competed for the Goya Award for the first time. The Living Forest (2001) was the first widely-distributed CGI feature, but most films were made in traditional animation for the first half of the decade. While most of them were influenced by American animation, Gisaku (Baltasar Pedrosa, 2005) was branded as the first Spanish anime feature[5] and released at nearly the same time in Japan and Spain.

Contemporary era[edit]

From the second half of the 2000s CGI has been the dominating trend in family features. Many of them were co-productions with other countries, such as Great Britain in Kandor Graphics' The Missing Lynx (2008) and Justin and the Knights of Valour (2013). The most ambitious of these co-productions was Planet 51 (2009), with a $70 million budget. At the same time, Spanish animation co-produced foreign films such as Michel Ocelot's Azur and Asmar (2006).

Some of the most ambitious projects in more recent years were produced just in Spain with the backing of television networks, such as Mediaset in Lightbox Entertainment's Tad, the Lost Explorer (2012) and Capture the Flag (2015). Meanwhile live-action directors Juan José Campanella and Javier Fesser entered the CGI animation field with Underdogs (2013) and Mortadelo and Filemon: Mission Implausible (2014) respectively.

Traditional animation is still used in adult projects. Chico and Rita (Fernando Trueba, 2010) won the European Award and was nominated for the Academy Award, while Wrinkles (Ignacio Ferreras, 2011) was nominated for the European Award and the Annie Award. Lastly, stop-motion has been used for horror features such as Going Nuts (Juanjo Ramírez, 2007) and O apóstolo (Fernando Cortizo, 2012).

List of productions[edit]

|}

Prized Nomin.
Title Release R. time Technique Main animation studio Director Co-producers Rating Budget Box office Awards
Goya Euro Oscar Annie
Garbancito of La Mancha 1945-11-23 98 min. Traditional Catalonia Balet y Blay J.M. Blay, A. Moreno P3.1 million P3 million
Happy Holidays 1948-12-27 73 min. Traditional Catalonia Balet y Blay J.M. Blay, A. Moreno P3 million P1.3 million
Once Upon a Time... 1950 75 min. Traditional Catalonia Estela Alexandre Cirici P4 million
The Dreams of Tay-Pi 1952-12-22 Traditional Catalonia Balet y Blay J.M. Blay, F. Winterstein
The Wizard of Dreams 1966-12-16 70 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Moro Fernando Macián
Mortadelo y Filemon Festival 1969 80 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Vara Rafael Vara P2.2 million
Mortadelo y Filemon Second Festival 1970 85 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Vara Rafael Vara P2.5 million
Ere erera baleibu icik subua aruaren 1970 75 min. Drawn-on-film José Antonio Sistiaga
The Wardrobe of Time 1971 78 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Vara Rafael Vara P40 million
Magical Adventure 1973-09-06 69 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Cruz Delgado Cruz Delgado
The Attic of Fantasy 1978 75 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Cruz Delgado Cruz Delgado
Stories of Love and Massacre 1979-04-16 88 min. Traditional Catalonia Equip Jordi Amorós
Gulliver's Travels 1983-12-17 82 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Cruz Delgado Cruz Delgado P100 million
Katy the Caterpillar 1985-07-15 69 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Moro J.L. Moro, S. Moro Mexico P80 million
The Little Vagabond 1985-07-29 96 min. Traditional Manuel Rodjara
The Magic Pumpkin 1985 90 min. Traditional Juanba Berasategi
Town Musicians of Bremen 1989-06-26 86 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Cruz Delgado Cruz Delgado P20 million
Peraustrinia 2004 1990-04-06 75 min. Traditional Catalonia Marimón Ángel García
Despertaferro 1990-12-05 75 min. Traditional Catalonia Equip Jordi Amorós Germany
The Legend of the North Wind 1992 69 min. Traditional Basque Country (autonomous community) Eskuz J. Berasategi, M. Ruiz de Austri, C. Varela P150 million
The Return of the North Wind 1993 72 min. Traditional Basque Country (autonomous community) Eskuz Maite Ruiz de Austri
Megasónicos 1997-12-19 85 min. CG animation Basque Country (autonomous community) Baleuko J. González, J. Martínez
Ahmed, the Prince of Alhambra 1998-06 68 min. Traditional Basque Country (autonomous community) Lotura Juanba Berasategi
¡Qué vecinos tan animales! 1998-09-04 69 min. Traditional Extremadura Extra Maite Ruiz de Austri
Goomer 1999-07-09 75 min. Traditional Catalonia Merlín J.L. Feito, C. Varela
A Children's Game 1999-10 74 min. Stop-motion Valencian Community Potens Pablo Llorens P48 million
The Thief of Dreams 1999-12-15 70 min. CG animation Basque Country (autonomous community) Dibulitoon Ángel Alonso P130 million
The Island of the Crab 2000-10-02 68 min. Traditional Basque Country (autonomous community) Irusoin T. Basterretxea, J. Muñoz P130 million
Marco Antonio: Hong Kong Rescue 2000-12-01 78 min. Traditional Catalonia Merlín M.J. García, C. Varela
The Living Forest 2001-08-03 82 min. CG animation Galicia (Spain) Dygra Á. de a Cruz, M. Gómez €3 million €2 million
10 + 2: The Great Secret 2001-08-17 85 min. Traditional Catalonia Acció Miquel Pujol
A Dog Called Pain 2001-11-16 90 min. Traditional Luis Eduardo Aute
The Legend of the Unicorn 2001-12-21 70 min. Traditional Extremadura Extra Maite Ruiz de Austri P200 million
The King of the Farm 2002-06-21 95 min. Trad. / CG / live-action Basque Country (autonomous community) Bainet G. Muro, C. Zabala
The Warriors of the Apocalypse 2002-08-14 80 min. CG animation Community of Madrid Ovidio DVD Jesús M. Montané
Time Gate 2002-11-29 80 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Animatoons Pedro E. Delgado
Dragon Hill 2002-12-20 80 min. Traditional Andalusia Milímetros Ángel Izquierdo €3 million
Anjé, the Pyrenaic Legend 2002 67 min. CG animation Basque Country (autonomous community) Baleuko Juanjo Elordi
El embrujo del Sur 2003-07-04 89 min. Traditional Basque Country (autonomous community) Lotura Juanba Berasategi €1.2 million
Betizu Among the Stars 2003-10-31 71 min. CG animation Basque Country (autonomous community) Baleuko Egoitz Rodríguez
El Cid: The Legend 2003-12-19 90 min. Traditional Galicia (Spain) Filmax Raúl del Pozo €8 million €2.6 million
The Three Wise Men 2003-12-19 76 min. Traditional Community of Madrid Animagic Antonio Navarro €7.2 million €2.3 million
Pinocchio 3000 2004-02-09 79 min. CG animation Canada CinéGroupe Daniel Robichaud Canada France $12 million $15 million
The Balunis in the Adventure in the End of the World 2004-03-19 88 min. CG animation Basque Country (autonomous community) Baleuko Juanjo Elordi
Glup, una aventura sin desperdicio 2004-04-02 73 min. Traditional Basque Country (autonomous community) Dibulitoon A. Arregi, I. Berasategui €1.2 million
Supertramps 2004-12-01 79 min. CG animation Basque Country (autonomous community) Dibulitoon Íñigo Berasategi, Jose Mari Goenaga €1.2 million
Arensivia's Death 2005 85 min. Traditional Catalonia El Jueves Maikel García
Gisaku 2005-03-04 81 min. Traditional Galicia (Spain) Filmax Baltasar Pedrosa €4 million €133,000
The Monstruous Adventures of Zipi and Zape 2005-03-09 80 min. Traditional Community of Madrid BRB Claudio Biern Boyd
Midsummer Dream 2005-07-01 98 min. CG animation Galicia (Spain) Dygra Ángel de la Cruz, Manolo Gómez Portugal €6 million €1.5 million
Olentzero and the Magic Trunk 2005-12-23 82 min. CG animation Basque Country (autonomous community) Baleuko Juanjo Elordi €1.3 million
The Warrior Without a Name 2006-04-07 90 min. CG animation Community of Madrid Tornasol David Iglesias €2.3 million [6]
PayaS.O.S. ¡¡¡al rescate!!! 2006-12-29 70 min. Traditional Basque Country (autonomous community) Lotura Imanol Zinkunegi
De Profundis 2007-01-19 75 min. Traditional Miguelanxo Prado €1.5 million [7]


Television animation[edit]

Classic era[edit]

Animation first appeared at the Spanish television in commercials and spots. The most famous one was José Luis Moro's The Telerín Family (1964), which was used to tell children it was time to go to bed. Its characters went on to star in the 1966 The Wizard of Dreams feature.

In 1968 former Estudios Moro animator Cruz Delgado created for TVE the first Spanish animated series, Microbio.[8] One year before émigré animator Manuel García Ferré had created in Argentina the Hijitus series.

Modern era[edit]

Cruz Delgado's Don Quixote of La Mancha (1979–81) was the first large success in Spanish TV animation, which boosted in the following years. Co-productions were set, with Nippon Animation creating the animation for BRB Internacional's Ruy, the Little Cid (1979), Dogtanian and the Three Muskehounds (1981) and Around the World with Willy Fog (1984), while The World of David the Gnome (1985) was an international success.

References[edit]