Spanish general election, 1901

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Spanish general election, 1901
Spain
← 1899 19 May–2 June 1901 1903 →

All 402 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 180 (of 360) seats in the Senate
202 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies

202 seats needed for a majority
Registered 4,300,066
Turnout 2,880,210–2,888,021 (67.0–67.2%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (cropped).jpg Francisco Silvela 1905 (cropped).jpg Francisco Pi y Margall 1900 (cropped).jpg
Leader Práxedes Mateo Sagasta Francisco Silvela Francisco Pi y Margall
Party Liberal Conservative CR
Leader since 1876 1899 1901
Leader's seat Logroño (Logroño) Ávila (Piedrahita) Barcelona (Barcelona)
Last election 102 seats 228 seats 13 seats
Seats won 245 84 14
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg143 Red Arrow Down.svg144 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1

Prime Minister before election

Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
Liberal

Elected Prime Minister

Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
Liberal

The 1901 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 19 May and on Sunday, 2 June 1901, to elect the 10th Restoration Cortes of the Kingdom of Spain. All 402 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 180 of 360 seats in the Senate.[1]

Overview[edit]

The Spanish legislature, the Cortes, was composed of two chambers at the time of the 1901 election:

This was a nearly perfect bicameral system, with the two chambers established as "co-legislative bodies". Both chambers had legislative, control and budgetary functions, sharing equal powers except for laws on contributions or public credit, where the Congress had preeminence.[2]

The Spanish Constitution of 1876 enshrined Spain as a constitutional monarchy, awarding the King power to name senators and to revoke laws, as well as the title of commander-in-chief of the army. The King would also play a key role in the system of the turno pacífico (Spanish for "Peaceful Turn") by appointing and toppling governments and allowing the opposition to take power. Under this system, the Conservative and Liberal parties alternated in power by means of election rigging, which they achieved through the encasillado, using the links between the Ministry of the Interior, the provincial civil governors, and the local bosses (caciques) to ensure victory and exclude minor parties from the power sharing.

Electoral system[edit]

For the Congress of Deputies, 86 seats were allocated to 26 multi-member constituencies and awarded using a partial block voting, with the remaining 316 awarded under a first-past-the-post system in single-member districts. Instead of voting for parties, electors would vote for individual candidates. In districts electing more than one seat and up to four, electors could vote for one less candidate than seats to be filled; in those with more than four seats and up to eight, for up to two less; and for up to three less in multi-member constituencies electing eight seats or more. Candidates winning a plurality of votes in each constituency were elected. The overall number of seats was determined by the population count, with one seat per each 50,000 inhabitants. Voting was on the basis of universal manhood suffrage, with males over twenty-five and at least a two-year residency in a municipality entitled to vote. Concurrently, secular males at least twenty-five years old and in the full enjoyment of all civil rights were eligible for the Congress.[3]

The Senate was not a directly elected body, with its 360 members being divided into three different classes:

The Constitution of 1876 provided for 180 elective senators and an equal number of senators for the other two classes combined. Elective senators served terms of ten years each, with their terms staggered so that approximately one-half of these seats were up for appointment every five years. The King could dissolve the entirety of the elective section of the Senate at will, triggering the appointment of the full contingent of elective senators.[4][5]

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Most voted party by regions and provinces.
Summary of the 19 May 1901 Congress of Deputies election results
SpainCongressDiagram1901.svg
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Liberal Party (PL) 245 +143
Liberal Conservative Party (PLC) 84 –144
Gamacist Liberals (LG) 13 –15
Liberal Reformist Party (PLR) 8 +4
Tetuanist Conservatives (T) 7 –5
Traditionalist Communion (CT) 6 +4
Regionalist League (LR) New 6 +6
Integrist Party (PI) 3 +2
Blasquist Republicans (Blasq.rep) 2 +1
Independent Liberals (Lib.i) New 2 +2
National Union (UN) New 2 +2
Independent Catholics (Cató.i) 2 ±0
Independent Republicans (Rep.i) 1 –2
Independents 7 +1
Total 100.00 402 ±0
Votes cast / turnout
Abstentions
Registered voters
Source: historiaelectoral.com
Seats
PL
  
60.95%
PLC
  
20.90%
CR
  
3.48%
LG
  
3.23%
PLR
  
1.99%
T
  
1.74%
CT
  
1.49%
LR
  
1.49%
PI
  
0.75%
Blasq.rep
  
0.50%
Lib.i
  
0.50%
UN
  
0.50%
Cató.i
  
0.50%
Rep.i
  
0.25%
Independents
  
1.74%

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Real decreto declarando disueltos el Congreso de los Diputados y la parte electiva del Senado, de 24 de abril de 1901" (PDF) (in Spanish). boe.es. Retrieved 2016-12-28. 
  2. ^ "El Senado en la historia constitucional española" (in Spanish). senado.es. Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  3. ^ "Ley electoral, de 26 de junio de 1890" (PDF) (in Spanish). boe.es. Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  4. ^ "Ley electoral de Senadores, de 8 de febrero de 1877" (PDF) (in Spanish). boe.es. Retrieved 2016-12-27. 
  5. ^ "Constitución de 1876" (PDF) (in Spanish). cepc.gob.es. Retrieved 2016-12-27. 

External links[edit]