Spanish general election, 1905

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Spanish general election, 1905
← 1903 10–24 September 1905 1907 →

All 404 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 180 (of 360) seats in the Senate
203 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
  First party Second party Third party
  Eugenio Montero Ríos 1914 (cropped).jpg Antonio Maura 1917 (cropped).jpg Nicolás Salmerón 1908 (cropped).jpg
Leader Eugenio Montero Ríos Antonio Maura Nicolás Salmerón
Party Liberal Conservative PUR
Leader since 1902 1905 1903
Leader's seat None Balearic Islands (Palma) Barcelona (Barcelona)
Last election 113 seats 219 seats 30 seats
Seats won 223 107 27
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg110 Red Arrow Down.svg112 Red Arrow Down.svg3

Prime Minister before election

Eugenio Montero Ríos

Elected Prime Minister

Eugenio Montero Ríos

The 1905 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 10 September and on Sunday, 24 September 1905, to elect the 12th Restoration Cortes of the Kingdom of Spain. All 404 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 180 of 360 seats in the Senate.[1]


The Spanish legislature, the Cortes, was composed of two chambers at the time of the 1905 election:

This was a nearly perfect bicameral system, with the two chambers established as "co-legislative bodies". Both chambers had legislative, control and budgetary functions, sharing equal powers except for laws on contributions or public credit, where the Congress had preeminence.[2]

The Spanish Constitution of 1876 enshrined Spain as a constitutional monarchy, awarding the King power to name senators and to revoke laws, as well as the title of commander-in-chief of the army. The King would also play a key role in the system of the turno pacífico (Spanish for "Peaceful Turn") by appointing and toppling governments and allowing the opposition to take power. Under this system, the Conservative and Liberal parties alternated in power by means of election rigging, which they achieved through the encasillado, using the links between the Ministry of the Interior, the provincial civil governors, and the local bosses (caciques) to ensure victory and exclude minor parties from the power sharing.

Electoral system[edit]

For the Congress of Deputies, 89 seats were allocated to 26 multi-member constituencies and awarded using a partial block voting, with the remaining 315 awarded under a first-past-the-post system in single-member districts. Instead of voting for parties, electors would vote for individual candidates. In districts electing more than one seat and up to four, electors could vote for one less candidate than seats to be filled; in those with more than four seats and up to eight, for up to two less; and for up to three less in multi-member constituencies electing eight seats or more. Candidates winning a plurality of votes in each constituency were elected. The overall number of seats was determined by the population count, with one seat per each 50,000 inhabitants. Voting was on the basis of universal manhood suffrage, with males over twenty-five and at least a two-year residency in a municipality entitled to vote. Concurrently, secular males at least twenty-five years old and in the full enjoyment of all civil rights were eligible for the Congress.[3]

The Senate was not a directly elected body, with its 360 members being divided into three different classes:

The Constitution of 1876 provided for 180 elective senators and an equal number of senators for the other two classes combined. Elective senators served terms of ten years each, with their terms staggered so that approximately one-half of these seats were up for appointment every five years. The King could dissolve the entirety of the elective section of the Senate at will, triggering the appointment of the full contingent of elective senators.[4][5]


Congress of Deputies[edit]

Most voted party by regions and provinces.
Summary of the 10 September 1905 Congress of Deputies election results
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Liberal Party (PL)1 223 +110
Liberal Conservative Party (PLC) 107 –112
Republican Union Party (PUR) 27 –3
Villaverdist Conservatives (V) New 16 +16
Regionalist League (LR) 7 +2
Liberal Reformist Party (PLR) 7 ±0
Traditionalist Communion (CT) 4 –3
Federal Democratic Republican Party (PRDF) 4 –3
Independent Catholics (Cató.i) 3 –2
Integrist Party (PI) 2 +1
Tetuanist Conservatives (T) 0 –6
Independents 4 +1
Total 100.00 404 +1
Votes cast / turnout
Registered voters



  1. ^ "Real decreto declarando disueltos el Congreso de los Diputados y la parte electiva del Senado, de 17 de agosto de 1905" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-12-29. 
  2. ^ "El Senado en la historia constitucional española" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  3. ^ "Ley electoral, de 26 de junio de 1890" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  4. ^ "Ley electoral de Senadores, de 8 de febrero de 1877" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-12-27. 
  5. ^ "Constitución de 1876" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-12-27. 

External links[edit]