Spanish general election, 1918

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Spanish general election, 1918
Spain
← 1916 24 February–10 March 1918 1919 →

All 409 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 180 (of 360) seats in the Senate
205 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Registered 4,189,976–4,719,662
Turnout 2,790,164 (59.1–66.6%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Eduardo Dato 1911 (cropped).jpg Manuel García Prieto 1900 (cropped).jpg Álvaro de Figueroa, Romanones (cropped).jpg
Leader Eduardo Dato Manuel García Prieto Álvaro Figueroa Torres
Party Conservative Liberal Democrats Liberal
Leader since 1913 1913 1912
Leader's seat Álava (Vitoria) None Guadalajara (Guadalajara)
Last election 88 seats Did not contest 233 seats
Seats won 98 92 43
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg10 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg92 Red Arrow Down.svg190

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Melquíades Álvarez 1923 (cropped).jpg Antonio Maura 1917 (cropped).jpg Santiago Alba 1912 (cropped).jpg
Leader Melquíades Álvarez Antonio Maura Santiago Alba
Party AI PM IL
Leader since 1918 1913 1917
Leader's seat None Balearic Islands (Palma) Valladolid (Villalón de Campos)
Last election 32 seats 17 seats Did not contest
Seats won 35 31 29
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg14 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg29

Prime Minister before election

Manuel García Prieto
Liberal Democrats

Elected Prime Minister

Antonio Maura
PM

The 1918 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 24 February and on Sunday, 10 March 1918, to elect the 17th Restoration Cortes of the Kingdom of Spain. All 409 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 180 of 360 seats in the Senate.[1]

Overview[edit]

The Spanish legislature, the Cortes, was composed of two chambers at the time of the 1918 election:

This was a nearly perfect bicameral system, with the two chambers established as "co-legislative bodies". Both chambers had legislative, control and budgetary functions, sharing equal powers except for laws on contributions or public credit, where the Congress had preeminence.[2]

The Spanish Constitution of 1876 enshrined Spain as a constitutional monarchy, awarding the King power to name senators and to revoke laws, as well as the title of commander-in-chief of the army. The King would also play a key role in the system of the turno pacífico (Spanish for "Peaceful Turn") by appointing and toppling governments and allowing the opposition to take power. Under this system, the Conservative and Liberal parties alternated in power by means of election rigging, which they achieved through the encasillado, using the links between the Ministry of the Interior, the provincial civil governors, and the local bosses (caciques) to ensure victory and exclude minor parties from the power sharing.

Electoral system[edit]

For the Congress of Deputies, 88 seats were allocated to 28 multi-member constituencies and awarded using a partial block voting, with the remaining 321 awarded under a first-past-the-post system in single-member districts. Instead of voting for parties, electors would vote for individual candidates. In districts electing more than one seat and up to four, electors could vote for one less candidate than seats to be filled; in those with more than four seats and up to eight, for up to two less; in those with more than eight seats and up to ten, for up to three less; and for up to four less in multi-member constituencies electing ten seats or more. Candidates winning a plurality of votes in each constituency were elected. In single-member districts were candidates ran unopposed, and in multi-member districts where the number of candidates was equal or less than the number of seats to be filled, candidates were automatically proclaimed without an election. The overall number of seats was determined by the population count, with one seat per each 50,000 inhabitants. Voting was compulsory and on the basis of universal manhood suffrage, with males over twenty-five and at least a two-year residency in a municipality required to vote. Only those above seventy years old, first instance judges, public notaries and the clergy were exempt from voting. Concurrently, secular males at least twenty-five years old were eligible for the Congress if meeting one of these requirements: (1) having previously held the position of deputy; (2) having been proposed by at least two senators or former senators, two deputies or former deputies for the same province, or three provincial or former provincial deputies within the constituency; Or (3) having been proposed by at least 0.05% of registered electors in the district.[3]

The Senate was not a directly elected body, with its 360 members being divided into three different classes:

The Constitution of 1876 provided for 180 elective senators and an equal number of senators for the other two classes combined. Elective senators served terms of ten years each, with their terms staggered so that approximately one-half of these seats were up for appointment every five years. The King could dissolve the entirety of the elective section of the Senate at will, triggering the appointment of the full contingent of elective senators.[4][5]

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Most voted party by regions and provinces.
Summary of the 24 February 1918 Congress of Deputies election results
SpainCongressDiagram1918.svg
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Liberal Conservative Party (PLC) 98 +10
Liberal Democratic Party (PLD) New 92 +92
Liberals (romanonists) (L)1 43 –190
Maurist Party (PM)6 31 +14
Liberal Left (IL) New 29 +29
Ciervist Conservatives (CC) 24 +16
Regionalist League of Catalonia (LRC) 21 +8
Traditionalist Communion (Jaimists) (CT) 8 –1
Basque Nationalist Communion (CNV) New 7 +7
Agrarian Liberals (gassetists) (Lib.agr) New 7 +7
Independent Liberals (Lib.i) New 3 +3
Regionalists (Reg)7 3 +2
Independent Catholics (Cató.i) 2 –1
Independent Catalan Nationalist Republicans (Rep.nac.cat) 1 ±0
Integrist Party (PI)8 1 –1
Carlist Catholics (Cató.carl) New 1 +1
Independent Conservatives (Con.i) 1 +1
Basque Dynastics (Din.v) 1 ±0
Independent Catalan Nationalists (Nac.cat.i) 0 –1
Independents 1 +1
Total 100.00 409 ±0
Votes cast / turnout9
Abstentions
Registered voters
Source: historiaelectoral.com
Seats
PLC
  
23.96%
LD
  
22.49%
L
  
10.51%
AI
  
8.56%
PM
  
7.58%
IL
  
7.09%
CC
  
5.87%
LRC
  
5.13%
CT
  
1.96%
CNV
  
1.71%
Lib.agr
  
1.71%
Lib.i
  
0.73%
Reg
  
0.73%
Cató.i
  
0.49%
Rep.nac.cat
  
0.24%
PI
  
0.24%
Cató.carl
  
0.24%
Con.i
  
0.24%
Din.v
  
0.24%
Independents
  
0.24%

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Real decreto declarando disueltos el Congreso de los Diputados y la parte electiva del Senado, de 10 de enero de 1918" (PDF) (in Spanish). boe.es. Retrieved 2017-01-07. 
  2. ^ "El Senado en la historia constitucional española" (in Spanish). senado.es. Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  3. ^ "Ley electoral, de 8 de agosto de 1907" (PDF) (in Spanish). boe.es. Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  4. ^ "Ley electoral de Senadores, de 8 de febrero de 1877" (PDF) (in Spanish). boe.es. Retrieved 2016-12-27. 
  5. ^ "Constitución de 1876" (PDF) (in Spanish). cepc.gob.es. Retrieved 2016-12-27. 

External links[edit]