Spanish general election, 1923

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Spanish general election, 1923
Spain
← 1920 29 April 1923 1931 →

All 409 seats of the Congress of Deputies
205 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 40.09–69.76%
  First party Second party Third party
  Manuel García Prieto.jpg J.SánchezGuerra.jpg Francisco Cambó.JPG
Leader Manuel García Prieto José Sánchez Guerra Francesc Cambó
Party Liberal Conservative LRC
Leader since 1918 1921 1901
Leader's seat Senator for life Cabra Barcelona
Last election 125 seats 174 seats 14 seats
Seats won 222 93 20
Seat change Increase97 Decrease81 Increase6

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Juan de la Cierva Peñafiel.jpg A. Maura.jpg Lerroux face.jpg
Leader Juan de la Cierva y Peñafiel Antonio Maura Alejandro Lerroux
Party CC PM PRR
Leader since 1914 1914 1908
Leader's seat Mula Palma Barcelona
Last election 23 seats 24 seats 8 seats
Seats won 18 12 7
Seat change Decrease5 Decrease12 Decrease1

Prime Minister before election

Manuel García Prieto
Liberal

Elected Prime Minister

Manuel García Prieto
Liberal

General elections to the Cortes Generales were held in Spain on 29 April 1923. At stake were all 409 seats in the Congress of Deputies.[1][2][3]

The 1923 general election would be the final election governed by the customary turno system. As expected, it legitimated a prearranged shift of power from the Conservatives to the Liberals. The system ended with the September 1923 coup of Miguel Primo de Rivera, and the next elections - held after eight years of dictatorship and the removal of the monarchy - would be competitive.

Overview[edit]

The Spanish legislature, the Cortes, was composed of two chambers at the time of the 1923 election:

This was a nearly perfect bicameral system, with the two chambers established as "co-legislative bodies". Both chambers had legislative, control and budgetary functions, sharing equal powers except for laws on contributions or public credit, where the Congress had preeminence.[4]

The Spanish Constitution of 1876 enshrined Spain as a constitutional monarchy, awarding the King power to name senators and to revoke laws, as well as the title of commander-in-chief of the army. The King would also play a key role in the system of the turno pacífico (Spanish for "Peaceful Turn") by appointing and toppling governments and allowing the opposition to take power. Under this system, the Conservative and Liberal parties alternated in power by means of election rigging, which they achieved through the encasillado, using the links between the Ministry of the Interior, the provincial civil governors, and the local bosses (caciques) to ensure victory and exclude minor parties from the power sharing.

Electoral system[edit]

For the Congress of Deputies, 88 seats were allocated to 28 multi-member constituencies and awarded using a partial block voting, with the remaining 321 awarded under a first-past-the-post system in single-member districts. Instead of voting for parties, electors would vote for individual candidates. In districts electing more than one seat and up to four, electors could vote for one less candidate than seats to be filled; in those with more than four seats and up to eight, for up to two less; in those with more than eight seats and up to ten, for up to three less; and for up to four less in multi-member constituencies electing ten seats or more. Candidates winning a plurality of votes in each constituency were elected. In single-member districts were candidates ran unopposed, and in multi-member districts where the number of candidates was equal or less than the number of seats to be filled, candidates were automatically proclaimed without an election. The overall number of seats was determined by the population count, with one seat per each 50,000 inhabitants. Voting was compulsory and on the basis of universal manhood suffrage, with males over twenty-five and at least a two-year residency in a municipality required to vote. Only those above seventy years old, first instance judges, public notaries and the clergy were exempt from voting. Concurrently, secular males at least twenty-five years old were eligible for the Congress if meeting one of these requirements: (1) having previously held the position of deputy; (2) having been proposed by at least two senators or former senators, two deputies or former deputies for the same province, or three provincial or former provincial deputies within the constituency; Or (3) having been proposed by at least 0.05% of registered electors in the district.[5]

The Senate was not a directly elected body, with its 360 members being divided into three different classes:

The Constitution of 1876 provided for 180 elective senators and an equal number of senators for the other two classes combined. Elective senators served terms of ten years each, with their terms staggered so that approximately one-half of these seats were up for appointment every five years. The King could dissolve the entirety of the elective section of the Senate at will, triggering the appointment of the full contingent of elective senators.[6][7]

Results[edit]

Composition of the elected Congress.
Summary of the 29 April 1923 Spanish Congress of Deputies election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Liberal Party-Reformist Party (PL-PR) 222 Increase97
Conservative Party (PLC) 93 Decrease81
Regionalist League of Catalonia (LRC) 20 Increase6
Ciervist Conservatives (CC) 18 Decrease5
Maurist Party (PM) 12 Decrease12
Radical Republican Party (PRR) 7 Decrease1
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 7 Increase3
Monarchist Action League (LAM) 5 Increase2
Traditionalist Communion (CT) 4 ±0
Catalan Republican Party (PRC) 3 Increase1
Federal Democratic Republican Party (PRDF) 2 Increase1
Autonomist Monarchist Federation (FMA) 2 Decrease1
Catalan State (EC) 2 ±0
Catholic Action-Traditionalist Catholic Party (ARAC-PCT) 1 Decrease1
Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) 1 ±0
Agrarian Party (PA) 1 ±0
Autonomist Republican Union Party (PURA) 1 Decrease1
Integrist Party (PI) 1 ±0
Aragonese Regionalist (RA) 1 ±0
Independents 6 Decrease7
Total 100.00 409 ±0
Valid votes
Blank/Invalid votes
Votes cast / turnout 2,026,317
Abstentions
Registered voters
Source(s):
Parliamentary seats
PL-PR
  
54.28%
PLC
  
22.74%
LRC
  
4.89%
CC
  
4.40%
PM
  
2.93%
PRR
  
1.71%
PSOE
  
1.71%
LAM
  
1.22%
CT
  
0.98%
PRC
  
0.73%
PRDF
  
0.49%
FMA
  
0.49%
EC
  
0.49%
ARAC-PCT
  
0.24%
PNV
  
0.24%
PA
  
0.24%
PURA
  
0.24%
PI
  
0.24%
RA
  
0.24%
Independents
  
1.47%

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CARRERAS, Albert y TAFUNELL, Xavier (Coords.): Estadísticas históricas de España. Siglos XIX-XX, p. 1096, Fundación BBVA, Bilbao, 2005.
  2. ^ "Elecciones en la Restauración" (in Spanish). Historiaelectoral.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 
  3. ^ "Gráfico resumen Diputados 1869-1923" (in Spanish). Historiaelectoral.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 
  4. ^ "El Senado en la historia constitucional española" (in Spanish). senado.es. Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  5. ^ "Ley electoral, de 8 de agosto de 1907" (PDF) (in Spanish). boe.es. Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  6. ^ "Ley electoral de Senadores, de 8 de febrero de 1877" (PDF) (in Spanish). boe.es. Retrieved 2016-12-27. 
  7. ^ "Constitución de 1876" (PDF) (in Spanish). cepc.gob.es. Retrieved 2016-12-27. 

External links[edit]