Spanish general election, 1993

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Spanish general election, 1993
Spain
← 1989 6 June 1993 1996 →

All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 256) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered 31,030,511 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.8%
Turnout 23,718,816 (76.4%)
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6.7 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Felipe González 1993b (cropped).jpg José María Aznar 1996 (cropped).jpg Julio Anguita 1996 (cropped).jpg
Leader Felipe González José María Aznar Julio Anguita
Party PSOE PP IU
Leader since 28 September 1979 4 September 1989 12 February 1989
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Madrid
Last election 177 seats, 40.1%[a] 107 seats, 25.8% 17 seats, 9.1%
Seats won 159 141 18
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg18 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg34 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
Popular vote 9,150,083 8,201,463 2,253,722
Percentage 38.8% 34.8% 9.6%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg1.3 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg9.0 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.5 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Miquel Roca 1987 (cropped).jpg 2007 02 Inaki Anasagasti-2.jpg Male portrait placeholder cropped.jpg
Leader Miquel Roca Iñaki Anasagasti Luis Mardones
Party CiU EAJ/PNV CC
Leader since 4 July 1982 1986 18 April 1986
Leader's seat Barcelona Biscay Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Last election 18 seats, 5.0% 5 seats, 1.2% 1 seats, 0.3%
Seats won 17 5 4
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg1 Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3
Popular vote 1,165,783 291,448 207,077
Percentage 4.9% 1.2% 0.9%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg0.1 pp ±0.0 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.6 pp

SpainProvinceMapCongress1993.png
Constituency results map for the Congress of Deputies

Prime Minister before election

Felipe González
PSOE

Elected Prime Minister

Felipe González
PSOE

The 1993 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 6 June 1993, to elect the 5th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 256 seats in the Senate.

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party under Felipe González achieved the largest number of votes and seats for the fourth consecutive time, though it lost its absolute majority in both chambers of the Cortes. In contrast, José María Aznar's People's Party won a large share of the vote, thus increasing their seats in both the Congress and the Senate and consolidating its position as the main opposition party. For the first time since 1979, the election brought in a hung parliament, forcing the governing PSOE to pact with nationalist groups in order to renew their mandate.

In the aftermath of the election, the PSOE saw itself under increased pressure due both to political instability as a result of its low majority (relying on increasingly unstable pacts with Convergence and Union to pass its legislation) and of the uncovering of numerous cases of corruption within the government itself. The pact with CiU would end in the fall of 1995, forcing PM Felipe González to call early elections 15 months before their scheduled date, which would see the opposition right-wing People's Party of Aznar win for the first time.

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a Prime Minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which were not subject to the Congress' override.[1][2] Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[3]

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude.[4] Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain. Each constituency was entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 allocated among the constituencies in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting.[1][5][6][7]

For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, IbizaFormentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[1][5][6][7]

The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of at least 1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they sought election. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.[5][7]

Election date[edit]

The term of each House of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election Decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the Prime Minister did not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The Decree was to be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette, with election day taking place between the fifty-fourth and the sixtieth day from publication. The previous election was held on 29 October 1989, which meant that the legislature's term would expire on 29 October 1993. The election Decree was required to be published no later than 5 October 1993, with the election taking place on the sixtieth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Saturday, 4 December 1993.[5][7]

The Prime Minister had the prerogative to dissolve both Houses at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both Houses were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a Prime Minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[1][6] Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, there being no precedent of separate elections and with governments having long preferred that elections for the two Houses take place simultaneously.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Parties and coalitions Composition Ideology Candidate
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) Social democracy Felipe González
People's Party (PP) Liberal conservatism José María Aznar
United Left (IU) Communism Julio Anguita
Convergence and Union (CiU) Catalan autonomism Miquel Roca
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) Social liberalism Rafael Calvo Ortega
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) Basque autonomism Iñaki Anasagasti
Canarian Coalition (CC) Canarian nationalism Lorenzo Olarte
Popular Unity (HB) Abertzale independentism Jon Idigoras
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) Left-wing independentism Pilar Rahola
The Greens (LV) Green politics Francisco Garrido
Aragonese Party (PAR) Aragonese regionalism José María Mur
Basque SolidarityBasque Left (EA–EuE) Basque nationalism Xabier Albistur
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) Galician nationalism
Valencian Union (UV) Blaverism Vicente González Lizondo
Andalusian Party (PA) Andalusian nationalism Salvador Pérez Bueno

Opinion polls[edit]

Campaign[edit]

Leaders' debates[edit]

Spanish general election debates, 1993
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present  
PSOE PP
24 May Antena 3 Manuel Campo Vidal P
González
P
Aznar
31 May Tele 5 Luis Mariñas P
González
P
Aznar
Candidate viewed as "performing best" or "most convincing" in each debate
Debate Poll source PSOE PP Notes
24 May Demoscopia[8] 21.0 50.0 29.0% said none won, that it was a tie or were undecided.
Opina[9] 18.4 42.5 13.9% said none won, 8.1% it was a tie and 17.2% were undecided.
Sigma Dos[10] 28.0 49.8 22.2% said none won, that it was a tie or were undecided.
31 May Demoscopia[11] 48.0 18.0 34.0% said none won, that it was a tie or were undecided.
Opina[12] 36.2 15.3 13.6% said none won, 17.4% it was a tie and 17.5% were undecided.

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Summary of the 6 June 1993 Congress of Deputies election results
SpainCongressDiagram1993.svg
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Total +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)1 9,150,083 38.78 –1.33 159 –18
People's Party (PP) 8,201,463 34.76 +8.97 141 +34
United Left (IU) 2,253,722 9.55 +0.48 18 +1
Convergence and Union (CiU) 1,165,783 4.94 –0.10 17 –1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 414,740 1.76 –6.13 0 –14
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 291,448 1.24 ±0.00 5 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC)2 207,077 0.88 +0.45 4 +3
Popular Unity (HB) 206,876 0.88 –0.18 2 –2
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 189,632 0.80 +0.39 1 +1
The Greens (LV) 185,940 0.79 –0.11 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 144,544 0.61 +0.26 1 ±0
Basque SolidarityBasque Left (EA–EuE) 129,293 0.55 –0.12 1 –1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 126,965 0.54 +0.31 0 ±0
Valencian Union (UV) 112,341 0.48 –0.23 1 –1
Andalusian Party (PA) 96,513 0.41 –0.63 0 –2
The Ecologists (LE) 68,851 0.29 –0.38 0 ±0
Ruiz-Mateos GroupEuropean Democratic Alliance (ARM–ADE) 54,518 0.23 –0.84 0 ±0
Andalusian Progress Party (PAP) 43,169 0.18 New 0 ±0
Valencian People's Union (UPV) 41,052 0.17 –0.03 0 ±0
Workers' Socialist Party (PST) 30,068 0.13 –0.27 0 ±0
Union for the Progress of Cantabria (UPCA) 27,005 0.11 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 188,679 0.80 +0.11
Total 23,591,864 350 ±0
Valid votes 23,591,864 99.46 +0.20
Invalid votes 126,952 0.54 –0.20
Votes cast / turnout 23,718,816 76.44 +6.70
Abstentions 7,311,695 23.56 –6.70
Registered voters 31,030,511
Sources[13][14]
Popular vote
PSOE
38.78%
PP
34.76%
IU
9.55%
CiU
4.94%
CDS
1.76%
EAJ/PNV
1.24%
CC
0.88%
HB
0.88%
ERC
0.80%
PAR
0.61%
EA–EUE
0.55%
UV
0.48%
Others
3.97%
Blank ballots
0.80%
Seats
PSOE
45.43%
PP
40.29%
IU
5.14%
CiU
4.86%
EAJ/PNV
1.43%
CC
1.14%
HB
0.57%
ERC
0.29%
PAR
0.29%
EA–EUE
0.29%
UV
0.29%

Senate[edit]

Summary of the 6 June 1993 Senate of Spain election results
SpainSenateDiagram1993.svg
Parties and coalitions Directly elected Regional
appointees
Total
seats
Total Seats +/− Total Seats Total Seats
Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 96 90 –11 21 19 117 109
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) 6 ±0 2 8
People's Party People's Party (PP)1 93 90 +14 13 13 106 103
Navarrese People's Union (UPN) 3 +1 0 3
Convergence and Union Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) 10 7 –1 5 4 10 11
Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC) 3 +1 1 4
Canarian Coalition Canarian Independent Groups (AIC) 5 2 ±0 1 1 6 3
Nationalist Canarian Initiative (ICAN) 1 +1 0 1
Majorera Assembly (AM) 1 ±0 0 1
Independent Herrenian Group (AHI) 1 ±0 0 1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 3 3 –1 2 2 5 5
United Left (IU) 0 0 –1 2 2 2 2
Popular Unity (HB) 1 1 –2 0 0 1 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 0 ±0 1 1 1 1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 0 0 ±0 1 1 1 1
Riojan Party (PR) 0 0 ±0 1 1 1 1
Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV) 0 0 ±0 1 1 1 1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 0 0 –1 0 0 0 0
Total 208 208 ±0 48 48 256 256
Sources[15][16][17][14]
Seats
PSOE
45.70%
PP
41.41%
CiU
5.86%
CC
2.34%
EAJ/PNV
1.95%
IU
0.78%
HB
0.39%
PAR
0.39%
EA
0.39%
PR
0.39%
ENV
0.39%

Aftermath[edit]

Investiture
Felipe González (PSOE)
Ballot → 9 July 1993
Required majority → 176 out of 350
181 / 350
165 / 350
1 / 350
3 / 350
Sources[18]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Aggregated data for PSOE and EE in the 1989 election.

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Spanish Constitution of 1978, 29 December 1978 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 27 December 2016.
  2. ^ "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66". congreso.es (in Spanish). Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 27 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Carreras et al. 1989, pp. 1077.
  4. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 22 July 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985, Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 28 December 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "Constitution" (PDF). congreso.es. Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 19 June 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  8. ^ "Triunfo claro de Aznar en el primer debate". El País (in Spanish). 26 May 1993. 
  9. ^ "Aznar superó a González en el debate". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 26 May 1993. 
  10. ^ "Las encuestas de "El Mundo", "La Vanguardia" y "El País" dan el triunfo a Aznar". ABC (in Spanish). 26 May 1993. 
  11. ^ "Victoria neta de González sobre Aznar en el segundo cara a cara televisivo". El País (in Spanish). 2 June 1993. 
  12. ^ "González ganó por 20,9 puntos a Aznar". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2 June 1993. 
  13. ^ "Electoral Results Consultation. Congress. June 1993. National totals". infoelectoral.mir.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "General election 6 June 1993". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  15. ^ "Electoral Results Consultation. Senate. June 1993. National totals". infoelectoral.mir.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  16. ^ "Senate Election 1993". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  17. ^ "Senate Composition 1977-2017". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  18. ^ "Congress of Deputies: Most important votes". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 28 September 2017.