Spanish general election, 1993

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Spanish general election, 1993
Spain
← 1989 6 June 1993 1996 →

All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 256) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered 31,030,511 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.8%
Turnout 23,718,816 (76.4%)
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6.7 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Felipe González 1983 (cropped).jpg José María Aznar 2002c (cropped).jpg Julio Anguita en el Ateneo de Córdoba en 2004 (Recortada).jpg
Leader Felipe González José María Aznar Julio Anguita
Party PSOE PP IU
Leader since 28 September 1979 4 September 1989 12 February 1989
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Madrid
Last election 177 seats, 40.1% 107 seats, 25.8% 17 seats, 9.1%
Seats won 159 141 18
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg18 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg34 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
Popular vote 9,150,083 8,201,463 2,253,722
Percentage 38.8% 34.8% 9.6%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg1.3 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg9.0 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.5 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Miquel Roca 2011 (cropped).jpg 2007 02 Inaki Anasagasti-2.jpg Male portrait placeholder cropped.jpg
Leader Miquel Roca Iñaki Anasagasti Luis Mardones
Party CiU EAJ/PNV CC
Leader since 4 July 1982 1986 18 April 1986
Leader's seat Barcelona Biscay Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Last election 18 seats, 5.0% 5 seats, 1.2% 1 seats, 0.3%
Seats won 17 5 4
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg1 Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3
Popular vote 1,165,783 291,448 207,077
Percentage 4.9% 1.2% 0.9%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg0.1 pp ±0.0 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.6 pp

SpainProvinceMapCongress1993.png
Constituency results map for the Congress of Deputies

Prime Minister before election

Felipe González
PSOE

Elected Prime Minister

Felipe González
PSOE

The 1993 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 6 June 1993, to elect the 5th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 256 seats in the Senate.

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party under Felipe González achieved the largest number of votes and seats for the fourth consecutive time, though it lost its absolute majority in both chambers of the Cortes. In contrast, José María Aznar's People's Party won a large share of the vote, thus increasing their seats in both the Congress and the Senate and consolidating its position as the main opposition party. For the first time since 1979, the election brought in a hung parliament, forcing the governing PSOE to pact with nationalist groups in order to renew their mandate.

In the aftermath of the election, the PSOE saw itself under increased pressure due both to political instability as a result of its low majority (relying on increasingly unstable pacts with Convergence and Union to pass its legislation) and of the uncovering of numerous cases of corruption within the government itself. The pact with CiU would end in the fall of 1995, forcing PM Felipe González to call early elections 15 months before their scheduled date, which would see the opposition right-wing People's Party of Aznar win for the first time.

Electoral system[edit]

The Spanish Cortes Generales were regarded as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to grant or revoke confidence from a Prime Minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which were not subject to the Congress' override.[1][2] Voting was on the basis of universal suffrage, with all nationals over eighteen and in the full enjoyment of all political rights entitled to vote.

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3% of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain. Each constituency was entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 allocated among the constituencies in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting.[1][3][4][5]

For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and the Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[1][3][4][5]

The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, groupings of electors were required to secure at least the signature of 1 per 100 of the electors entered in electoral register of the constituency for which they were seeking election. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days from the election call.[3][5]

Elections could be held up to 36 days from the legislature's expiration date, which would take place four years after the previous election. The Prime Minister had the prerogative to dissolve both Houses at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, the chambers were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a Prime Minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[1][4]

Opinion polls[edit]

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Summary of the 6 June 1993 Congress of Deputies election results
SpainCongressDiagram1993.svg
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)1 9,150,083 38.78 –1.33 159 –18
People's Party (PP) 8,201,463 34.76 +8.97 141 +34
United Left (IU) 2,253,722 9.55 +0.48 18 +1
Convergence and Union (CiU) 1,165,783 4.94 –0.10 17 –1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 414,740 1.76 –6.13 0 –14
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 291,448 1.24 ±0.00 5 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC)2 207,077 0.88 +0.45 4 +3
Popular Unity (HB) 206,876 0.88 –0.18 2 –2
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 189,632 0.80 +0.39 1 +1
The Greens (LV) 185,940 0.79 –0.11 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 144,544 0.61 +0.26 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity–Basque Left (EA–EUE) 129,293 0.55 –0.12 1 –1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 126,965 0.54 +0.31 0 ±0
Valencian Union (UV) 112,341 0.48 –0.23 1 –1
Andalusian Party (PA) 96,513 0.41 –0.63 0 –2
The Ecologists (LE) 68,851 0.29 –0.38 0 ±0
Ruiz-Mateos GroupEuropean Democratic Alliance (ARM–ADE) 54,518 0.23 –0.84 0 ±0
Andalusian Progress Party (PAP) 43,169 0.18 New 0 ±0
Valencian People's Union (UPV) 41,052 0.17 –0.03 0 ±0
Workers' Socialist Party (PST) 30,068 0.13 –0.27 0 ±0
Union for the Progress of Cantabria (UPCA) 27,005 0.11 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 188,679 0.80 +0.11
Total 23,591,864 100.00 350 ±0
Valid votes 23,591,864 99.46 +0.20
Invalid votes 126,952 0.54 –0.20
Votes cast / turnout 23,718,816 76.44 +6.70
Abstentions 7,311,695 23.56 –6.70
Registered voters 31,030,511
Source(s): Ministry of the Interior, historiaelectoral.com
Popular vote
PSOE
  
38.78%
PP
  
34.76%
IU
  
9.55%
CiU
  
4.94%
CDS
  
1.76%
EAJ/PNV
  
1.24%
CC
  
0.88%
HB
  
0.88%
ERC
  
0.80%
PAR
  
0.61%
EA–EUE
  
0.55%
UV
  
0.48%
Others
  
3.97%
Blank ballots
  
0.80%
Seats
PSOE
  
45.43%
PP
  
40.29%
IU
  
5.14%
CiU
  
4.86%
EAJ/PNV
  
1.43%
CC
  
1.14%
HB
  
0.57%
ERC
  
0.29%
PAR
  
0.29%
EA–EUE
  
0.29%
UV
  
0.29%

Senate[edit]

Summary of the 6 June 1993 Senate of Spain election results
SpainSenateDiagram1993.svg
Parties and coalitions Seats
Won +/− Not up Total seats
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 96 –11 21 117
People's Party (PP) 93 +15 13 106
United Left (IU) 0 –1 2 2
Convergence and Union (CiU) 10 ±0 5 15
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 0 –1 0
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 3 –1 2 5
Canarian Coalition (CC)[a] 5 +1 1 6
Popular Unity (HB) 1 –2 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 ±0 1 1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 0 ±0 1 1
Riojan Party (PR) 0 ±0 1 1
Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV) 0 ±0 1 1
Total 208 ±0 48 256
Source(s): Ministry of the Interior, historiaelectoral.com
  1. ^ Canarian Coalition results are compared to the combined totals of AIC, AM and AHI in the 1989 election.
Seats
PSOE
  
45.70%
PP
  
41.41%
CiU
  
5.86%
CC
  
2.34%
EAJ/PNV
  
1.95%
IU
  
0.78%
HB
  
0.39%
PAR
  
0.39%
EA
  
0.39%
PR
  
0.39%
ENV
  
0.39%

Aftermath[edit]

Investiture[edit]

Investiture of
Felipe González (PSOE)
Yes No Abstentions
9 July 1993 (1st ballot)
(176/350 required)
181 PSOE (159)
CiU (17)
PNV (5)
165 PP (141)
IUIC (17)
CC (4)
ERC (1)
EA (1)
UV (1)
1 PAR (1)
Source: historiaelectoral.com

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Spanish Constitution of 1978, December 29, 1978 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 27 December 2016.
  2. ^ "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66" (in Spanish). congreso.es. Retrieved 27 October 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985, Organic Law No. 5 of June 19, 1985 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 28 December 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "Constitution" (PDF). congreso.es. Retrieved 19 June 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Retrieved 16 June 2017.