2004 Spanish general election

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2004 Spanish general election

← 2000 14 March 2004 2008 →

All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 259) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered34,571,831 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1.8%
Turnout26,155,436 (75.7%)
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7.0 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 2004 (cropped).jpg Mariano Rajoy 2006 (cropped).jpg Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida 2006 (cropped).jpg
Leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Mariano Rajoy Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida
Party PSOE PP CiU
Leader since 22 July 2000 2 September 2003 24 January 2004
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Barcelona
Last election 125 seats, 34.2% 183 seats, 44.5% 15 seats, 4.2%
Seats won 164 148 10
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg39 Red Arrow Down.svg35 Red Arrow Down.svg5
Popular vote 11,026,163 9,763,144 835,471
Percentage 42.6% 37.7% 3.2%
Swing Green Arrow Up Darker.svg8.4 pp Red Arrow Down.svg6.8 pp Red Arrow Down.svg1.0 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira 2001 (cropped).jpg Josu Erkoreka 2009 (cropped).jpg Gaspar Llamazares 2011 (cropped).jpg
Leader Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira Josu Erkoreka Gaspar Llamazares
Party ERC EAJ/PNV IU
Leader since 31 January 2004 2004 29 October 2000
Leader's seat Barcelona Biscay Madrid
Last election 1 seat, 0.8% 7 seats, 1.5% 9 seats, 5.9%[a]
Seats won 8 7 5
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7 Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Red Arrow Down.svg4
Popular vote 652,196 420,980 1,284,081
Percentage 2.5% 1.6% 5.0%
Swing Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1.7 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.1 pp Red Arrow Down.svg0.9 pp

2004 Spanish election - Results.svg
Constituency results map for the Congress of Deputies

Prime Minister before election

José María Aznar
PP

Elected Prime Minister

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
PSOE

The 2004 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 14 March 2004, to elect the 8th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 259 seats in the Senate.

The electoral outcome was heavily influenced by the aftermath of the Madrid train bombings on 11 March, as a result of which all parties suspended their electoral campaigns.[1] For two days following the attacks, the People's Party (PP) government kept blaming the terrorist organization ETA for the bombings, even in spite of mounting evidence suggesting the involvement of Islamist groups. The government was accused of misinformation, as an Islamist attack would have been perceived as the direct result of Spain's involvement in the Iraq War, which had been highly unpopular among the public.[2][3]

The election result was described by some media as an "unprecedented electoral upset". The perceived abuse of the PP's absolute majority throughout the legislature, with a focus on Spain's involvement in Iraq, was said to have helped fuel a wave of discontent against the incumbent ruling party, with the government's mismanagement on the bombings serving as the final catalyst for change to happen.[4][5] At 11 million votes and 42.6%, the opposition Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) increased by 3.1 million its 2000 result, securing 164 seats—a net gain of 39. In contrast, the PP, which opinion polls earlier in the year had predicted would secure a diminished but still commanding victory, lost 35 seats and 7 percentage points, resulting in the worst defeat for a sitting government in Spain up to that point since 1982. The 75.7% turnout was among the highest since the Spanish transition to democracy, with no future general election having exceeded such a figure. The number of votes cast, at 26.1 million votes, remains the highest figure in gross terms for any Spanish general election to date.[6][7]

The day after the election, Zapatero announced his will to form a minority PSOE government, supported by other parties in a confidence and supply basis. Two minor left-wing parties, Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and United Left (IU), immediately announced their intention to support Zapatero's government. On 16 April 2004, Zapatero was elected as new Prime Minister by an outright majority of the new Congress, with 183 out of 350 members voting for him, being sworn in the next day.[8]

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a Prime Minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which were not subject to the Congress' override.[9][10] Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[11]

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude.[12] Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain. Each constituency was entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 allocated among the constituencies in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting.[9][13][14][15]

For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, IbizaFormentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[9][13][14][15]

The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of at least 1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they sought election. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.[13][15]

Election date[edit]

The term of each House of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election Decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the Prime Minister did not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The Decree was to be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette, with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 12 March 2000, which meant that the legislature's term would expire on 12 March 2004. The election Decree was required to be published no later than 17 February 2004, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 11 April 2004.[13][15]

The Prime Minister had the prerogative to dissolve both Houses at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both Houses were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a Prime Minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[9][14] Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, there being no precedent of separate elections and with governments having long preferred that elections for the two Houses take place simultaneously.

Status at dissolution[edit]

The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 20 January 2004, after the publication of the dissolution Decree in the Official State Gazette.[16] The tables below show the status of the different parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.[17][18]

Congress of Deputies
Parliamentary group Deputies
People's Group in the Congress 183[b]
Socialist Group 124[c]
Convergence and Union Catalan Group 15[d]
United Left Federal Group 8
PNV Basque Group 7
Canarian Coalition Group 4[e]
Mixed Group 9[f]
Total 350
 
Senate
Parliamentary group Senators
People's Group in the Senate 150[g]
Socialist Group 67
Catalan Agreement of Progress Group 12[h]
CiU Catalan Group in the Senate 10[i]
Basque Nationalist Senators Group 7
Canarian Coalition Senators Group 6[j]
Mixed Group 7[k]
Total 259

Parties and alliances[edit]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Party or alliance Candidate Ideology Refs
Mariano Rajoy 2006 (cropped).jpg Mariano Rajoy Conservatism
Christian democracy
[19]
[20]
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 2004 (cropped).jpg José Luis
Rodríguez Zapatero
Social democracy [21]
[22]
Convergence and Union (CiU)
Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida 2006 (cropped).jpg Josep Antoni
Duran i Lleida
Catalan nationalism
Centrism
[23]
Gaspar Llamazares 2011 (cropped).jpg Gaspar Llamazares Socialism
Communism
[24]
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) Josu Erkoreka 2009 (cropped).jpg Josu Erkoreka Basque nationalism
Christian democracy
Conservative liberalism
Paulino Rivero.jpg Paulino Rivero Regionalism
Canarian nationalism
Centrism
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) Francisco Rodríguez Sánchez (AELG)-1.jpg Francisco
Rodríguez
Galician nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Andalusian Party (PA) Portrait placeholder.svg José Antonio
González
Andalusian nationalism
Social democracy
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira 2001 (cropped).jpg Josep-Lluís
Carod-Rovira
Catalan independence
Social democracy
Basque Solidarity (EA) Portrait placeholder.svg Begoña
Lasagabaster
Basque nationalism
Social democracy
[25]
[26]
Aragonese Union (CHA) Portrait placeholder.svg José Antonio
Labordeta
Aragonese nationalism
Eco-socialism
Navarre Yes (NaBai)
Uxue Barkos 2015b (cropped).jpg Uxue Barkos Basque nationalism
Progressivism
[27]
[28]

The Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV) agreed to continue with the Catalan Agreement of Progress alliance for the Senate with the inclusion of United and Alternative Left (EUiA).[29] In the Balearic Islands, PSM–Nationalist Agreement (PSM–EN), United Left of the Balearic Islands (EUIB), The Greens of the Balearic Islands (EVIB) and ERC formed the Progressives for the Balearic Islands alliance.[30]

Campaign period[edit]

Party slogans[edit]

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Refs
PP « Juntos vamos a más » "Together we are going to better" [31]
PSOE « Merecemos una España mejor » "We deserve a better Spain" [32]
CiU « Duran per Catalunya: sentit comú » "Duran for Catalonia: common sense" [33][34][35]
IU « Con tu voto, es posible. Palabra » "With your vote, it is possible. Promise" [36]
EAJ/PNV « Tú tienes la palabra »
« Tu voz es importante en Madrid »
"You have the word"
"Your voice is important in Madrid"
[37]
CC « Gana Canarias, ganas tú » "The Canaries win, you win" [38]
BNG « Dálle un Sí a Galiza » "Give a Yes to Galicia" [37]
PA « Andalucía es nuestro trabajo » "Andalusia is our job" [39]
ERC « Parlant la gent s'entén » "People understand [each other] by talking" [40]
CHA « Labordeta, gente como tú » "Labordeta, people like you" [38]
NaBai « Orain da geroa! »
« ¡Ahora es el futuro! »
"The future is now!" [41]

Opinion polls[edit]

10-point average trend line of poll results from 12 March 2000 to 14 March 2004, with each line corresponding to a political party.
  PP
  PSOE
  IU
  CiU
  PNV
  BNG


Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Summary of the 14 March 2004 Congress of Deputies election results
SpainCongressDiagram2004.svg
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 11,026,163 42.59 +8.43 164 +39
People's Party (PP) 9,763,144 37.71 –6.81 148 –35
United Left (IU)1 1,284,081 4.96 –0.93 5 –4
Convergence and Union (CiU) 835,471 3.23 –0.96 10 –5
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 652,196 2.52 +1.68 8 +7
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)2 420,980 1.63 +0.13 7 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC) 235,221 0.91 –0.16 3 –1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 208,688 0.81 –0.51 2 –1
Andalusian Party (PA) 181,868 0.70 –0.19 0 –1
Aragonese Union (CHA) 94,252 0.36 +0.03 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA)2 80,905 0.31 –0.06 1 ±0
The Eco-pacifist Greens (LVEP) 68,027 0.26 +0.16 0 ±0
The Eco-pacifist Greens (LVEP) 37,499 0.14 +0.04 0 ±0
The Greens–The Ecologist Alternative (EV–AE) 30,528 0.12 New 0 ±0
Navarre Yes (NaBai)3 61,045 0.24 +0.15 1 +1
Valencian Nationalist BlocGreen Left (Bloc–EV) 40,759 0.16 –0.09 0 ±0
Progressives for the Balearic Islands (PSM–EN, EU, EV, ER)4 40,289 0.16 –0.06 0 ±0
Citizens for Blank Votes (CenB) 40,208 0.16 New 0 ±0
AralarStand up (Aralar–Zutik) 38,560 0.15 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 36,540 0.14 –0.03 0 ±0
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 34,101 0.13 +0.03 0 ±0
Socialist Party of Andalusia (PSA) 24,127 0.09 New 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 21,758 0.08 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Greens of the Community of Madrid (LVCM) 19,600 0.08 –0.01 0 ±0
Republican Left (IR) 16,993 0.07 New 0 ±0
Cannabis Party for Legalisation and Normalisation (PCLyN) 16,918 0.07 New 0 ±0
Family and Life Party (PFyV) 16,699 0.06 New 0 ±0
The Greens (LV) 15,220 0.06 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Greens of the Region of Murcia (LVRM) 7,074 0.03 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Greens of Asturias (LV) 5,013 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Greens of Extremadura (LV) 3,133 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
National Democracy (DN) 15,180 0.06 New 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 14,160 0.05 –0.13 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 12,979 0.05 –0.01 0 ±0
The Greens–Green Group (LV–GV) 12,749 0.05 –0.04 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS)5 12,266 0.05 +0.02 0 ±0
Majorcan Union (UM) 10,558 0.04 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Phalanx (FE) 10,311 0.04 –0.02 0 ±0
Commoners' Land–Castilian Nationalist Party (TC–PNC) 8,866 0.03 –0.05 0 ±0
Internationalist Socialist Workers' Party (POSI) 8,003 0.03 –0.02 0 ±0
Republican Social Movement (MSR) 6,768 0.03 New 0 ±0
Spanish Democratic Party (PADE) 5,677 0.02 –0.02 0 ±0
Convergence of Democrats of Navarre (CDN) 5,573 0.02 –0.02 0 ±0
Authentic Phalanx (FA) 4,589 0.02 New 0 ±0
Asturianist Party (PAS) 4,292 0.02 –0.01 0 ±0
Spain 2000 (E–2000) 4,231 0.02 –0.02 0 ±0
Canarian Nationalist Party (PNC) 4,092 0.02 New 0 ±0
United Extremadura (EU) 3,916 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
Party of Self-employed and Professionals (AUTONOMO) 3,124 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
Initiative for the Development of Soria (IDES) 2,934 0.01 New 0 ±0
Andalusia Assembly (A) 2,930 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Canarian Popular Alternative (APCa) 2,715 0.01 New 0 ±0
European Green Group (GVE) 2,662 0.01 New 0 ±0
Independent Candidacy–The Party of Castile and León (CI–PCL) 2,421 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
Unsubmissive Seats–Alternative of Discontented Democrats (Ei–ADD) 2,332 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party of the Democratic Karma (PKD) 2,300 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Galician People's Front (FPG) 2,257 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Galician Coalition (CG) 2,235 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Alliance for Development and Nature (ADN) 2,215 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party of Precarious Workers (PTPRE) 2,115 0.01 New 0 ±0
Kingdom of Valencia Identity (IRV) 2,111 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party of Self-employed, Retirees and Widows (PAE) 2,082 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Andecha Astur (Andecha Astur) 1,970 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Union of the Salamancan People (UPSa) 1,871 0.01 New 0 ±0
The Greens–Green Alternative (EV–AV) 1,836 0.01 –0.04 0 ±0
Carlist Party (PC) 1,813 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Romantic Mutual Support Party (PMAR) 1,561 0.01 New 0 ±0
Cantabrian Nationalist Council (CNC) 1,431 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Salamanca–Zamora–León–PREPAL (PREPAL) 1,322 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Another Democracy is Possible (ODeP) 1,302 0.01 New 0 ±0
Independent Social Group (ASI) 1,237 0.00 New 0 ±0
Independent Social Democratic Party of the Valencian Community (PSICV) 1,096 0.00 New 0 ±0
Republican Party (PRF) 1,051 0.00 New 0 ±0
Alternative for Gran Canaria (AxGC) 957 0.00 New 0 ±0
Alliance for National Unity (AUN) 923 0.00 New 0 ±0
Left Assembly–Initiative for Andalusia (A–IZ) 901 0.00 New 0 ±0
Christian Positivist Party (PPCr) 892 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Asturian Left (IAS) 854 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Socialist Party of the People of Ceuta (PSPC) 807 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Liberal Centrist Union (UCL) 798 0.00 New 0 ±0
Caló Nationalist Party (PNCA) 757 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
United Zamora (ZU) 754 0.00 New 0 ±0
Union of Centrists of Menorca (UCM) 751 0.00 New 0 ±0
Internationalist Struggle (LI (LIT–CI)) 668 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
Spanish Democratic Front (FDE) 619 0.00 New 0 ±0
Castilian Unity (UdCa) 601 0.00 New 0 ±0
Andalusian Social Democratic Party (PSDA) 583 0.00 New 0 ±0
Nationalist Maga Alternative (AMAGA) 468 0.00 New 0 ±0
Balearic People's Union (UPB) 411 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
European Nation State (N) 410 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Workers for Democracy Coalition (TD) 407 0.00 New 0 ±0
National Workers' Party (PNT) 379 0.00 New 0 ±0
Party of The People (LG) 378 0.00 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Guadalajara (PRGU) 330 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
National Union (UN) 318 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Citizens Convergence of the South-East (CCSE) 308 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
National Democratic Party of Spain (PDNE) 232 0.00 New 0 ±0
Spanish Absolute Honesty Political Group (GPHAE) 52 0.00 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 407,795 1.58 ±0.00
Total 25,891,299 350 ±0
Valid votes 25,891,299 98.99 –0.33
Invalid votes 264,137 1.01 +0.33
Votes cast / turnout 26,155,436 75.66 +6.95
Abstentions 8,416,395 24.34 –6.95
Registered voters 34,571,831
Sources[42][43]
Popular vote
PSOE
42.59%
PP
37.71%
IU
4.96%
CiU
3.23%
ERC
2.52%
EAJ/PNV
1.63%
CC
0.91%
BNG
0.81%
CHA
0.36%
EA
0.31%
NaBai
0.24%
Others
3.17%
Blank ballots
1.58%
Seats
PSOE
46.86%
PP
42.29%
CiU
2.86%
ERC
2.29%
EAJ/PNV
2.00%
IU
1.43%
CC
0.89%
BNG
0.57%
CHA
0.29%
EA
0.29%
NaBai
0.29%

Senate[edit]

Summary of the 14 March 2004 Senate of Spain election results
SpainSenateDiagram2004.svg
Parties and coalitions Directly
elected
Reg.
app.
Total
Seats +/−
People's Party (PP) 102 –25 24 126
People's Party (PP) 97 –26 23 120
Navarrese People's Union (UPN) 3 ±0 1 4
Valencian Union (UV) 1 +1 0 1
Melillan People's Union (UPM) 1 ±0 0 1
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 81 +28 15 96
Catalan Agreement of Progress (PSCERCICVEUiA) 12 +4 4 16
Socialists' Party of CataloniaCitizens for Change (PSC–CpC) 8 +1 2 10
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 3 +2 1 4
Initiative for Catalonia Greens–EUiA (ICV–EUiA) 1 +1 1 2
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 6 ±0 1 7
Convergence and Union (CiU) 4 –4 2 6
Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) 4 –2 1 5
Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC) 0 –2 1 1
Canarian Coalition (CC) 3 –2 1 4
Canarian Independent Groups (AIC) 2 ±0 0 2
Nationalist Canarian Initiative (ICAN) 0 –1 1 1
Independent Herrenian Group (AHI) 1 ±0 0 1
Majorera Assembly (AM) 0 –1 0 0
United Left (IU) 0 ±0 2 2
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 0 ±0 1 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 ±0 1 1
Lanzarote Independents Party (PIL) 0 –1 0 0
Total 208 ±0 51 259
Sources[18][44][45][43]
Seats
PP
48.65%
PSOE
37.07%
PSC–ERC–ICV
6.18%
EAJ/PNV
2.70%
CiU
2.32%
CC
1.54%
IU
0.77%
BNG
0.39%
PAR
0.39%

Aftermath[edit]

Investiture
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)
Ballot → 16 April 2004
Required majority → 176 out of 350 ☑Y
183 / 350
148 / 350
19 / 350
Absentees
0 / 350
Sources[46]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Aggregated data for IU and IC–V in the 2000 election.
  2. ^ 180 PP, 3 UPN.
  3. ^ 107 PSOE, 17 PSC.
  4. ^ 11 CDC, 4 UDC.
  5. ^ 2 AIC, 2 ICAN.
  6. ^ 3 BNG, 1 PA, 1 ERC, 1 EA, 1 CHA, 1 ICV, 1 independent (ex-PSOE).
  7. ^ 146 PP, 3 UPN, 1 UPM.
  8. ^ 9 PSC, 2 ERC, 1 ICV.
  9. ^ 7 CDC, 3 UDC.
  10. ^ 2 AIC, 2 ICAN, 1 AHI, 1 AM.
  11. ^ 3 IU, 1 BNG, 1 PAR, 1 PIL, 1 independent (ex-PP).

Bibliography[edit]

  • Chari, Raj (November 2004). "The 2004 Spanish Election: Terrorism as a Catalyst for Change?". West European Politics. 27 (5): 954–963. doi:10.1080/0140238042000283247.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Los partidos suspenden la campaña electoral". Cadena SER (in Spanish). 11 March 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Protestas en las sedes del PP por los atentados del 11M". RTVE (in Spanish). 13 March 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  3. ^ "El 91% de los españoles rechaza la intervención militar en Irak, según el CIS". El País (in Spanish). 28 March 2003. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  4. ^ "El voto de castigo dio la victoria al PSOE, según la prensa". El País (in Spanish). 15 March 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  5. ^ "Zapatero atribuye su victoria a las "ganas de cambio en España" y no al atentado del 11-M". El País (in Spanish). 16 March 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  6. ^ "El PSOE da el gran vuelco electoral". El País (in Spanish). 15 March 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Zapatero vence con casi 11 millones de votos". El País (in Spanish). 15 March 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Zapatero, investido presidente del Gobierno con mayoría absoluta". ABC (in Spanish). 16 April 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d "Spanish Constitution of 1978". Act of 29 December 1978. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  10. ^ "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66". congreso.es (in Spanish). Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  11. ^ Carreras et al. 1989, pp. 1077.
  12. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  13. ^ a b c d "General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  14. ^ a b c "Constitution" (PDF). congreso.es. Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  16. ^ "Real Decreto 100/2004, de 19 de enero, de disolución del Congreso de los Diputados y del Senado y de convocatoria de elecciones" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (17): 2115–2116. 20 January 2004. ISSN 0212-033X.
  17. ^ "Parliamentary Groups in the Congress of Deputies and Senate". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  18. ^ a b "Senate Composition 1977-2019". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Rajoy asume el legado de Aznar tras ser ratificado como candidato del PP a La Moncloa". El País (in Spanish). 2 September 2003. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  20. ^ "UV renuncia a sus siglas y Chiquillo irá en la lista del PP al Senado". El País (in Spanish). 29 January 2004. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  21. ^ "Zapatero: "Quitaré el poder a los poderosos y haré un país para todos"". El País (in Spanish). 28 October 2002. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  22. ^ "Los Verdes concurrirán con el PSOE a las elecciones generales". El País (in Spanish). 11 January 2004. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
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