Spanish immigration to Argentina
|Difficult to measure as many Argentines have at least some Spanish ancestry.|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Rioplatense Spanish. Minority speaks Galician, Catalan, and Basque.|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Spanish, Galicians, Castilians, Catalans, Asturians, Cantabrians, Aragonese, Basques|
Spanish settlement in Argentina, that is the arrival of Spanish emigrants in Argentina, took place firstly in the period before Argentina's independence from Spain, and again in large numbers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the Spanish Empire was the sole colonial power in the territories that became Argentina after the 1816 Argentine declaration of independence. Thus, before 1816, a great part of the European settlers in Argentina were from Spain, and they carried the Spanish colonial administration, including religious affairs, government, and commercial business. A substantial Spanish-descended Criollo population gradually built up in the new cities, while some mixed with the indigenous populations (Mestizos), with the Black slave population (Mulattoes), or with other European immigrants.
Since a great part of the immigrants to Argentina before the mid-19th century were of Spanish descent, and the fact that a significative part of the late-19th century/early-20th century immigrants to Argentina were Spaniards, many Argentines are of at least some Spanish ancestry. However this prevalence, and the numerous shared cultural aspects between Argentina and Spain (the Spanish language, Roman Catholicism, Criollo/Hispanic traditions), massive Immigration to Argentina at the turn of the 20th century involved a majority of non-Spanish peoples from all over Europe, so the modern Argentine culture is quite distinct from the traditional Spanish culture.
The interplay between Argentine and Spanish culture goes back a long way, and has historically been quite complex. Spanish settlements date back to 16th century, and from then on, many criollo Spaniards would populate the area of Argentina, with some intermarrying with non-Spaniards. Spain established a permanent colony on the site of Buenos Aires in 1580, although initial settlement was primarily overland from Peru. The Spanish further integrated Argentina into their vast empire by establishing the Vice Royalty of Rio de la Plata in 1776, and Buenos Aires became a flourishing port. Argentina would become a crucial part of the Spanish Empire in South America.
The Argentine independence movement would however drastically change Argentine-Spanish relations. The Argentine movement for independence from Spain would in fact begin in the powerful city of Buenos Aires on May 25, 1810, and the whole new country formally declaring independence from Spain on July 9, 1816 in the city of San Miguel de Tucumán. Following the defeat of the Spanish, centralist and federalist groups waged a lengthy conflict between themselves to determine the future of the nation of Argentina. Prior to its independence, Spaniards in Argentina who were against the Spanish Empire and desired their independence came to be known as Argentines, and those who were opposed to independence continued to be identified as Spaniards. But a few generations after independence, and particularly after recent immigration, most Argentines began to see themselves as purely Argentine out of pride in their new developing nation.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, there would be an influx of Spanish immigrants to Argentina from all over Spain during the Great European immigration wave to Argentina, after the creation of the modern Argentine state. Between 1857 and 1960, more than 2.5 million Spanish people emigrated to Argentina, mostly from Galicia, the Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabria, and Catalonia in northern Spain, while significantly smaller numbers of immigrants also arrived from Andalusia in southern Spain.
Galicians make up 70% of the Spanish immigrant population in Argentina. The city with the world's second largest number of Galician people is Buenos Aires, where immigration from Galicia was so profound that today all Spaniards, regardless of their origin within Spain, are referred to as gallegos (Galicians) in Argentina.
Roughly 10-15% of the Argentine population are descended from Basque people, both Spanish and French, and are described as Basque Argentines. They gather in several Basque cultural centres in most of the large cities in the country.
In 2013, there were 92.453 Spanish citizens born in Spain living in Argentina and another 288.494 Spanish citizens born in Argentina .
While there continues to be strong interest among the population in European affairs and their European heritage, the Argentine culture today varies considerably from the Spanish just like the American or Australian cultures vary from the British. Few Argentines seek to imitate or spread modern Spanish culture in Argentina.
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Yale university report says 2,080,000 Spanish immigrants entered Argentina between 1857-1940. Spain forms 31.4% (Italy 44.9%) of all immigrants in that period.
Another report gives net migration data as follows:
|Spanish net migration to Argentina from 1857 to 1976|
|Year period||Spanish immigrants|