|Palystes castaneus, showing sparassid pattern of eyes in two rows of four, with the robust build and non-clavate pedipalps of a female.|
|87 genera, >1,200 species|
Huntsman spiders, members of the family Sparassidae (formerly Heteropodidae), are known by this name because of their speed and mode of hunting. They also are called giant crab spiders because of their size and appearance. Larger species sometimes are referred to as wood spiders, because of their preference for woody places (forests, mine shafts, woodpiles, wooden shacks). In southern Africa the genus Palystes are known as rain spiders or lizard-eating spiders. Commonly they are confused with baboon spiders from the Mygalomorphae infraorder, which are not closely related.
Several species of huntsman spider can use an unusual form of locomotion. The wheel spider (Carparachne aureoflava) from the Namib uses a cartwheeling motion, while Cebrennus rechenbergi uses a handspring motion.
Sparassids are eight-eyed spiders. The eyes appear in two largely forward-facing rows of four on the anterior aspect of the prosoma. Many species grow very large – in Laos, male giant huntsman spiders (Heteropoda maxima) attain a legspan of 25–30 centimetres (9.8–11.8 in). Persons unfamiliar with spider taxonomy commonly confuse large species with tarantulas, but huntsman spiders can generally be identified by their legs, which, rather than being jointed vertically relative to the body, are twisted in such a way that in some attitudes the legs extend forward in a crab-like fashion.
On their upper surfaces the main colours of huntsman spiders are inconspicuous shades of brown or grey, but many species have undersides more or less aposematically marked in black-and-white, with reddish patches over the mouthparts. Their legs bear fairly prominent spines, but the rest of their bodies are smoothly furry. They tend to live under rocks, bark and similar shelters, but human encounters are commonly in sheds, garages and other infrequently-disturbed places. The banded huntsman (Holconia) is large, grey to brown with striped bands on its legs. The badge huntsman (Neosparassus) is larger still, brown and hairy. The tropical or brown huntsman (Heteropoda) is also large and hairy, with mottled brown, white and black markings. The eyesight of these spiders is not nearly as good as that of the Salticidae (jumping spiders). Nevertheless, their vision is quite sufficient to detect approaching humans or other large animals from some distance.
Habitat and distribution
Members of the Sparassidae are common in Australia, but also in many warm-temperate-to-tropical parts of the world. They have been accidentally introduced to many parts of the world, including South America, southern parts of the United States, such as Florida, Guam and Puerto Rico and western parts of Texas and Northwest Tennessee, Pakistan, India, China, Japan, Indonesia and the Philippines. Heteropoda venatoria can be found in Hawaii, where it is commonly known as the cane spider. In general they are likely to be found wherever ships may bring them as unintended passengers to areas that are not too cold for them to survive in the winter. In some uncommon scenarios, some sightings have been in colder climates, such as New York, Ohio, and Maine. Typically, the huntsman finds shelter in warehouses, and warm buildings. In southern Africa they are commonly known as rain spiders because of their tendency to seek shelter before rain storms, often entering human habitations when doing so.
As adults, huntsman spiders do not build webs, but hunt and forage for food: their diet consists primarily of insects and other invertebrates, and occasionally small skinks and geckos. They live in the crevices of tree bark, but will frequently wander into homes and vehicles. They are able to travel extremely quickly, often using a springing jump while running, and walk on walls and even on ceilings. They also tend to exhibit a "cling" reflex if picked up, making them difficult to shake off and much more likely to bite. The females are fierce defenders of their egg sacs and young. They will generally make a threat display if provoked, and if the warning is ignored they may attack and bite. The egg sacs differ fairly widely among the various genera. For example, Palystes females generally suspend large purses in bushes. The sac is reinforced with dead leaves and similar paper-like materials.
However, other genera build different sacs; Pseudomicrommata makes its nest in Eragrostis grass and may be ecologically confined to regions where the grass grows. Females of some species carry sacs in their jaws.
Venom and aggression
Like most spiders, apart from the Uloboridae and some Liphistiidae and Holarchaeidae, Sparassidae use venom to immobilise prey and to assist in digestion. They have been known to inflict defensive bites, but are not widely regarded as dangerous to healthy humans. Huntsman spiders are widely considered beneficial because they feed on insect pests such as cockroaches and crickets.
There have been reports of members of various genera such as Palystes, Neosparassus (formerly called Olios) and several others, inflicting bites. The effects vary, including local swelling and pain, sometimes with nausea, headache, vomiting, irregular pulse rate, and heart palpitations, indicating some systemic neurological effects, especially when the bites were severe or repeated. However, the formal study of spider bites is fraught with complications, including unpredictable infections, dry bites, shock, and nocebo effects. An investigation into spider bites in Australia, in which Sparassidae figured prominently, did not note any severe or unusual symptoms resulting from confirmed bites from some of the most notorious genera, particularly Neosparassus.
It is not always clear what provokes Sparassidae to bite people, but it is known that female members of this family will aggressively defend their egg sacs and young against perceived threats. The rarity of bites on various body parts suggests that most are accidental or incidental, resulting from inadvertent handling. Bites from Sparassids usually do not require hospital treatment. In particular, no cases of necrosis have been reported.
Sound production in mating rituals
Males of Heteropoda venatoria, one of the huntsman spiders that seems to easily find its way around the world, have recently been found to deliberately make a substrate-borne sound when they detect a chemical (pheromone) left by a nearby female of their species. The males anchor themselves firmly to the surface onto which they have crawled and then use their legs to transmit vibrations from their bodies to the surface. Most of the sound emitted is produced by strong vibrations of the abdomen. The characteristic frequency of vibration and the pattern of bursts of sound identify them to females of their species, who will approach if they are interested in mating.
- Adcatomus Karsch, 1880
- Anaptomecus Simon, 1903
- Anchonastus Simon, 1898
- Arandisa Lawrence, 1938
- Barylestis Simon, 1910
- Beregama Hirst, 1990
- Berlandia Lessert, 1921
- Bhutaniella Jäger, 2000
- Caayguara Rheims, 2010
- Carparachne Lawrence, 1962
- Cebrennus Simon, 1880
- Cerbalus Simon, 1897
- Chrosioderma Simon, 1897
- Clastes Walckenaer, 1837
- Curicaberis Rheims, 2015
- Damastes Simon, 1880
- Decaphora Franganillo, 1931
- Defectrix Petrunkevitch, 1925
- Delena Walckenaer, 1837
- Dermochrosia Mello-Leitão, 1940
- Eusparassus Simon, 1903
- Exopalystes Hogg, 1914
- Geminia Thorell, 1897
- Gnathopalystes Rainbow, 1899
- Guadana Rheims, 2010
- Heteropoda Latreille, 1804
- Holconia Thorell, 1877
- Irileka Hirst, 1998
- Isopeda L. Koch, 1875
- Isopedella Hirst, 1990
- Keilira Hirst, 1989
- Leucorchestris Lawrence, 1962
- Macrinus Simon, 1887
- Martensopoda Jäger, 2006
- May Jäger & Krehenwinkel, 2015
- Megaloremmius Simon, 1903
- Micrommata Latreille, 1804
- Microrchestris Lawrence, 1962
- Neosparassus Hogg, 1903
- Neostasina Rheims & Alayón, 2016
- Nisueta Simon, 1880
- Nolavia Kammerer, 2006
- Nonianus Simon, 1885
- Nungara Pinto & Rheims, 2016
- Olios Walckenaer, 1837
- Orchestrella Lawrence, 1965
- Origes Simon, 1897
- Paenula Simon, 1897
- Palystella Lawrence, 1928
- Palystes L. Koch, 1875
- Panaretella Lawrence, 1937
- Pandercetes L. Koch, 1875
- Parapalystes Croeser, 1996
- Pediana Simon, 1880
- Pleorotus Simon, 1898
- Polybetes Simon, 1897
- Prusias O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892
- Prychia L. Koch, 1875
- Pseudomicrommata Järvi, 1914
- Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000
- Pseudosparianthis Simon, 1887
- Quemedice Mello-Leitão, 1942
- Remmius Simon, 1897
- Rhacocnemis Simon, 1897
- Rhitymna Simon, 1897
- Sagellula Strand, 1942
- Sampaiosia Mello-Leitão, 1930
- Sarotesius Pocock, 1898
- Sinopoda Jäger, 1999
- Sivalicus Dyal, 1957
- Sparianthina Banks, 1929
- Sparianthis Simon, 1880
- Spariolenus Simon, 1880
- Staianus Simon, 1889
- Stasina Simon, 1877
- Stasinoides Berland, 1922
- Stipax Simon, 1898
- Strandiellum Kolosváry, 1934
- Thelcticopis Karsch, 1884
- Thomasettia Hirst, 1911
- Tibellomma Simon, 1903
- Tychicus Simon, 1880
- Typostola Simon, 1897
- Uaiuara Rheims, 2013
- Vindullus Simon, 1880
- Yiinthi Davies, 1994
- Zachria L. Koch, 1875
- Cultural depictions of spiders (section: Modern myths and urban legends)
- List of Sparassidae species
- Spider wasp
- Table of spider families
- Abdullah Bayram & Sevda Özdağ (2001). "Micrommata virescens (Clerck, 1757), a new species for the spider fauna of Turkey (Araneae, Sparassidae)" (PDF). Turkish Journal of Zoology. 26: 305–307.
- "Family: Sparassidae Bertkau, 1872". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2017-04-22.
- "Currently valid spider genera and species". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2017-04-22.
- Norman Larsen. "Palystes (rain spiders, lizard-eating spiders)". Iziko Museums of Cape Town. Biodiversity Explorer. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Geoffrey K. Isbister & David Hirst (2003). "A prospective study of definite bites by spiders of the family Sparassidae (huntsmen spiders) with identification to species level". Toxicon. 42 (2): 163–171. PMID 12906887. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(03)00129-6.
- Jon Fouskaris. "The African Huntsman Spider". CentralPets.com. Archived from the original on December 10, 2004. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- Croeser, P. M. C. (1996). "A revision of the African huntsman spider genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875 (Araneae: Heteropodidae)". African Invertebrates. 37: 1–122. hdl:10520/AJA03040798_181.
- Filmer, Martin (1997). Southern African Spiders. City: BHB International / Struik. ISBN 1-86825-188-8.
- Foelix, Rainer; Erb, Bruno (2010). "Mesothelae have venom glands". Journal of Arachnology. 38 (3): 596–598. ISSN 0161-8202. doi:10.1636/B10-30.1.
- S. H. Skaife (1963). A Naturalist Remembers. Longmans South Africa. OCLC 11111496.[page needed]
- D'Ewes, Dudley (1967). "Chapter 12". Wayward naturalist. Cape Town: Howard Timmins. OCLC 457367.[page needed]
- Rovner, Jerome S. (1980). "Vibration in Heteropoda venatoria (Sparassidae): A Third Method of Sound Production in Spiders". The Journal of Arachnology. 8 (2): 193–200. JSTOR 3705191.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Sparassidae|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sparassidae.|
- Information page on Huntsman Spiders from the Australian Museum
- Badge Huntsman Spider at Victorian Museum
- Varieties of Sparassidae University of Southern Queensland – pictures & descriptions
- Remarkable Australian Lichen Huntsman at American Arachnological Society
- Heteropoda venatoria at University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
- Video of Olios sp. from Costa Rica