Spatula (genus)

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Spatula
Northern-Shoveler Anas-clypeata.jpg
Male northern shoveler
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Tribe: Anatini
Genus: Spatula
Boie 1822
Type species
Spatula clypeata
Synonyms
  • Anas (Pterocyanea) Bonaparte 1841[1]
  • Querquedula Stephens 1824
  • Querquedula Oken 1817 nomen nudum
  • Rhynchaspis Stephens 1824
  • Rhynchoplatus Berthold 1827
  • Cyanopterus Bonaparte1838 non Haliday 1835
  • Clypeata Lesson 1828
  • Anas (Micronetta) Roberts 1922
  • Adelonetta Heine & Reichenow 1890
  • Punanetta Bonaparte 1856

Spatula is a genus or subgenus of ducks in the family Anatidae that includes the shovelers and some of the teals.

Taxonomy[edit]

The species now placed in this genus were formerly placed in the genus Anas. A molecular phylogentic study comparing mitochondrial DNA sequences published in 2009 found that the genus Anas, as then defined, was non-monophyletic.[2] Based on this published phylogeny, the genus Anas was split into four monophyletic genera with ten species moved into the resurrected genus Spatula.[3]

The genus Spatula had originally been proposed by the German zoologist Friedrich Boie in 1822. The type species is the northern shoveler.[4][5] The name Spatula is the Latin for a "spoon" or "spatula".[6]

Extant Species[edit]

The genus contains 10 species:[3]

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Garganey (Anas querquedula) RWD3.jpg S. querquedula Garganey Europe and western Asia
Hottentot Teal (Spatula hottentota) RWD1.jpg S. hottentota Hottentot teal eastern and southern Africa, from Sudan and Ethiopia west to Niger and Nigeria and south to South Africa and Namibia
Puna Teal - WWT Slimbridge - Explored -) (20806408792).jpg S. puna Puna teal the Andes of Peru, western Bolivia, northern Chile, and extreme northwestern Argentina
Silver Teal (Anas versicolor) RWD1.jpg S. versicolor Silver teal southern Bolivia, southern Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, and the Falkland Islands
Anas platalea -WWT Slimbridge -England-8.jpg S. platalea Red shoveler from Tierra del Fuego northwards to Chile and most parts of Argentina, as well as to the Falkland Islands, and there are small isolated breeding populations in southern Peru.
Cinnamon Teal - mating sequence, Los Osos (Cuesta by the Sea Inl.jpg S. cyanoptera Cinnamon teal South America, western United States, and extreme southwestern Canada, and are rare visitors to the east coast of the United States
Anas discors 1.jpg S. discors Blue-winged teal North America, where it breeds from southern Alaska to Nova Scotia, and south to northern Texas.
Cape Shoveler RWD.jpg S. smithii Cape shoveler South Africa, and uncommon further north in Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, southern Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, and Zambia
Australasian Shoveler male RWD4.jpg S. rhynchotis Australasian shoveler Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand
Shoveler (Anas clypeata) (3).JPG S. clypeata Northern shoveler northern areas of Europe and Asia and across most of North America

Phylogeny[edit]

Cladogram based on the analysis of Gonzalez and colleagues published in 2009.[2]

Spatula

Garganey

Hottentot teal

Puna teal

Silver teal

Red shoveler

Blue-winged teal

Cinnamon teal

Cape shoveler

Northern shoveler

Australasian shoveler

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Part 7- Vertebrates". Collection of genus-group names in a systematic arrangement. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  2. ^ a b Gonzalez, J.; Düttmann, H.; Wink, M. (2009). "Phylogenetic relationships based on two mitochondrial genes and hybridization patterns in Anatidae". Journal of Zoology. 279: 310–318. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00622.x.
  3. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Screamers, ducks, geese & swans". World Bird List Version 7.3. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  4. ^ Boie, Friedrich (1822). "Generalübersicht". Isis von Oken (in German). Col 564.
  5. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 460.
  6. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 361. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.