Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives
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In New Zealand the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the individual who chairs the country's legislative body, the New Zealand House of Representatives (often also referred to as 'Parliament'). The Speaker fulfils a number of important functions in relation to the operation of the House, which is based upon the British Westminster Parliamentary system. The current speaker is David Carter.
In the Debating Chamber
The Speaker's most visible role is that of presiding over the House when in session. This involves overseeing the order in which business is conducted, and determining who should speak at what time. The Speaker is also responsible for granting or declining requests for certain events, such as a snap debate on a particular issue. An important part of the Speaker's role is ruling on matters of procedure known as 'Points of order' based on Standing Orders and previously made Speakers' rulings. This has a large bearing on the smooth running of each parliamentary session. Included in these rules are certain powers available to the Speaker to ensure reasonable behaviour by MPs, including the ability to remove disruptive MPs from the debating chamber.
The Speaker presides over the business of Parliament from the elevated 'Speaker's Chair' behind The Table in the debating chamber.
Outside the Debating Chamber
The Speaker is also responsible for directing and overseeing the administration and security of the buildings and grounds of Parliament (including the Beehive, Parliament House, Bowen House and the Parliamentary Library building), and the general provision of services to members. In doing so, the Speaker consults and receives advice from the Parliamentary Service Commission, which comprises MPs from across the House. The Speaker also presides over some select committees, including the Standing Orders Committee, the Business Committee, and the Officers of Parliament Committee. The Speaker also has some other statutory responsibilities, for example under the Electoral Act 1993. In this role a portion of the Parliament Buildings are given over to the Speaker. Known as the Speaker's Apartments these include his personal office, sitting rooms for visiting dignitaries and a small residential flat which the speaker may or may not use as living quarters.
The Speaker is expected to conduct the functions of the office in a neutral manner, even though the Speaker is generally a member of the governing party. Only three people have held the office despite not being from the governing party. In 1923, Charles Statham (an independent, but formerly a member of the Reform Party) was backed by Reform so as not to endanger the party's slim majority, and later retained his position under the Liberal Party. In 1993, Peter Tapsell (a member of the Labour Party) was backed by the National Party for the same reason. Bill Barnard, who had been elected Speaker in 1936, resigned from the Labour Party in 1940 but retained his position.
Historically, a Speaker lost the right to cast a vote, except when both sides were equally balanced. The Speaker's lack of a vote created problems for a governing party - when the party's majority was small, the loss of the Speaker's vote could be problematic. Since the shift to MMP in 1996, however, the Speaker has been counted for the purposes of casting party votes, to reflect the proportionality of the party's vote in the general election. The practice has also been for the Speaker to participate in personal votes, usually by proxy. In the event of a tied vote the motion in question lapses.
Originally, Speakers wore the traditional court dress, wig and robes that are virtually the same as their counterpart in the United Kingdom. This practice has in recent years fallen into disuse as the Speaker now generally wears what they feel appropriate, usually an academic gown of their highest held degree or a Maori cloak.
Election of the Speaker
The Speaker is always a Member of Parliament, and is elected by the House at the beginning of a parliamentary term. If the office of Speaker becomes vacant during a parliamentary term, the House must elect a new Speaker when it next sits.
The election of a Speaker is presided over by the Clerk of the House. It is not unusual for an election to be contested. If there are two candidates, members vote in the lobbies for their preferred candidate. In the case of three or more candidates, a roll-call vote is conducted and the candidate with the fewest votes eliminated, with the process continuing (or reverting to a two-way run-off) until one candidate has a majority. Members may vote only if they are present in person: no proxy votes are permitted.
After being elected by the House, the Speaker-elect is confirmed in office by the Governor-General. At the start of a term of Parliament, the newly confirmed Speaker follows the tradition of claiming the privileges of the House.
Holders of the office
Since the creation of Parliament, 29 people have held the office of Speaker. Two people have held the office on more than one occasion. A full list of Speakers is below.
† indicates Speaker died in office.
(for political parties)
|No.||Name||Portrait||Term of Office||Prime Minister|
|1||Sir Charles Clifford||31 May 1854||12 December 1860||Sewell|
|2||David Monro||28 March 1861||13 September 1870||Fox|
|3||Dillon Bell||23 February 1871||21 October 1875|
|4||William Fitzherbert||29 January 1876||11 August 1879||Vogel|
|5||Maurice O'Rorke||24 September 1879||17 September 1890||Hall|
|6||William Steward||23 January 1891||8 November 1893||Ballance|
|(5)||Maurice O'Rorke||21 June 1894||3 October 1902|
|7||Arthur Guinness||29 June 1903||10 June 1913|
|8||Frederic Lang||10 June 1913||31 October 1922|
|9||Charles Statham||7 February 1923||1 November 1935|
|10||Bill Barnard||27 November 1935||25 September 1943||Savage|
|11||Frederick Schramm||25 September 1943||12 October 1946|
|12||Robert McKeen||24 June 1947||21 October 1949|
|13||Matthew Oram||27 June 1950||25 October 1957||Holland|
|14||Robert Macfarlane||21 January 1958||28 October 1960||Nash|
|15||Ronald Algie||20 June 1961||26 November 1966||Holyoake|
|16||Roy Jack||26 April 1967||7 June 1972|
|17||Alfred E. Allen||7 June 1972||26 October 1972|
|18||Stanley Whitehead||14 February 1973||10 October 1975||Kirk|
|(16)||Roy Jack||22 June 1976||24 December 1977†||Muldoon|
|19||Richard Harrison||24 December 1977||14 July 1984|
|20||Basil Arthur||14 July 1984||1 May 1985†||Lange|
|21||Gerard Wall||1 May 1985||15 August 1987|
|22||Kerry Burke||15 August 1987||27 October 1990|
|23||Robin Gray||27 October 1990||6 November 1993||Bolger|
|24||Peter Tapsell||7 November 1993||12 October 1996|
|25||Doug Kidd||12 October 1996||5 December 1999|
|26||Jonathan Hunt||5 December 1999||3 March 2005||Clark|
|27||Margaret Wilson||3 March 2005||8 November 2008|
|28||Lockwood Smith||8 November 2008||1 February 2013||Key|
|29||David Carter||1 February 2013||Incumbent|
Three other chair occupants deputise for the Speaker:
- Deputy Speaker: Chester Borrows (National)
- First Assistant Speaker: Lindsay Tisch (National)
- Second Assistant Speaker: Trevor Mallard (Labour)
Between 1854 and 1992, the Chairman of Committees chaired the House when in Committee of the whole House (i.e., taking a bill's committee stage) and presided in the absence of the Speaker or when the Speaker so requested. These arrangements were based on those of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. Until 1992, the Chairman of Committees was known as the Deputy Speaker only when presiding over the House. That year, the position of Deputy Speaker was made official, and the role of Chairman of Committees was discontinued. The first Deputy Speaker was appointed on 10 November 1992.
- Fairfax NZ News reporters (31 January 2013). "Carter elected Speaker of the House". The Press. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Radio NZ News reporters (21 October 2014). "Speaker named as Parliament sworn in”. Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- McLintock 1966.
- "Members’ Conditions Of Service". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "Speaker of the House of Representatives". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- A. H. McLintock, ed. (1966). "Meeting of Parliament". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand (updated 22 April 2009 ed.). Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer.
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